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Entered accordinf tn Act ofConfreM, in the year 1861, by the 

Amkricah OunrrAL Socibtt, 

in the Clerk*e Offlee of the Diitriot Contt of Counecticot. 

' •- ■■■w«"»^f^.' 




• • 


Printer to Yale College. 

• • • 






PftoacEDiNGs OF THS Ahxrican Orixntal Societt, Prepared from the 

Records, 1849-50, tu 


SoGiETT, adopted May 16, 1849, and Catalooue of Members in 1850, 

AoDmoNS to the Library and Cabinet of the American Oriental 
Society, May, 1849— February, 1851 

Art. L — Shabbathai Zeyi and his Followers, by Rev. William G. 

ScHAUFFLER, Missionaiy of the American Board in Turkey, 1 

Art. IL — Account of a Japanese Romance, with an Lhhoduction, 

by WiLLLAM W. IVrker, (with a Plate,) 27 

Note on Japanese Syllabaries, by Samuel Wells Williams, 65 

Art. IIL — Contribution to the GEoaRAPHY of Central Eoordistan, 
in a letter to the Corresponding Secretary, with a Mat, by 
ILzARiAH Smith, M.D., Missionary of the American Board 
in Turkey, 61 

Art. IY. — Journal of a Tour from Oroomiah to Mosul, through 
THE KooRDisH MOUNTAINS, and a Visit to thx Runes of 
NnrBVEH, by Rev. Justin Perkins, D.D., Misaooary of the 
American Board in Persia, 69 

Norx ON the KOrdish Language, by Pro£ Bsla R Eowakds, DJ)^ 120 




New Testament, by Prol Josiah W. Gibbs, 126 

A»T. VL — Syllabcb of the Siva-GnAna-Potham, one of the Sacred 
Books of the Hindds, bj Rev. Hexbt R. Hoisington, Mia- 
fiionaiy of the Amerisan Board in Ceylon, 186 

A»T. VIL — Specdcexs of the Naga Language of Asam, by Rev. 
Nathan Brown, Missionary of the American Baptist 
Union in Asam, 166 

Art. Vm — Chinese Culture: or Remarks on the Causes of the 
Peculiarities of the Chinese, by Rev. Samuel R. Brown, 
late Principal of the Morrison School at Hong Kong, 
China. 167 

Aet. IX. — Et-Tabart's Conquest of Persu by the Arabs, continued 
from First Volume, and Death and Character of 'Omar, 
translated from the Turkish by John P. Brown, Dragoman 
of the United States Legation at Constantinople 207 

Art. X. — Notes of a Tol^ in Mount Lebanon, and to the eastern 
BIDE OF Lake Huleb, in a letter to a relative, by Henrt 
A. De Forest, MJ)., Missionary of the American Board 
in Syria, 286 

Art. XL — ^The Forms of the Greek Substantivb Verb, by Prof. 

James Hadlet, 249 

Art. XIL — ^Tramslatiok of two Unpublished Arabic Documents, 
rrlatino to the Doctrines of the IsmA'ilis and other 
BAtinian Sects, with an Introduchon and Notes, by 
Edward E. Salisbury, 267 


MaUeu AnHgmtie$, from a communication by William Winthrop, Esq., 
OoDsiil of the United States at Malta, 827 

J*Um for tffeeHi^ a Unifwm Orthoffraphy of the South-African JHor 
iM<<, h^ the AmEiCAM MnaiON at Port Natal, 880 


SinU Oft the Introduetum of Buddhimi into Burmahf in a letter to the 

CorrespondiDg Secretaiy by Ber. Feangu Kabon, Missioiuury of the 

American Baptist Union in Bormah, 884 

ValuabU Arabic MantueripU at Woreetter, Mast^ bj K K S^ 887 

ISative Printing in Indioy from a communication by a Misaionaiy Prin- 

ter of tbe American Board at Madras, 840 

Lateit Sanderit Pvblieationt in InSia^ from a letter to the Correspond" 
ing Secretary by Prot Firs-EDWAKD Hall of Benares, i 840 

JmM in China, 841 



roK 1850—51. 

Edward E. Salisbukt. 
j08iah w. g1bb8. 
Charles Beck. 



or THK 



1849 — 50. 



HxLD Mat 16, 1849, in Boston. 


Hon. E. Everett in the Chair: 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, which was accepted. 

A catalogue of the library, prepared by the Librarian, was laid 
upon the table. 

Certain supplementary by-laws were adopted, organizing a 
Classical Section of ihe Society, under the supervision of a Sec- 
retary, for the promotion of classical studies, so far as ihey bear 
upon the objects of the Society. 

A re-draft of the whole Constitution, as amended in 1848-9| 
was read and adopted.* 

A report was submitted by the committee on Rev. Mr. Mer* 
rick^s version of the Haydt ul'Kuluh^ staling that it was probable 
the work could be printed entire without expense to the Society, 
but, whether this should be done, or not, recommending that some 
account of the work be given in the next Number of the Journal 
of the Society, together with a chapter of it. This report was 

Presentations to the library were made, in behalf of various 
donors, and the thanks of the Society for them, voted. 

♦ See the Constitution herewith published. 

f The work here referred to was afterwards published entire by Phillips, 
Sampson ^ Co., Boston. 

The following persons were elected ofRcers for 1849-50. 

Prof. E. ROBINSON, Pruiderd. 

Rev. Dr. W. Jenks, ^ 

Prof. M. Stuart, > Vice-Presidenls. 

Pres. WooLSET, ) 

E. E. Salisbury, Corr, Secretary. 

Prof. C. Beck, Secretary of Classical Section, 

C. Short, Rec. Secretary, 

W. W. Greenough, TWasta^r, 

F. Gardner, lAbrarian, 

Rev. Dr. R. Anderson, ' 

Prof. C. Beck, 

Prof. B. B. Edwards, }Direclors, 

Prof. C. C. Felton, | 

Rev. T. Parker, ) 


Pres. WooLSEY in the Chair: 

Frof. B. B, Edwards read a critique on Chevalier Bunsen^s 
view of the antiquity of Egyptian civilization, as developed in his 
Egyptens Slelle in der Weil-Geschichte,* 

Frof, C. C. Felton spoke of some of the results of the latest 
investigations respecting the antiquities of Etruria, with especial 
reference to the works of Gerhard and Dennis. 

Rev, T, Parker read and commented upon some extracts from 
Rev. Mr. Merrick's translation of the Haydl uUKulub^ on the life 
and doctrines of Muhammed. 

Mr. S, Hemisz read part of a chapter of the Se Jin Kwei 
Ching Tung Tswen Chwen^ a Chinese historical novel, descriptive 
of the times of the Tang dynasty, translated by himself. 

Letters were read, as follows : 

From Frof, Rolh^ dated Tuebingen, November 12, 1848. 

From Frof. Lassen^ dated Bonn, August 16, 1848. Prof. L. 
notifies that Prof. Burnouf of Paris has been printing an account 
of certain discoveries of his, relative to the cuneiform inscriptions 
of Nineveh ; but the work has not yet been published. 

From Rev. Dr. Bridgman^ dated Shanghai, Novembers, 1848. 
Dr. B. speaks of having sent home for the Society an exact 
copy of an impression from the stone itself, of the celebrated 
Chinese inscription of Singan Fu, erected A. D. 781, and observes 
that the copy published by Kircher, in his China illuslrala^ will 

* This paper was afterwards published in the Bihliotheca Sacra, vol vl 
pp. 700, ft 

be found to be slightly erroneous. He also corrects the date of 
the monument, and the number of the characters, as given in vol. . 
xiv. of the C/iinese Repository. 

From Rev. /. T. Jonesy dated Bangkok, December 27, 1848. 
Mr. J. hopes to be able to throw some new light on the psychology 
and moral system of the Buddhists. A translation of the New 
Testament into Siamese, by himself, was printed in 1842. The 
same year, a brief grammar of the Siamese, by Mr. J. and his 
associates, was issued; and a dictionary of the language is in 
preparation. Mr. J. designs undertaking a translation of the Old 
Testament into Siamese ; and was to commence a thorough 
revision of his translation of the New Testament, in 1849. 

From Mr. J, P. Brown^ dated Pera, November 1, 1848, and 
Constantinople, March 5, 1849, with a list of the books published 
at Constantinople in 1848, and a translation of the index to Et- 
Tabary's Annals. 


Held October 24, 25, 1849, in New Hayxn. 


The President in the Chair : 

Letters from gentlemen acknowledging their election into the 
Society were read, as follows : 

From Prof. A. Crosby ^ of Boston; Tutor E. A. Sophocles, of 
Cambridge, Mass.; Rev. F. De W.- Ward^ of Geneseo, N. Y., 
late missionary in India ; Lieut. W. F. Lynch, U. S. N. ; and Mr» 
F. E. Hall, of Calcutta. Mr. H. announces that he has discovered 
a large quantity of new materials for Hindi and Hindustani bio- 
graphy and bibliography ; and that a liberal grant has been voted 
to him by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for the purpose of his 
making for its library a complete collection of memoirs of the 
poets of India and Persia. 

Also, the followinj? letters, namely : 

From Mr. C. B. Welles, dated Cairo, December 8, 1848. Mr. 
W. gives information respecting a collection of Egyptian antiqui- 
ties now for sale by Dr. Abbott in Cairo, which Lepsius and Sir 
J. Gardner Wilkinson pronounce to be of great value. 


Prom Prof, Joseph Henry, dated Washington, June 25, 1849. 
Prof. H. speaks of the possihility that a valuable collection of 
Egyptian antiquities, made by Col. Cohen, and now in Baltimore, 
may be deposited in the Smithsonian Institution. 

From H. A. Be Forest, ALD., dated Beirut, March 29, 1849. 

From Rev, Dr. J, Perkins, dated Orumiah, July 3, 1849. Dr. 
P. expects soon to visit Van, and will communicate to the Society 
the results of his observations there. He speaks of a recent 
journey to Mosul and back, across the Kurdish mountains. He * 
promises a translation by himself, from the Syriac, of a history of 
Alexander found among the Neslorians. 

From the Secretaries of several Missionary Societies, of differ* 
ent denominations, expressing the desire to aid in promoting the 
objects of the Society, through their missionaries. 

From M, Alexandre Vattemare^ daled New Haven, June 14, 
1849, acknowledging the reception of six copies of the First 
Volume of the Society's Journal, for international exchange. 

Presentations to the library were made in behalf of various 
donors, and the thanks of the Society for them, voted. 

Rev, H, G, O, Dwight, missionary in Turkey, rend an extract 
from a complete catalogue of the works of the early Fathers 
existing in the Armenian. 


The President in the Chair: 

Mr, W. W, Turner read an account of a Japanese romance 
edited and translated by Dr. Pfizmaier of Vienna. 

Prof, J. Hadley read an essay on the Greek substantive verb, 
as illustrated by comparison with the Sanskrit and other cognate 

The Corr. Secretary read a paper by Rev, W, G. Schaxiffier^ 
missionary in Turkey, on Shabbaihai Zevi and his followers. 


The President in the Chair: 

The Corr, Secretary read a translation of several unpublished 
Arabic fragments, recently found in Syria, relating to the doc- 
trines of the Isma'iliyeh and other Balinile sects. 

The Corr. Secretary read some notes of a tour in Mount Leba- 
non, and to the eastern side of Lake Huleh, by H, A, De Forest, 
M,D., missionary in Syria. 

The Corr, Secretary spoke of an affinity between the alphabet 
of the Tuarycks of North Africa and the Himyaritic^ which he 


argued from the characters of the former as first fully exhibited 
in the Journal Asialique for March, 1849. 

The President made some remarks on the results of the expe« 
dition to the Dead Sea under Lieut. Lynch, compared with pre- 
vious investigations. 

The Corr. Secretary spoke of the recent discoveries in the 
interior of Africa by Rev. Messrs. Krapf and Rebmann, announced 
in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen GeselUckqft^ 
vol. iii. p. 310. 

Donations to the cabinet were laid upon the table. 


Held Mat 24, I860, in Boston and Cambeidos. 

FIRST SESSION, (in Boston.) 

Hon. E. Everett in the Chair : 

The minutes of the last meetins; were read and approved. 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, which was accepted. 

The Librarian's annual report was called for, but was not 

A communication from the Directors, relative to the publication 
of another Number of the Society's Journal, and the state of the 
library, was read, and laid upon the table. 

The following pers6ns were elected officers for 1850^1^ 

Prof. E. ROBINSON, President. 

Rev. Dr. W. Jenks, ^ 

Pres. WooLSEY, > Vxce-Presidents. 

Hon. E. Everett, ) 

E. E. Salisbury, Corr, Secretary, 

Prof. C. Beck, Secretary of Classical Section* 

C. Short, Rec, Secretary. 

W. W. Greeitouoh, Treasurer. 

C. FoLsoM, Librarian. 

Rev. Dr. R. Anderson, 

Prof. C. Beck, 

Prof. B. B. Edwards, } Directorg* 

Prof. C. C. Felton, 

Rev. T. Parker, 


On motion of Rev. Mr. Parker, it was voted, that the thanks of 
the Society be presented to Mr. Francis Gardner, late librarian of 
the Society, for his services. 

It was also voted, that the Corresponding Secretary be directed 
to apply to various Societies and individuals, for the purpose of 
completing sets of works published by such Societies and indi- 
viduals, some volumes, or parts, of which are now in the library; 
that the sum of fifty dollars be appropriated from the treasury, 
for the same object, as soon as practicable ; and that he and tho 
Treasurer have power to attend, at their discretion, to the other 
matters pertaining to the library, mentioned in the communication 
from the Directors this day made. 

Letters from gentlemen acknowledging their election into the 
Society were read, as follows: 

From Makd Raja Apurva Krishna Bahadur^ of Calcutta ; 
H, A. De Forest, M.D., missionary in Syria ; and H, J, Anderson^ 
M.D, of New York. 

Also, the following letters, namely : 

From H, A, De Forest, M.D., dated Beirut, December 1, 1849. 
Dr. De F. sends a copy of a common Latin altar-inscription, as 
the latest exhumation he has heard of in the vicinity of Beirut; 
also, an impression of a seal found at Beirut, made of stone in 
the form of a scarabaeus. 

From Mr, A, Merwin, dated New York, January 30, 1850. Mr. 
M. writes that the copy of the Chinese inscription of Singan Fu, 
forwarded to his care by Rev. Dr. Bridgman, for the Society, has 
never come to hand. 

Presentations to the library were made in behalf of various 

SECOND SESSION, (io Cambridge.) 

Hon. E. Everett in the Chair : 

The Corr. Secretary read a contribution to the geography of 
Central Kurdistan, by A. Smith, M.D,, missionary in Turkey. 

Rev. Dr, R, Anderson gave some account of a recently published 
Chinese geographical work, relating to foreign countries, from a 
communication by Rev, Mr. Peet, missionary in China.* 

Rev. T. Parker read a critique of the principal works published 
in early and later times, relative to Muhammed. 

Rev. D. T. Stoddard, missionary in Persia, read extracts from 
a journal of a tour from Oriimiah to Mosul and back, made by 
Rev. Dr. Perkins, in 1849. 

Prof. B. B. Edioards read an abstract of some inquiries on 
the Kurdish language. 

* See MiMionary Herald^ voL xlvl pp. 217, 11 


The Corr. Secretary read a sketch of the contents and charac- 
teristics of Hindu literature, by Rev, F. De W, Ward^ of Gene- 
860, N. Y. 

The following memorandum for the consideration of the Society 
was presented by Reo. W, M, Thomson^ missionary in Syria, and 
laid upon the table. 

" On Uie propriety of appointing a committee to prepare questions and 
suggestions to guide and assist missionaries and other correspondents of the 
Society in their efforts to promote the objects which it contemplates. 

** This committee might be sufficiently large to allow of division into sub*' 
committees, to each of which should be assigned a particular country, lan- 
guage, or department of inquiry. They would ascertain, as far as possible, 
what is already known of their particular field, on all the subjects which come 
within the range of the Society's investigations ; what points require farther 
elucidation; what information in respect to the geography, topography, 
geology, history, antiquities, literature, religion, manners and customs, agri- 
culture, useful arts, etc etc., it is desirable to collect ; and what kind of mann- 
Bcripts, books, inscriptions, coins, and curiosities, it is important to obtain and 
transmit to the Society. 

** A series of judicious, well matured questions and suggestions, based upon 
such a survey and examination, would give definiteness to the researches of 
missionaries and travellers in the East ; would teach them how, and what, 
to observe ; and by assuring them that their labors were in the right direc- 
tion, would awaken and sustain an interest on their own part in the matter, 
and encourage them to draw up and communicate what information they 
might be able to collect. For want of some such stimulant and guide, many 
intelligent eyes now gaze vacantly, for years, od objects of the greatest interest 
to the religious and scientific world ; and many travellers wander over the 
very birth-place of man, of religion, science and art, of commerce and civil- 
ization, with little profit either to themselves, or to others. 

** To prepare such questions and suggestions, properly, would of itself be 
an admirable study for those composing the committees ; and as commimica- 
tlons and contributions should come back in reply to them, the members of 
the Society would be able to form an intelligent estimate of the progress 
made toward realizing the objects of the association. It might be well, before 
the questions are printed, for each subcommittee to correspond with gentle* 
men at home and abroad who are best acquainted with the field assigned to it. 

** If such a prompter and guide were ready to be placed in the hand of 
any member of the Society in foreign lands, and of any intelligent gentleman 
as he sets out to travel, the meetings and publications of the Society, it is 
believed, would be rendered much more interesting and valuable." 



HSLD OCTOBXB 16, 17, I860, IN NkW HAVKIfy 


The President in the Chair : 

Letters from gentlemen acknowledging their election into the 
Society were read, as follows: 

From Rev, J. C. Bryant, missionary rn South Africa; Mr, W. 
A, Macy^ of New Haven ; Prof. J, A. Spencer, of Burlington, 
N. J. ; Rev, Dr, S. L. Pomroy, of Boston ; and Rev, L, Grout, 
missionary in South Africa. Mr. G. notices the recent printing 
of an extensive and valuable grammar of the Kafir language, in 
the Old Colony, (Kafir-land,) and states that a committee has been 
appointed by the Mission with which he is connected, to prepare 
a grammar of the Zulu. 

Also, the following letters, namely : 

From Prof, C. A. Holmboe, dated Christiania, March 1, 1850# 

From Prof, C, Lassen, dated Bonn, May 26, 1850. Prof. L. 

now thinks it more probable that the cuneiform ^v has the value 
of m before u, which Rawlinson assigns to it ;* and he now con- 
siders the character \\\ as representing ih, ^^ which gives a 

more probable form of the imperative" in ^ n w^^'t 

From Rev. Dr, D, Poor, without date. 

Prof. C, Beck reported encouragingly with respect to an effort 
for the increase of the Society's pecuniary resources. 

The Corr, Secretary reported that most of the imperfect sets of 
books in the library of the Society, would soon be completed by 
donation and purchase ; and gave notice that the library is now 
deposited in the Boston Athenaeum Building. 

Presentations to the library were made in behalf of various 
donors, and the thanks of the Society for them, voted. 

♦ See Journal of Am. Or. 8oc.y yoL i. p. 629. 

f See Journal of Am. Or. Soc.^ toL l p. 538, and pp. 551, 557, where pddwa 
should have been written pdiuva. 


The memorandum by Rev. W. M. Thomson, laid upon the 
table at the last meeting, having been taken up, was referred to the 

Prof, J, W. Gibbs laid before the Society a plan proposed by 
Rev. Lewis Grout and others, American missionaries in South 
Africa, for effecting an uniform orthography of the South-African 
dialects ; and moved the following resolution, which, after some 
remarks in favor of the plan, by Rev. W, Walker^ missionary in 
West Africa, was adopted : 

That this Society have heard with interest the statement of a 
plan proposed by the American missionaries in Southern Africa, 
for effecting an uniform orthography of the various languages in 
that part of the globe ; that they regard the objects to be attained 
by such plan, direct and indirect, as very important to the interests 
of literature and humanity ; and would express their earnest hope 
and wish that the measures proposed may be carried into full 

Prof. Gibbs also laid before the Society an essay on the Dakota, 
or Sioux language, by Rev, T, S. Williamson^ M,D.^ missionary 
among the Sioux. 

Mr. W, W. Turner presented and explained a paradigm of the 
regular verb in the modern Syriac, or the Nestorian dialect, drawn 
up by himself; and also made some general remarks on this dia- 
lect, and on the character of the translation of the New Testa- 
ment into it, made and printed by the American missionaries at 


The President in the Chair : 

Rev, H. R, Hoisington, missionary in Ceylon, read a paper on 
the leading doctrines of the Saivas, as set forth in the Siva-Gndna" 
Pdtham^ one of the sacred books of Southern India, of the highest 

Rev, W, Walker^ missionary in West Africa, read a compar- 
ison of some features of the Mpongwe and Bakele dialects, show- 
ing them to be nearly related to each other ; and noticed their 
common affinity to the Zulu, with which he supposes the Pangwe, 
a dialect spoken by a tribe which has approached the western 
coast within ten years, to be in still closer relationship. 

Rev, Dr, D.Poor^ missionary in Ceylon, read a brief sketch of 
the origin, and progress during the first twelve years, of the Sem- 
inary for Tamil youth at Batticotta, in the province of Jaffna, on 
that island. 


Prof, C. Beck gave some account of Moromsen^s recent work 
on the South-Italian dialects, and particularly of that part of it 
which relates to the Oscans and their language. 

Rev. W. H, Steele^ missionary in Borneo, made sonre remarks 
on the Dyaks, and on their language as compared with the Malay. 

Esv, D, T, Stoddard^ missionary in Persia, spoke of a recent 
tour from Mosul to Orumiah by the way of Ravanduz, made by 
Rev. Mr. Marsh, missionary at Mosul. Mr. Marsh visited a monu- 
ment alluded to by Dr. Perkins, under date of May 1, in his jour- 
nal presented to the Society at its last meeting, but not visited by 
him, which stands on the highest part of the mountain-range 
dividing Turkey from Persia. He found it to be " an oval slab of 
dark granite, not unlike many an old tomb-stone in a New Eng- 
land grave-yard, not over ten or twelve feet high, including the 
pedestal, and inscribed with the arrow-headed characters of the 
remains at Koyuniik and Nimrood.'^ 

Prof. J. W. Gtbbs made some remarks on the unity of origin 
of our race, as proved by philological investigations. 

The President made some remarks on the forth-coming re- 
port on the geology of Palestine by Dr. H. J. Anderson, and on 
the progress and present state of our literature of that country. 

The Corr. Secretary presented to the Society, in behalf of the 
author, a treatise on Arabic versification by Rev, C, V. A. Van 
Dycky missionary in Syria. 


Prof. Beck in the Chair : 

The Corr. Secretary presented to the Society, in behalf of the 
translator, a continuation of El-Tabary's history of the conquest 
of Persia by the Arabs, translated from the Turkish version of 
Et-Tabary's Annals, by Mr. J. P, Brown^ of Constantinople ; 
also, another extract from the same work, translated by the same. 

He also read a paper on Chinese culture, by Rev. S. R. Brown^ 
of Rome, N. Y., late missionary in China. 

He also made some remarks on the results arrived at by Loe- 
wenslern, Boita, and Rawlinson, in their works on the Assyrian 
cuneiform character. 






ADOPTED MAY 16, 1849, 





r<r^r<^<»N^>^l^<^^^^y<^^^>»^r^^*^'^^ <* yf^^»^^^i^^^tm ^^N^^^>^^S^i^i^«^^^^^^»^>^*»V>^>r <i 


Art. L This Society shall be called the American Oriental 

Art. II. The objects contemplated by this society shall be : 

1. The cultivation of learning in the Asiatic, Afri- 
can and Polynesian languages, as well as the encour- 
agement of researches of any sort by which the knowl- 
edge of the East may be promoted. 

2. The cultivation of a taste for oriental studies in 
this counlry. 

3. The publication of memoirs, translations, vocab- 
ularies, and other communications presented to the 
Society, which may be valuable with reference to the 
before- mentioned objects. 

4. The collection of a library and cabinet. 

Art. III. The members of this Society shall be distinguished 
as corporate, corresponding, and honorary. Corporate members 
shall be residents of the United States ; Americans or others, 
residing in any foreign country, with whom the Society may desire 
to hold communication, shall be eligible as corresponding mem- 
bers; foreigners of distinction, as well as residents in the United 
States, may be elected honorary members. 

Art. IV. All candidates for membership must be proposed by 
the Directors, at some stated meeting of the Society, and no per- 
son shall be elected a member of either class, without receiving 
the votes of as many as three-fourths of all the members present 
at the meeting. 

Art. V. The government of the Society shall consist of a Pres- 
ident, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding Secretary, a Re- 
cording Secretary, a Treasurer, a Librarian, and five Directors^ 
who shall be annually elected by ballot, at the annual meeting. 

Art. VI. The President and Vice-Presidents shall perform the 
customary duties of such officers, and shall be ex officio members 
of the Board of Directors. 

Art. VII. The Secretaries and the Treasurer shall be ec efkio 
members of the Board of Directors, and shall perform their m* 
pective duties under the superintendence of said Board. 

Art. VIII. It shall be the duty of the Board of Directors to 
regulate the financial concerns of the Society, to superintend its 
publications, to carry into effect the resolutions and orders of the 
Society, and to exercise a general supervision over its alBStirs. 
Three Directors at any regular meeting shall be a quorum for 
doing business. 

Art. IX. An annual meeting of the Society shall be held in 
Boston, during the month of May, the day of the meeting to be 
determined by the Directors. One or more other meetings, at the 
discretion of the Directors, shall also be held each year, in Boe* 
ton, or at such other place, and at such time as the Directors shall 

_ § 

Art. X. This Constitution may be amended, on a recommenda- 
tion of the Directors, by a vote of three*fourtbs of the members 
present at an annual meeting. 


I. The Corresponding Secretary shall conduct the correspon- 
dence of the Society, and it shall be his duty to keep in a book 
provided for the purpose, a copy of his letters. 

II. The Recording Secretary shall keep a record of the pro- 
ceedings of the Society in a book provided for the purpose, and 
shall notify the meetings in such manner as the President, or the 
Board of Directors, shall direct. * 

III. The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Soci- 
ety, and his investments, deposits, and payments shall be made 
under the superintendence of the Board of Directors. At each 
annual meeting he shall report the state of the finances, with a 
brief summary of the receipts and payments of the previous 

IV. The Librarian shall keep a catalogue of all books belong- 
ing to the Society, with the names of the donors, if they are pre- 
sented, and shall at each annual meeting make a report of the 
accessions to the library during the previous year, and shall be 
farther guided in the discharge of his duties by such rules as the 
Directors shall prescribe. 


V. All papers read before the Society, and all manuscripts de- 
posited by authors for publication, or for other purposes, shall be 
at the disposal of the Board of Directors. 

VI. Each corporate member shall pay into the treasury of the 
Society, on his admission, the sum of five dollars, together with 
an annual assessment of two dollars ; but a donation at any one 
time of fiAy dollars shall exempt from obligation to make either 
of these payments. 

VII. Six members shall form a quorum for doing busiaess, and 
three to adjourn. 


1. The classical scholars who are members of the Society, shall 
constitute a Classical Section of the Society, for the promotion 
of classical learning so far as it bears upon the objects of the 

2. In order to promote an interest in this department of the 
Society, there shall be a Secretary of the Classical Section, elected 
by ballot at each annual meeting. 

3. The Secretary of the Classical Section shall be especially 
charged to secure the design of the same, so far as it is possible, 
by collecting and imparting information, by suggestions, and by 
other means. 

4. The Secretary of the Classical Section shall be ex officio a 
' member of the Board of Directors, and shall perform his duties 

under the superintendence of the said Board. 


or TEE 




Dr. HsniT J. Aivderson, 


Bey. Dr. Rurus AifDKBsoN, 


Vrot, Btban a. AndriwSi 

New Britain, Ot 

Fro£ Chaelu Bhk, 

Oambridge, Mass. 

Bey. HnAM Bingham, 

Chester, Mua. 

Bey. LuAo Bird, 


Bey. Samusl B. Bbowv, 

Bome^ N. Y. 

SuHU BuREm, 

Worcester, Mass. 


New York. 

Prot Alphkus CsoeBT, 


Hon. Calkb Cdshtno, 

Newburyport, Mass. 

Bey. GxoEox S. Dat, 

Northampton, Mass. 

£PX8 S. l5irWKLL, 

Camhridge, Mass. 

John J. Dizwiclt., 


♦PrriR S. Duponokau, 


Bey. Dr. Bkla R Edwards, 

Andoyer, Mass. 

Pro£ Romo Elton, 

Exeter, England. 

*HoiL Alxxander H. EyRRXR, 


Hon. Edward Eymnr, 

Cambridge, Mass. 


« u 

Charuu FoLBOlf, 

u u 


Frangb Gardnrr, 


Pkot JoauM W. Ozm, 


Qmcmam R Guddow, 
Bey. Datio GftiKinB, 
William W. GusDronoHy 
Prof. Jamis Hadlkt, 


Horatio £. Hale. 
Pro£ Fm-EDWAED Hall, 
Prot GnsiTEB HAEBnoir, 
Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, 
Stanislas Hkrniss, 
William E Hodosov, 
Jamis J. Jartis, 
*Rev. Dr. S. Farmar Jarth, 
Joseph W. Jrvx% 
Bey. Dr. Wiluam JbhOi 
Prot 0. C. Jewett, 
Prot James L. Kivqslet, 
Oharleb Krarsir, 
Prot Francis Liebbr, 
Prof. John L. Lnroour, 
Lieut WiLUAM F. Ltncr, 
William A. Maot, 

Hon. George P. Marsh, 

Bey. James L. Merriok, 
*£owARD Moore, 
Dr. Samuel G. Mortoit, 
Bey. Dr. James Murdogk, 
Bey. Marx Murphy, 
Prot John J. Owen, 
Bey. I'HEODeRE Parkrr, 
Bey. Solomon Peck, 
Greoort a. Perdioaris, 
Dr. Charles Picksrino, 
*HoiL John Pickering, 
Hey. Chandler Bobbins, 
Hey. Dr. Edward RoBDrsoN, 
Sdward K Salisburt, 
B«y. Dr. Barhas Sear% 
OmkMtM SasRT, 
XyivoxuHOi A. Sorvooui^ 
TnL Jovf JL QmutcaaL, 



Westboro', Msss. 
New Haven. 
New York. 

Benares, IndiR. 
ChsrlottesylUe^ Vm. 
New York. 
New York. 

Middletown, Qi, 


New Haven. 


Columbia, S. 0. 



New Haven. 

Ambassador of the IT. States at 
the Ottoman Porte. 

Palmer, MatfB. 

Newport, R. I. 


New Haven. 

Staten Island. 

New York. 



Newark, N. J. 

New York. 
Ne^ Haven. 
Newton Oentre, Iffsss 
Bozbury, Mass. 
'Cambridge, Mass. 
BHrliantpiW IT. J. 


Prof. Calvin E. Stows, 

Prot MosEt Stuart, 

Key. Samusl H. Tatlor, 

Rey. Daniel Temple, 

Prot Thomas A. Thaoheb, 

Rev. Selah B. Treat, 

Rey. Dr. Samuel H. Tdrnxr, 

William W. Turner, 

Rey. Ferdinand De W. "WiRD, 

Rey. Prcs. Francis Watlahd, 

♦Noah Webster, 

WiLUAM D. Whwnet, 

Hon. Sidney Willard, 

Rey. Pres. Leonard Woods, Jr., 

Rey. Pres. Theodore D. Woolset, 

JooEpH R Worcester, 

New York. 
Brunswick, Me. 
Andoyer, Mass. 


Brooklyn, L. L 
New Hayen. 
New York. 


Geneseo, N. Y. 
New Haven. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Brunswick, Me. 
New Haven. 
Cambridge, Mass. 


Rey. David 0. Allen, 

Rrr. Dr. Elijah C. Bridgman, 

John P. Brown, 

*Rey. James C. Bryant, 

Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, 

Rey. SiMBON H. Calhoun, 

Rev. Harrison G. O. Dwight, 

Rey. Cornelius V. A. Van Dick, MJ)^ 

Dr. Henry A. De Forest, 

Rev. WiLLLAM GoonsLi^ 

Rey. Lewis Grout, 

Rev. Cyrus Hamun, 

Bey. Henry R HoisiNwroN, 

Prot C. A. HoLMBO^ 

Rey. Henry A. Homs, 

Rey. John T. Jonis, 
*R«r. Ammibah JumoI^ 

Missionary in Lidia. 

1 Dragoman of the U. States Le- 
gation at the Ottoman Porte. 

Missionary in South Africa. 

" India. 


** Turkey. 






« Turkey. 

South AfrioL 
" Turkey. 


Ohristiaaiai Norway. 

Second Dragoman of the IT. Statee 
Legatkm at the Ottooiai PM«. 

MisrfCMiBf^ in Sitzn. 

« Bmiah. 



Rer. Petke Parkkb, lAJ)^ 
Rev. Dr. Jcvmr PKBimfl^ 
Rev. Dr. Danixl Poob, 


Rer. Elias Rioos, 
Pro£ Rudolph Roth, 
Rev. William G. Schaufflib, 
Dr. AzAUAH Smite, 
Rev. Dr. £u Smitb, 
Rev. WiLUAM H. Steku^ 
Rev. David Stodda&d, 
Rev. William M. Thomboi^ 
Rev. William Walucb, 
Dr. Albket Wkbek, 
Prol GoBTAV Whl, 
Samubl Wblls Williams, 
Rev. John L. Wilson, 
Rev. MuoN WiNSLOw, 

Missionary in Chins. 

« Persia. 

" Cejlon. 

( Principal of the Bureau of Inter- 
} ptreters of the Ottoman Impe- 
( rial Diwfin. 

Missionary in Asia Minor. 

Tiibing^n, Wiirtemberg. 

Missionary in Turkey. 


« Syria. 

" Borneo. 

«* Persia. 

« Syria. 

<* West Africa. 


Heidelberg, Baden. 
Hong Kong, China. 
Missionary in West Africa. 

<* India. 


MahA R&ja Af0bva Eeuhna BahAdub, 

Jamb Bibd, 

Dr. Ono Boxbtlingk, 

Prof Fbanz Bopp, 

Prol EuoiNB BuBNOur, 

Richabd Clabke, 

Prot Gbobqb Hunb. Auo. Yon Ewald^ 

Prot FoBBis Falooneb, 

M. Champoluon Fioeao, 

Prot Geobob Wilhblm Fbettaq, 

His Excellency Fuad Effbndi, 


*Prot Wilhblm Gbsbnius, 
Prot Jacob Gbdcm, 
•Count Gbaxbsbg Da Hxmsob, 
Baron Aljezandbb Yon Humboldt, 
•Coont AmbdAb Jaihbbt, 



St. Petersburg. 




Tabingen, WQrtemberg. 



Bonn, Prussia. 


Leipzig, Prussia. 

Halle, " 





Pro£ Stanislh Juimr, 

Her. Dr. Jomr Dunmoex LAKC^ 

Prot CHRisTiAir Lamxn, 

Pro! JuLTOs Hmift. PmniuiQi, 

*Dr. Jami8 Coww Puobaed^ 

Pro£ RvNAUD, 

Prot Emilius RoBDXon, 

*Count Ifpolro RoflSBLUm, 

Prof. Frieduoh Rusgkzbt, 

His Excellency Safvkt Etfihdi, 

Pro£ Qaboin Di Tasbt, 

Sir HxNST W. TouuENg, 

*Prot WiLHELM liARTIir LiXBB. Bl WXRl^ 

Sir J. GA&Dnnai WiLsnaoN, 
Pro! Ho&AOB Hatmon Wmcmy 


Sicbej, K. & Walm, 

Bonn, P^rmik. 


'Brirtol, Ei^knd. 


Halle, PnusML 

Pisa, Tnacanj. 












09 TBI 


Mat, 1849— Fdeuabt, 1861. 





Memoirs of the American Aeademyof Arts and Sci- 
eDces. New Series. Vol. IV. Part I. Cambridge 
and Boston : 1849. 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. Vol. II. pp. 1-160. 

Presented iy the Ameriean Academy. 

Transactions of the Amecicaii Ethnological Society. • 
Vol. II. New York : VM^ 

tnmiited hy the Am. Ethnoh Society. 
Incwadi Yamagama. (A Zuki Hymn-Book.) Port 

Natal: 1849. 

Incwadi Tokubala. (A Zula Arithmetic.) Port Na- 
tal: 1849. 

Inhlixiyo yako i langile na ? (A Tract on Regenera- 
tion, in Zulu.) Port Natal: 1849. 

Presented hy the American Misei&n al Port Natal. 

A Manual of InstruotioD for the 8o«tlh A/Hcan College. 
Literature. Part I. The Principles of Grammar 
applied to the English Language. Cape*Town: 

Of the Science of Grammar. (A contiavatioii of the 

Proceedings of the Twenty-first Anniversaiy Meetidg 
of the Subscribers to the Public Library, Cape* 
Town, Cape of Good Hope. Cape-T^wn : 1850. 

Presented hy the Rev. Rufus Anderson^ D.D. 

The History of the Conquerors of Hind, by Maha 
Raja Apurva Krishna Bahadur. Chapp. 2, 8. Oil* 
cutta: 1848. 

Pteeenied hy tim AiUhor. 

The Progress of Ethnology, by John Russell Bartlett. 
New York: 1847. 

Wiremnied kf Ifei Amth^r. 

^ xzxii 

Guide FraD^aift-Arabe Vulffaire des Voyageura et des 
FraDcs en Syrie et en Egypte, par J. Berggren. 
Upsal: 1844. 

Presented hy the Auikof . 

Journal of the Bombay Brmtich Royal Asiatic Society. 
Oct 1844-Jan. 1849. Nos. VIII-XII. 5 numbers. 

Presented hy the Bombay Branch H. A. Society. 

A large and valuable collection of Oriental Coins. 

Presented by John P, Brovm^ Constaniinople, 

A Sanskrit MS. in the Devaoigiri chanciBr«<^A part 

of the Yajur VMa. 
Researches into the Origin and Affinity of the princi- 

pal Languages of Asia and Europe, by Lieutenant 

Colonel Vans Kennedy. London : 18^8. 

Presented by the Rev. E. Burgess^ Ahmednuggur^ India. 

KnctTirj JSe(^ Ilalata Jwdi^nrj^ to. (Turkish Old 
Testament in Greek characters'^ J^vata^ 1838. 

Presented by the Reo, fiMMi fll Calhoun^ ^Abeih^ Syria. 

A head-dress worn by the oiftrrM women of Mi. 

Presented by Dr. H A. De Forest^ Batr^l, Syria. 

Some bronze antiques found in Mt. Lebanon. 

Presented hy John W. De Forest^ New Menem. 

Tatwatshintam&nau Anuro&nakhanda« by Gangesa 
Up&dhy&ya. Calcutta: 1848. 

Anumanatshintamanididbitif by B«ghuiiAiba SiiomanL 
Calcutta: 184a 

SabdasaktaprakAsika, by Jagadiia Tark&lankira. Cal- 
cutta : 1847. 

Khandanakhandakhidyam, by Sriharsha. Calcutta : 

Kusum&njali, by Dda3rana^Atshirya. Calcutta: 1847. 

Tatwakaumudifby V&uhaspatiMisra. Calcutta: 1848. 

Paribh&sha, by Dhannarija Adbivanndra. Calcutta s 

Presented by Bdbu Rdjendra Duita^ CakuUa. 

The Literary World, No. 196. New York, Nov. 2, 
1850. (Containing a Report of the Semi-annual 
Meeting of the American Oriental Society.) 

PresenUd by K A. and O. L. Duyetindt. 

An original Hatti Sherif, or Imperial Ber&t, issued by 
SultAn Mm JU, A. H. 1216, appointing the Monk 
Hohaimes Patriarch of all the AnDfoiaos of Turkey. 

xxzm j|^ 

The Epistles of Ignatius, in Armmimn. Printed by 
the permission of Lord Zakaritls th% patriotic Pa- 
triarch of Constantinople. • - 

Presenled by the Rev. H, G. O, Dmight^ CoTUtanHintple. 

Two Maps by a Chinese amateur 16 feogmpfoy, resi- 
dent in Canton. 

Tuhfat ul Ahrar, by Mulla Jimi. Edited by Forbes 
Falconer. London: 1848. 

Pre9mU04 hg the Eiilar. 

HamassD Carmina Versione Latina CommeotariD^w 
illustravit, dec., Georg. Guil. Freytag. Pars IL . 
Fasc. 3. 

Presenied ^ lie SdUar. 

Catalogue of a Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, the 
property of Henry Abbott, JEUq.,M.D. Cairo: 1846^ 

r^ Presented by R 'm uk itarcteer. 

El-Cazwini's KosniograpUlofikrausg. von Ferdinand 

Wiistenfeld. Iter Thml, Ue nnd 2te HalAe. (3dt- ' 

tingen : 1848-9. 
ZeitschriA der Deutschen inorgpnlandischea Geeell** 

schaft. Bd. II. Hefte 1-4 ; M. IH. KeM 1^ ; Bd. 

IV. Hefke 1-4. Leipzig : 1848-50. 
Jahresbericht der Deutschen morgenHLndiaebe* Geaelt- 

scha A, fur 1845-6. Leipzig: 1846. 
Statuten der Deutsell^n aioinenllndiaQlldii iGlesefl* 

schaft, angenommea von der C)rientailiMen-Var» 

sammlung zu Dartnstadt den 2 October, 1845. 
Circular der Dentscb. mofeehMod.OMeN^hafti (An* 

der. Allg. Lit. Zeitunj^, Nor. 1845.) 

FNHHietthy'd^ehtmtm OHemdS^tteiy. 

Hand-Book to (he Adnerlean Panorama of jb% NiUi 
by George R. 61 iddo^. London: 1849.' 

Prospeotoa of the 0yro-E!gypttaR Society of Londoe* 
1844. . 

. Presented by Geo. Ri QtUi^. 

Fourteen Chinese tracts, vh^ : Bacriffces at the 
Tombs ; BacriAqes to the Dead ^ Biftlnlay of Seang- 
tay ; 8eang Afa^s Expenence ; Miioi ea Idoktrj, 
Gambling. Straight Oata, and Honailir hi Boaioaai ; 
Milne on the Soul ; Miioe^s Evils of Ambling | on 
Gambling; on Opium Eating (2oopics); Warn* 
ings against the uat jpf Of hMo {2 afopiaa) ; Sermon 
on the Mount ; and one other. 


Two Malay Tracts, on the BoeeMity of Repeotanoe. 

First, Second, and Third Homilies io Hindoostaoe^. 

Spelling-Book in English, Asimese, and TaL Sadiy& : 

Henry and his Bearer, translated by Mrs. Farrar. 
1835, (in Bengalee.^ 

Markas&ne SangitaKien SuhharTalAiD&oa« (in Ben- 

Spelling-Book, Reading-Book, and ' Child^s Book, in 

Homily fdrOsod'l^fiday, in Armenian. Calcutta: 1828. 

Spelling-Boott asd Blory-Book, (in Burmese.) 

Karen Tract. (First Karen Writing and Pfinting erer 
executed.) Maulmein. 

TfetKogf TpMt (First Taling Printing ever executed.) 
Maulmein c 1882« 

Annual FroMsdings of the Natioosl Polish Commit- 
ts8« <m PMish.) Paris: 1831-4r. 

Gilbert's Hymns for Children, (In Pmwd.) St. Pe- 
tersburg: 1891. 

True Story of a Youth, dec. dz«., (in Russian.) St. 
Petersburg: 188 L 

* Ofttiia fia(^ mC nvgfov, N. Bsmba T^y 18 Noafi^qUw, 
1834, (in Mod. Greek.) 

Robinson's Soripture .Characters, aad twel? a element- 
ary boolcs for Children, io Modern Greek. 

Rapport Aminel it, Ja Sneieti Aaiaiiquet iM4« par J. 
Mohl. P^s: 1844. . 

Bugis Parables. 

He mau Himeni Hawaii ; He Hockehobbolooa nana 
Kamalii ; Ka Mooolelo n|i Josiia ; Ka P^alapela Mqa 
aP^rterpiKaPukaAna. ftTraots. Oai|il: 1829-^. 

A Vocabulary of Words in the Hawaiian Language. 
LahainaUraa: 1886. 

Westminster Catechism in Rehrew. E4. Seaman anj ' 
Alden. Philadelphia: 1821. 

Family Education and Government : A Disconrse in 
the Choctaw Language, by L. S. WilUamt* Bos- 
ton: 183ft. 

Diuhsawahgwnh GayltdosMLh^, (hi the Seneca lan- 
guage.) Besloo: 183#. 

Sioux SpeHiag-Booir. D^hpltfd fbf lh# «se of natlfe 
learners. Boston : IMoT ** * 

Lawyrawkulants Panj Kwta. 18M. 

' ' '• ^ fnHniHd hf WiHiam W. Greenough. 

Alif Laila, or Book of' the Thoasand Nights wd Om * 

Night, in Arabic. Edited by Sir W. H. MacM^ 

ten. 4 vols. Calcutta : 1839-42. 
Tazkira-i-Fath Ali Khan Husaini Gurdezi. 
A Persian and Urdu MS. — Memoirs of native |Koe- 

lem Poets of the Dakhan and N. India. 
Kiyastha Kaustubha, by Rija Nir&yaoa Mitra. 8 

vols. Calcutta: 1844-8. 
Ahnoda Mangala, by Bh&rata Tshandra B&ya. 3 vote. 

Calcutta. Saka 1769, i. e. A. D. 1847.* 
Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus, by H» 

H. Wilson. Calcutta : 1847. 
Kavikalpadruma, i. e. The T'ree of the Deaire of the 

Poet, by Vopadeva. Calcutta : Sanvat 3906^ t. e. 

A. D. 1849. 
A Portrait of Dwarkapanth Tagprt. 

Presented ip Prof. fUz-Biumri SUlt Btmmu^ bdut. 

The Oriental AstrOBomer : bllfli'* Complete Systeip 
of Hindu Astfoionsy, motlM^Sbied with e Tnosla- 
tion and luiraeixws Explamtory Nolstfl With aa 
Appendix. By H. B. Hoisingtoo. Jaffna i 1848^ 

A Tamil MS. on palm leaf. — Udal-Ari-Yi(akkaai, i. e. 
The Vaisbaa? a Light of the Body. 

, Presfnied by the Rev. H.R. Hauingimi^ C^Im. 

Crrammatik for Zulu-Sproget, af H. P. S. Behfeuier,^ 

med Fortale og Anmerkinger af C. A. Holmboe. 

Christiania : 1850. 
Sanskrit og Oldoortk, af C. A. Holmboe. Cbristkaia : 

Det Oldnordw Verbum, oplyel red SanHnealigning 

med Sanskrit og andre Sprog af samme 2St. Af & 

A. Holmboe. Chiisiiama : 1848. 

Presemied hy Prcf. C. A. IblMoe. 

Catalogue des Livres de feu M. Saint-Martin. Paris : 

Catalogue des Livres, tmprinMs et vianuscrits, de iea 

M. J. P. Abel-Remusat. Paris: 183a 
Catalogue des Livres, imprimes et manuicrits, de feu 

M. Kiefier. Parks: 1833. 

Prt$enled by the Rev. WUliam Jenks^ D.D. 

Note sur les Rotecudos, accompagn^e d'un Vocabti- 
laire de leer Langue^ etc. — Extrait du Bulletin de 
la Societe de C^eognphie, Nov. et Die 1846. 

FragmeBti ior 1*Uiiifomiit6 k introduire dafM les No- 
tations Gr«Qgr»phiques, etc. — Exlraits du Bulletin 
de la Societe de (r^ographie, Avril et Aout, 1847. 

Presented by M. E. Jomard. 

Examen Critlqire de quelques pages de Chinois rela- 
tives a Thide, traduites par M. G. Pauthier, par 
Stanislas Julien. Paris : 1841. 

Exercises Pratiques d^Analyse de Syntaxe et de Lexi- 
graph ie Chttfoise, parSuinjstas Julieo. Paris : 1842. 

Simple Expose d^un Fan Honorable odieusement de- 
nature dans dh lib€fH« r&cent de M. Pauthier, suivi 
de la refutation de sa derniere Rlpoose, par Stan- 
islas Julien. Paris': ' 18<2. 

Notice sur les Mrrtnrs Vnagiques des Chinois et leur 
fabrication, par Stanislas Julien. (Extraitdes Comp* 
te^Bendus des seances d^ PAcademie to Sciences, 
lelhe XXtV, sauces de* 7 et 81 iuio, 1S47. 

^.. PreuMled by the Author, 

Indische AlterthnnskmKlev toif^ Cbristias Lassen. 
(1.) DruokfeMeri BMcHfiguaf^, and Naehtrtge 
zum ersten Bande« <3.) Zweker Band, he Hi1(\e. 
Bonn and London s ld49. 

Prttenied hy the Author, 

ZeiHiehrift for dfe Kunde ^en Morgefllandes, herausg. 
von ChrAStian Lasaen. Bd. VII. Hefle 2, 3. Bono : 

Pre9€rUed by the Editor. 

Etnleitung zur Chronotogie der ^gjpter, von R. Lep- 

sius. Berlin: 1848. 
Denkmaler aua Agypten una Atbiopien, von R. Lep* 

sius. Bonn : 1849. 
Die Chronologie der ^gypter, von Richsrd Lepsins. 

Binfeitang und Erster Theit. Berlin, London and 

Paris: 1849. 

Presmted by the Amtkor. 

Rapport Annuel k la Soci6t6 Asiatique, 17 Juin 1845, 

28 Juin 1846, et 14 Juto \M1, par J. MoM. 
Melanges Potthumes d'Histoire et de Liti^ratirre Ori* 

Qntales par M. Abei-Remuaat. Paris : 194S. 

PHnuUd by M. Mee MohL 

An Arabic MS^-^Et-Tuhaf eU'Aliyeb fy el^KluKak 
el-Minbaiiyeb, i. e. tbe Superior Gifts, rea pcc ting 
Pulpit-diacoursaa^ by «a aoooyoious auUiot* With* 

out date. — ^A oolleetioD of Moalein pulpil^fboo iinw 
for the yean 

Presented hy PrendmU Nmikm rnei Mmre. 

A Peraiao MS.— The Diw&n of Khwijeh Shems-ed- 
din Muhammed, (i. e. Hafix). Date A. H. 985, - 
i. e. A. D. 1577-8. 

Presented hy the Rev, Mark Murphy. 

Catalogue dee Livrei de nnprimerie Armioienne do 
SaiotLazare. Voflw: 1848. 

Presented hy Charks E. Norton* 

Documentoe Arabieoa para a Historia Portugueza co* 
piadoa doe Originaee da Torre do Tombo por Ordem 
da Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa por Fr. 
Joao de Souea. Lisboa : 171K). 

. Prsunled by Charles Pickering, M.D, 

Kala Sankalita. A Collectioo of Memoirs on the 

various Modes aeeording to trhich the Nations of 

the Southern Parts of India Utifib Time. By Lieut 

Col. John Wamo. Madras : 1825. 
History of Mysoor, afaridgsd Om Col. Wilks'a His* 

torical Sketebts of the Somh of India. P^rt I. 

Madras: 1828. 
Historical Sketch of the Kingdom of Pandy*. By 

H. H. Wilson. Madras I 1888. 
The Madras Alnmoao and Coropeodium of Intelli- 

gence, for 1840. Madras. 
The Morning Star, published saroi-monthly. Vols. 

I— UL 3 Tola. Jaffna: 1841-3. 

Presented hy the Rev. Dr. Poar^ CeylmL 

Die geographische Verbreitung einiger charaoterist* 

ischen arabiachen Producte, von C. Bitter. 
Die Ophtrfahrt, von C. Bitter. 

Presented hy ihs iliOAsr. 

Catalogue of a Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, the 
property of Henry Abbott, Esq., M.D. Cairo: 1846. 

Presented by Prof. Edward BoHnson. 

JAska*8 Nirukta, sammt den Nighantavas, herausg. von 
BudolphBoth. HeAel,2. Gottingen: 1848-49. 

Presented hy the Editor. 

Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 
and Ireland. Vol. VIII. No. XVI. Parts 1 and 2/ 
Vols. IX. X. XI. Part 1, and XII. 

Twenty-8ixlh and Tweotj^aevmiUi Annual Reports of 

the Royal Asiatic Society, for 1649 and 1850. 

Loodon: 1849*50. 
List of Members, Committees, dec, of the Royal Asi* 

atic Society of Gfeat. Britain and Ireland, for 1849. 

London: 1849. 

Frxsenled hy the Royal Asiatic Society, 

Recherches sur lea Inscriptions Himyariques da Sana, 
Khariba, Mareb, etc., par M. f. PresoaU Paris: 

Rapport Annuel k la Society Asiatique, (for 1844, 
1845, 1846,) pax J. Mohl. 

The Raja Tarangini ; a History ef Caihmir. Cal- 
cutta: 1835. 

Courier de Constantinople, 3me Aon4e, 1847, No. 
129 ; 4me Ann6e, 1848, No. 151 ; 5me Ann6e, 
1849, No. 287 ; 6nie Anaee, 1860, i^o. 253. 

Journal de Constantinople, 3nw Annee, 1848, Nos. 
66-^, 105-7, 109-1 1, 1 14-17, 190-8, 126-*6, 128- 
30, 134-5, 135 ; 4me Annee, 1849, Nos. 137-40, 
142-6, 150-3, 155-7, 161-3, l«6-7, 174, 176, 189- 
90, 192, 200, 203, 205, 207; dtne Ann^, 1850, 
Nos. 210, 216-17. 

Turkish Evening Entertainments. The Wonders of 
Remarkable Incidents and the Rarities of Anec- 
dotes, by Ahmed Ibn Hemdera the Ketkhoda, called 
" Sohailee." Translated from the Turkish by John 
P. Brown. New York : 1850. 

Presented hy E, E, Salisbury, 

B^tal Pantshavinsati, by Iswara Tshandra Vidyasagara 

Sarma. Calcutta: 1846. 
Bingalar Itih&s, by the same. Calcutta : 1847. 

Presented hy the Auihar. 

Prospectus der Odessaer Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte 
und Altertbiimer gehorenden altesten hebraischen 
und rabbiniscben Manuscripte. Ein Beitrag zur bib- 
lischen Exegese von Dr. Pinner. Odessa : 1845. 

The Old Testament in Hebrew and Spanish. 2 vols. 
Vienna: 1840-1. 

Presented hy the Rev, W. G, Schauffler, Constantinople. 

First Lessons in the Tie-Chiw Dialect, by W. Dean. 
Bankok, Siam: 1841. 

Presented hy the Rev, Bamas Sears^ D,D. 

Fourth AnDiNd Beport of tU Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian laetitudoa. Washington : 1850. 

Pruenied <^ the Smithsonian Insittuti§n* 

Rudiments de la Langue Hindoui, par M. Garcurde 
Tassy. Paris: 1^7. 

Presented hy the Author. 

Theologia et Philosophia Indica. Oupnek^hat ; e 

Persico idiomate in Ijatinum conversum ; studio et 

operi Anqoetin Dnperron. Tomus I. Argentorati 

etPansiis: 1601. 
Bible History. The Pentateuch and Joshua. For the 

use of the Protestant Episcopal Mission in Western 

Africa. New York : . s. a. 
Essays and Dissertations in Biblical Literstore. By a 

Society of Clergymen. VoL 1. New York : 1829. 
hitroduction to Sficred Philology and Interpretation, 

by* Dr. G. J. Planck ; translated from the Original 

German, and enlarged with Notes, by Samuel H. 

Turner, D.tX New York and Boston : 1894. 
A Companion to (he Book of Genesis, by Samuel H. 

Turner, D.D. New York and London : 1841. 
Biographical Notices of Jewish Rabbies, and Transla* 

lions of portions of their Commentaries, and other. 

Works, with illustrative Introductions and Notes, by 

Samuel H. Turner, D.D. New York : 1847. 
The Gospel according to St Loke, translated into the 

Greho Tongue, by the Rev. John Payne. New 

York: 184a 

Presented 2f t^e Rev. Samuel H. Tumer^ D.D^ 

£inige' Notisen ikber Bonny an der Eiiste ron Guinea, 
seme Sprache mid seine Bewobner. Mk einem 
Glossarium von Hermann Koier. Gotitncen: 1848. 

Presented ly Prof. WilUam W. Turner. 

The Madras Christian Instructor and Missionary Rec- 
ord. Vols. I— V. 5 vols. 

Presented hy the Rev, Miron Winshw^ Madras^ India. 

Report of the Committee of Internal Health on the 
Asiatic Cholera, together with a Report of the City 
Physician on the Cholera Hospital. Boston: 1849. 

Map of the. Oregon Territory by the U. S. Explor. i 

Exped., Charles Wilkes, Commander. 1841. 

Topographical Map of the Road from. Missouri to 
Oregon. la VU Sections. From the field notes 


and joarnal of Capt J. C. PriiliOBt, and front 

sketches and notes made on the ground, bj his 
-assistant, Charles Preuss. Gompilfra bj Charles 

Preuss. 1846. 
Observatioos on the Aboriginal Monuments of the 

Mississippi Valley. With Illustrations. By E. G. 

Squier. New York : 1847. 
Joannis Georgii Wenrich de Poeseos Hebraicae atqCie 

Arabicae Origioe« Indole, Mutuoque Consensu atqus 

Dfi»crimine Commentatio. Lipsiae : 1843. 
A Turkish Almanack. 16mo. 
Courier de Constantinople : 8, 10, et 17 Avril, 6 et 15 

Mai, 1847. ; , 

Miodener Sonntagsblatt, am 18.Februar, 1844. 
The Life of Joseph Balsamo, cosnmonly called* Count ^ 

Cagliostro. I^ndon: 1791. 
Manuscript of four leaves, written in Oriental charac- 
ters, on the Talipot palm-leaf. 
Three bronze Chinese toilet-omaments. 

Pres$nt€d hy Donors vnkfumn. 

The following articles were orerlooked, or not propcgrly ac- 
knowledged, in the preparation of the fortiner lists i 

Portrait de Christophe Colomb. (From the Bulletin 
de la Societe de Geographic, Juin, 1845^) 

PreMenled by M. E. Jom^rd, 

A MS. in ancient Turkish. ^^Mukaddemeh, i. e. Intro* 
duction, by Kotb-ed-din En;Nikldjr .BMzniky. 
Without date, perfect. A Mohammedan catechism ; 
the oldest work of this sort in Turkish iiteratoroy . 
and still one of the most approred. 

Kit4b Shurut es-Salat, L e. Book of the Conditions 
of Prayer. Constantinople : A. H. 1219, i. e. A, D, 

Sherh Tohfet el-Mendhumet ed-Durriyeh fy Loghat 
el-Firisiyet ed-DArtyeh, i. e. Commentary on the 
Present of the String of P^ris, respecting tho Per* 
sian Court-language, by Ahmed Hayati Efibsdi. 
Constantinople : A. H. 1915, i.^. A. D. 1800-L 

An Arabic M3.>-AAn abridgment 6y the original au- 
thor ofGhunyetel-Mubtety, i. o. The Satisfaction 
of the Afflicted Otm, which is a commentary, by . , 

IbdLhim Ibn Mubammod Ibo Ibr&him el-Haleby, oa 

|f aoyet el-H ufalljTf u •• The Detira of the Pnyiog 
. One. Dttled A. H. 1199, L e. A. D. 1764-^ 

Ff€9m^ed hy J. a. &h9wr%t U. S. Cimmi td Tiemntu 
A MS.— Copy of % few cKapters of the Book of Goa- 
esia, traoslated into ibo Sooahelee Language, by Dr« 

Prueni^ hp BiekariP.. WiUtr9. 

A Sermoo, in Tamil, on Taaiah zlv. 22, supposed to be 
wrhten by tbe Jesuit missionary Robertus. PrioCed 
in 1819. 

A Tamil TractY in two Parts : — L Questions addressed 
to Trinitarian Ministers, on the doctrine of the 
Trinity. By a Unitarian. 11. A Dialogue on the 
nme subjeot. Printed in 1822. 

PrescfUed by the Han. Sidney WUlmrd. 

Seport of the Llbrary*Committee of CongrefM on tbe 
£xp(oring Expedition. 

Presented hy the Hon. Robert C. Winthrcp. 

Wln^gielS KedusS ly&susS K&resStos^, i. e, Tbe 
Holy Gospel of Jqsus Christ. (In Eihiopic.) Lon- 
don: 182^. 

Presented by Richard P. W4iere. 

[This book was erroneously acknowledged, in Vol. I. No. IIL 
as a donation from WUliam C. Waiere^ £«^.] 


The following books have been purchased, by vote of tbe 
Soeiety, to complete imperfect sets in the Library : 

Indisehe Alt^rthumskunde von Christian Lassen. Ersten Bandes 

lie H&lfte. Bonn ; 1849. 
Hamasae Carmina edidit 6. W. Freytag. Tomus L Bonnae : 

Hamzae bpahanensis Annalium Libri X. edidit J. M. E. Gottwaldt. 

Tonnis II. Lipsiae ; 1848. 

MeiDoires de rAcadimie Impfiriale ie§ SctenoM de Bt Peters- 

bourgh. VI"* Serie. Sciences, Histoire, Philolog^. Tomi 
I— VIL St. Petersbourgh : 1830—1848. 
Btitletin de Is Classe Histbrico-Philolcf^iqse de PAcsd^tnie Inipe« 

riale des Sciences de St. Petersbourgh. Tomi Dr-VlL/VlII. 

fascc. 1--6. St. Petersbourgh : 1845^1850. 
Verbandlungen der !«•», 2t«»j 8^". 4^^, 6»«", 7»«", 8<«S IV^ 

VereaminiuDg Deutscber Philologeo und Schulm&Doer. 







(Read October 24, 1849.) 



[The Committee of Publication, finding it impossible to reduce the orthog- 
raphy of all oriental words which may occur in this Journal, to a uniform 
system of Uieir own, have adopted the principle of leaving the orthography 
in each paper as they find it, except where there is a manifest oversight] 

The followers of Shabbathai Zevi are, properly speaking, 
a Jewish sect. Scattered fragments of tnis singular body 
of religionists still exist in Christian countries on the con- 
tinent of Europe, and are reckoned among the Jews. They 
are, however, utteriy abhorred by the Jews, as chargeable 
with the most damnable heresies and practices. Little is 
known of their true tenets. Those of them who are living 
in Turkey profess Mohammedanism ; they send their chil- 
dren to Alohammedan schools, dress and conduct themselves 
like Mohammedans, (except that they do not go to the 
Mosques,) and enjoy the civil privileges connected with the 

f)rofession of Islam. The moral character of those who 
ive in Turkey is unimpeachable. Drunkenness, lying, pro- 
fanity, adultery, and the like, are unknown among them. 
On the subject of taking an oath, they cherish the principles 
of the Quakers. In this particular, however, they are not 
alone. The religious history of such a body cannot be un- 
interesting, especially if it be true, (which is said of them by 
some,) that their tenets are akin to the doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. This would seem highly probable from the char- 
acter of those Rabbinic works whicii have been in the high- 
est esteem among them from the very beginning of their 
sect, of which I shall have occasion to speak in the sequel. 
But of the truth of the assertion I was satisfied by a com- 
munication, addressed to me not long ago by one of their 
chief men, in which the writer makes a simple and candid 
statement of som^ of the articles of their faith. I have the 
more confidence in the candor of his statement, as he was 
cautious, enough, neither to write the paper himself) nor to 
sign it. It was dictated by him, while surrounded by others 

of*-bis'sect, to a person of another religion, in whom I have 
rDavSon to place the utmost confidence, but who, being no 
MohaminedaTi himself, could n<»t be admitted in a Moham- 
medan Ci'urt i»f justice as a witness against one professing 
Islam. Thus, while the true author vi' the paper remained 
perfectly uncommitted, he had no reason to hide any thing 
that may have appeared to him important to be mentioned. 
So far as I know, this paper exhibits the only authentic 
confession of faith of this singular sect, extant beyond its 
own little circle. Its members naturally publish nothing 
to the w< )rld, least of all tin )se of them who profess the Mo- 
hammedan religion. To my knowledge, there is but one 
book of their sect known to the public. This purports to be 
an historical account of it by one of them whose name was 
Abraham Konki, ''p^'^p dti^Si*, but it is said to be merely 
a collection of senseless miraculous legends of their pre- 
tended Messiah, and of his prc^phet Nathan. I myself never 
saw the book. These considerations led me to translate the 
comiriunicati(^n in (j^uestion from the original Turkish. But 
as this sect is so very little known in America, I thought it 
best to improve this op])ortunity for presenting the reader 
with a l)rief account of its origin. 

Shabbathai Zevi was the third and ycmngest son of Mor- 
decai Zcvi, a petty merchant in Smyrna. He was bom in 
1625, and distinguished hhnself earlv, by a most extraor- 
dinary ac<[uaintance with the Talmud, wliich he had mas- 
tered at the a^e of fifteen. He i)roceedcd to the Kabbala, 
which ho finished in about three years. Being eighteen 
vears old, he became a reirular Hakam or Eabbi. He im- 
mediately began to lecture in public on the Kabbala, and 
thousands flocked together, even from distant places, to listen 
to his superior wisdom. He j^aid great attention to ablu- 
tions, and ascetic severities, such as lasting, etc. Contrary 
to the hal)its of the Jews, he married late. He had passed 
his tw(nitieth year when he espoused the most beautiful girl 
in Smyrna. However, as he never ap]>roached his wife, he 
was obliged by her father to divorce her, which he did soon 
after the marriage ceremonies. Iliis singular proceeding 
he re})eated, naturally always with the same residt. Mean- 
while, he carried his religious austerities fjirther every day, 
and multii)lied his washings; and yet his health appeared 
perfect, and his personal beauty was extraordinary. 

At the age of twenty-four, he began to disclose to his 
more confidential disciples that he was the Messiah, the son 
of David. lie pretended to know the true pronunciation 
of the name Jehovah, nirr^, and pronounced it publicly. 
The Session r>f Rabbis warned him not to do so, and being 
disobeyed by him, excommunicated him, declared his assas- 
sination to ])e a good work, and agreed to pay the murder- 
er's forfeit due t<^ the Turkish Treasury, from their public 

Shabbathai Zevi now fled to Salonica, where he was re- 
ceived with honor, subseiiuently warned as in Smyrna, and 
ultimately anathematized. Athens, Alexandria, Cairo, and 
finally Jerusalem, became in turn places of refuge for him. 
At the latter place he remained several years, lecturing pub- 
licly, and fasting constantly, which much increased his re- 
nown for sanctity. In Gaza he made the acquaintance of a 
German Jew named Nathan Benjamin, in whose family he 
remained several weeks. This was on his journey to Jerusa- 
lem, but it ought to be said here, that his introduction to, 
and temporary residence in, the family of Nathan, are not 
as authentic as most facts of his history. Be that however 
as it may, after Shabbathai Zevi had spent a few years at Je- 
rusalem, Nathan Benjamin appeared suddenly in the char- 
acter of a prophet, and said, " A man of Smyrna, called 
Shabbathai Zevi, is the true Messiah. He will redeem Israel 
finom the yoke of bondage. The two fast-days, the 17th of 
Thammuz and the 9th of Ab, are no more to be kept. The 
Messiah is born, and will soon appear, and place the diadem 
of the Sultan on his own brow, as may be proved from the 
Kabbala, etc., etc." lie wr(^)te letters to the Rabbis of the 
land, saying that the Messiah would disai)pear for some time, 
to meet Moses, who was risen from the dead in the country 
Sambation, to marry llebecca, the daughter of Moses, and 
in company with him to bring the ten tribes across the river 
of that name. The Me^ssiah was to enter Jerusalem upon a 
lion which came down from heaven, the tongue of which 
was a seven^eaded serpent, spitting fire, slaying multitudes 
by the way on every side. After his entrance, God would 
let down from heaven a tem])le made of gold and precious 
stones, the Messiah would offer sacrifices, the resurrection 
of the dead would then take place, etc., etc. . A tremendous 
excitement was produced in the minds of the Jews. 


Meanwhile, Shabbathai Zevi continued to lecture at Jerusa- 
lem, and married again, as formerly, while his brothers, resid- 
ing in Smyrna, secretly urged his Me&sianic claims, and not 
without success. On a sudden, at Jerusalem, in 1665, Shab- 
bathai Zevi publicly proclaimed his own Messiahship. Rab- 
binic opposition arose in Jerusalem, and every where, and he 
fled again to Smyrna. In Constantinople, he was condemned 
by a convention of thirty -five Rabbis. Notwithstanding this, 
he was received at Smyrna like a God. In the streets, manj 
Jews prostrated themselves when he passed, and kissed his 
feet. His public discourses were listened to with rapture. 
Hundreds accompanied him, as a kind of cortege^ wherever 
he went. A deputation from Aleppo waited upon the new 
Messiah. The prophet Nathan also arrived, and preached his 
Messiahship. For many nights the excited multitude, headed 
by Shabbathai Zevi, or by Nathan, made processions through 
the streets ; Hebrew hymns were sung, till about midnight, 
and the rest of the time till morning was devoted to read- 
ing at home. The opposition of the Rabbis of Smyrna was 
in vain. The influence of Shabbathai Zevi was so great, 
that manv of them fled for their own lives. He was master 
of the Jewish community there. His house was a palace 
crowded with applicants for a short audience, and so great 
was their number that many of them were obliged to wait 
several weeks for their turn, as the Messiah would see only 
forty or fifty persons a day. In all synagogues, prayer was 
made for hiin, the forms of public prayer having been alter- 
ed. 1 nstead of the Sultan, Shabbathai Zevi was blest in 
the public [)rayers on the Sabbath. 

Now, the religious epidemic spread like wildfire. Men, 
women and girls prophesied. Rabbi Mose Kernel, at Con- 
stantinople, had convulsions, danced, and extemporized He- 
brew }:>oetry in the later corrupt dialect of the Kabbala ; and 
all he said, or sung, was carefully preserved by two amanu- 
enses, like the ecstatic effusions of a Mohammed. Nearly 
the whule community of Jews in Constantinople was in 
flames. The unbelievers preserved a prudent and necessary 

In 106(1, Shabbathai Zevi proceeded to Constantinople, 
to jrresont himself to the Sultan. His blind adherents had 
urged this ruinous measure. At that time no steamer ran 
between C(^nstantinople and Smj^rna. He was five weeks 

tossed upon the waters by contrary winds, without being 
able to command them " Peace, be still." On his arrival in 
Constantinople, he found that the Sultan was absent in 
Adrianople. Immediately, he was surrounded with admir- 
ers, almost worshippers. 

At last the Sultan took cognizance of the matter, and 
sent orders for the apprehension of Shabbathai Zevi. After 
an interview with the Grand Vezir, he was sent to Kutayah 
as a prisoner of State, his friends being permitted to wait 
upon him. One of the original narratives of his life states 
that he was beaten, and confined in prison. But all this 
was explained by his followers as one of the most certain 
proofe of his Messiahship, while visitors and presents with- 
out end convinced him that the interest in his person was 
not impaired, and he continued his arrogant claims. The 
9th day of Ab, from having been a dav of fasting, became 
a day of rejoicing, because it was the birthday of the new 
Messiah. Rycaut, who himself collected at the very time 
the most accurate information as to the nature and extent 
of this strange excitement, says, " In all places from Con- 
stantinople to Buda, (Pesth,) in Hungary, I perceived a 
strange transport in the Jews, none of them attending to 
any business, imless to wind up former negociations." In 
Saionica, "aJQ business was laid aside," he says, "no one 
worked, or opened shop, unless to clear his warehouse of 
merchandize at any price." This may give us an idea of 
the effect produced oy this wonderful character, and his 
arrogant and adventurous proceedings. The crowd of his 
visitors is said to have been so great that a dearth ensued 
in the city of Kutayah. The autimm of 1666 now set 
in. AU the time that Shabbathai Zevi lived in Kutayah, 
his followers indiilged the most extravagant hopes, and 
their preparations for the triumph of their cause were not 
at all oehind their thrilling anticipations. While he him- 
self lived like a prince, his followers were constant in their 
ascetic exercises and austerities, in order to prepare them- 
selves for the expected sinless and glorious kingdom of 
their Messiah. Their love of money vanished as vapor be- 
fore the rising sun ; all unclean animals were carefolly re- 
moved from their dwellings ; the copies and portions of the 
Law possessed by them, worn, or put into their door posts, 
were carefully re-examined^ and all mistakes removed; 


beneficence was practiced; schools were opened, and sup- 
ported ; and ever)'^ one prepared for the appearance of Elijah, 
the fore-runner of the Messiah, and not a few had already 
seen him, told the story, and poured oil upon the general 
conflagration of the Jewish mind. 

But another great character appeared upon the stage. 
Rabbi Nehemiah, sent from Polana for the purpose, arrived, 
disputed with the i)retended Messiah for three days, and 
charged him repeatedly and publicly with being an impos- 
tor. Rabbi Nchemian was a great Kab1)alist. A great 
excitement among the Jews of Kutayah was the conse- 
quence. They would have torn the hated sceptic to pieces, 
with his companions, had he not declared himself a Mo- 
hammedan, and thus saved his own life and that of hia 
train. But the contest did not end here. Rabbi Nehemiah 
requested the Grand Vezir to send him to Adrianople, to 
warn the Sultan against this deceiver. This was done. 
Nehemiah had an audience with the monarch, and the re- 
sult was, that Shabbathai Zevi was summoned to appear 
before Mohammed IV. But in all cities, prayer was made 
for him, and a great company followed him to the Imperial 
residence. He was escorted to the Sultan by four officers. 
I will relate this memorable audience in the words of one 
of the original narrators of these events, who was an eye- 
witness of all that came imder the observation of the exci- 
ted piiblic. 

*'The Sultan sent four messengers to bring Shabbathai 
Zevi to him, and they brought him, and he stood before 
him. And he did him great honor ; for the custom of the 
kingdom of Tshmael is that, when an ambassador of another 
king comes to a])pear before the Sultan, he is not permitted 
to sec his face, but the Sultan s})eaks with him only from 
behind a ciu'tain. With Shabl)athai Zevi he spoke face to 
face. Now when Shabbathai Zevi came before the Sultan, 
he fell u])on his face to the ground, and bowed himself, and 
the king commanded him to rise up ; and he placed him- 
self upon his knees. And the Sultan spake to him and 
said, 'Behold, I have heard much concerning thee, that 
thou art a man of God, and that thou desirest to redeem 
Israel from thefr captivity, and to bring them to Jerusalem, 
which is in my comitry. Speak the truth in this matter. 
If thou art truly a messenger of the God of Abraham, as 


Moses and Aaron were true messengers, then do a mir- 
acle before me, as thev did before Pharaoh and his servants. 
Then shall my hand oe with thee, and I will give thee help 
and protection in all my Empire, and will acknowledge the 
Jews as nav brethren. And now answer my question. " 

'* And ohabbathai Zevi answered, with a trembling heart, 
and said, * My lord, the Sultan, I am a Jewish Eabbi. I 
fear the great God, the God of Abraham, from my youth 
till now. As to what men are saying concerning me, that 
I am the Messiah, when it shall come to pass at the time 
accepted by the great God, the question will be settled, 
whether it shall be accomplished by my hands, or by those 
of another raian. This is known to our God.' When the 
Sultan heard his words, he was wroth, and said, * If it be 
true, according to thy words, that thou fearest God, I will 
prove thee* as thy father Abraham was proved.* I will 
order that thou be stripped of thy clothes, and will shoot 
three arrows into thee. If thou remainest alive, I also will 
acknowledge thee, and receive thee as the Messiah.' Then 
Shabbathai Zevi begged that he might escape, and obtain 
mercy, and not be subjected to the evil of being shot with 
arrows. For he feared that he should not stand in the trial. 
Then the Sultan said to him, * K thou wilt be a Thogarmite, 
(Mohammedan^ like imto me, I will pardon all that thou 
hast done.' When Shabbathai Zevi heard this, he took an 
Ishmaelite turban from the head of one of the servants, and 
put it on his own head. With this the Sultan was well 
pleased, and the thing was right in the eyes of all his princes. 
And he remained in the king's palace, and ate with them 
their unclean meat, and defiled himself with their meat and 
their drink, and went to their houses of prayer." 

This was on the 24th of September, 1666. The name of 
Shabbathai Zevi became Mehmed Effendi. The particulars 
of this interview of the pretender with the Sultan are vari- 
ously stated by various persons, but the account of it which 
I have here translated appears plausible in every part. Ac- 
cording to this account, Snabbathai Zevi answered shrewdlv, 
and if he was acknowledged to be a Mohammedan merely 
for his placing a turban on his head, it is easy to see how 

* Aocording to the Koran, be was thrown into a ftimace of fire bj Nimrod, 
for refusing to practice idoli^ry, and came out of it unhurt 

VOL. IL 2 


he coTild justify the step before his own conscience, and still 
continue to keep up, to some extent, the expectations of the 
more ardent of his followers. However tnis may be, an- 
other Hebrew narrative, by Rabbi Tobiah Hakkonen, who 
was born in 1659, and practised medicine at Adiianople 
soon after this event, states ** that, from the time when Shab- 
bathai Zevi became a Mohammedan, many Jews, Moham- 
medans and Renegades joined themselves to him, and fol- 
lowed him ; and that he still lived as he had uaed to do ; 
that he prayed sometimes in the Jewish way, sometimes in 
the Mohammedan way, and did many other strange things ; 
imtil the king saw that there were many who adhered to 
him, and apprehending that at last evil might result from 
it, sent him to a fortress, and showing himself still as his 
friend, gave him an office and authority in the fortress. In 
reality, they kept him there in order to see what would be 
his end." He soon became sick, and died September 10, 

When Shabbathai Zevi had become a Mohammedan, the 
Rabbis of Constantinople pronounced the anathema upon 
all who should follow nim. He wrote a number of letters, 
and other pieces, and sent them abroad, still urging his 
claims. His followers pretended that the true Shabbathai 
Zevi had ascended up to heaven, and that a mere similitude 
of him had professed Islam. The prophet Nathan fled to 
Damascus, but kept up an intercourse with the members of 
the sect in Smyrna and Broosa. In 1677, he came to 
Broosa, and a temporary excitement was produced in that 
city, and in Smyrna, which threatened to be dangerous to 
pul^lic order and security. But the curse of the Synagogue 
of Constantinople, and the quiet contempt with which the 
Turkish Government now treated the whole matter, induced 
the T)rophet to leave Broosa again, and go to Smyrna, where 
he kept himself for some time in great seclusion. Subse- 
quently, he recanted his erroneous opinions, and was re- 

♦ Some say that, at the requefdi of the Rabbis of ConstaDtinople, which they 
backed with an eDormous present in money to the Grand Vezir, Shabbathai 
Zevi was removed to Bosnia, where he ^icd of colic on the Jewish Day of 
Atonement. Others say that he was secretly beheaded. There can be but 
little doubt of his having died a violent death, considering the rase and the 
fear of the Kabbia, and the habitual "auri sacra fames" of the Turkish 


oeived again into the Jewish community. This was done 
in Venice. He was never afterwards heard of. 

After the death of this remarkable man, his sect, instead of 
vanishing from the theatre of Jewish history, burst forth, 
and the ideas of Shabbathai Zevi were propagated far and 
wide. This shows that his claims to the Messiahship were 
W no means all that his disciples had learned fr6m him. 
'Kie charm of his doctrines was most wonderful. Not only 
were many of his enemies reconciled to him, even before 
his death, but when he was dead, his former greatest enemy, 
Babbi Nehemiah, became a convert to his opinions, pro- 
claimed his religion in many countries, bore tne anathema 
of the Synagogues of Poland, suffered the severest priva- 
tions for his new faith, and died at last, at Amsterdam, a 
blind beggar, admired for his talents and learning, but exe- 
crated for his religious peculiarities. The doctrines of 
Shabbathai Zevi found adherents, often very numerous, 
not only in the East, but along the northern shores of 
Africa, as fer as Morocco and Fez, and spread abroad in 
Europe, from South to North, as far as the Jewish race was 
then tolerated. 

As might have been expected, this sect, so destitute of a 
solid basis, slowly declined, notwithstanding the great tri- 
umphs it had at first ; and at present its members are but 
Kttle known as such. Many of^the followers of Shabbathai 
Zevi who lived in Turkey, became Mohammedans; in other 

E laces they are looked upon, generally, as Jews, though 
Ated and cursed by them. 
But not to pursue the history of this singular Judaeo- 
Mohammedan sect, it may be interesting to some readers, if 
we cast a glance at its literary basis. This is nothing else 
than the esoteric Jewish system of doctrine, called the Kab- 
bala, or Tradition, by way of eminence, the chief and ma- 
turest fruit, as well as the most legitimate and satisfactory 
interpreter of which, is the Book Zohar, or rather the 
2iOharic literature, for the oracles of this system form a con- 
siderable collection of books. 

Neither time nor space will permit me, here, to enter into 
an exposition of the Zoharic doctrines, so far as they have 
been dug up from beneath the rubbish and dust of Talmudic 
admixture, both in matter and form. I beg to direct the 


reader who desires farther information on the subject, to 
Tholuck's Commentatio de Ortu Cabbalae, printed at Ham- 
burg, in 1837. This is, perhaps, the work most accessible 
to the American student, beside being of small compass and 
thorough research, while it also indicates the more exten- 
sive works on the subject; most of which, however, are 
sufficiently known to the bibhcal student, by the frequent 
references to them in able commentaries on the Scriptures. 
Much has been said, and still more conjectured, of tne age 
and origin of the Kabbala itself aside from the question of 
the age of the Zohar. Thus much seems at present to be 
certain, that no traces of such an esoteric system can be 
found earlier than the eighth century. Still, if no such 
system is discoverable before, or even at that time, it would 
lie hasty to conclude that no elements of it had existed be- 
fore. When, after the destruction of Jerusalem, the people 
of Israel were scattered among the nations, and lived oy 
the side of the Gnostics, the Neo-Platonists, the Sabeans, 
and the Christians, (and among the latter are especially to 
be considered those heterodox sects, and their ringleaders, 
who struggled hard, for three hundred years and more, to 
amalgamate at least the bases of the higher pagan philo- 
sophical systems with the words of Scripture, and especially 
to account for the existence of the visible world, and of 
moral evil, and to vindicate to Jesus a creatorship, a medi- 
atorship, and a divine character, but still so as to vindicate 
and secure the absolute and exclusive real divinity to the 
Father,) — ^when such were their circumstances, and such the 
influences under which they lived, and when they were 
obliged to defend the Mosaic system against antagonists thus 
armed, and bold for the attack, how could the abler among 
this people remain indifferent to modes of speculation ap- 

Earently so far superior to the altercations of common Bab- 
inism r And when their external, political existence, and 
all the remains of their national greatness, had been so 
hopelessly shipwrecked as to put the idea of a restoration 
of Israel, at all events, to a very great distance, was it not 
natural, that reflecting Jews should gratefully seize upon 
such speculative elements as seemed to promise a spiritual 
indemnification, so to speak, for their irreparable material 
losses ? The very sight of the Christian Church, which pros- 
pered in the midst of persecution, by the mere power of 


truth, must have made them feel the value of moral prin- 
ciples, and the irresistibleness of intellectual superiority. 
And if they opened their sacred books, and looked into the 
Law and the Prophets, certainly there were truths scattered 
along in them, which, compared with the dogmas of Kabbin- 
ism, were as living flames compared with dry bones. And 
last, though not least, should we not expect to meet among 
them, occasionally, minds constituted like that of Bacon, or 
Leibnitz, of Jacob Boehme, or Swedenborg, inclined to inde- 
pendent thought, or endowed with powers of metaphysical 
mtuition, true, or false ? Speculations similar to those of 
the Zoharists are rife among the mystics and poets of the 
East, as every reader of oriental literature knows; the Jews 
lived in close contact with the Arabs, when their most im- 

Eortant works were written ; the golden age of Eabbinic 
terary eflFort, closing with the death of Moses Maimonides, 
at the beginning of the thirteenth century, was but little pos- 
terior to that of the Arabs ; and the most important works 
in science and Uterature were carefully translated into the 
Hebrew, both from the Greek and from the Arabic. Under 
these circumstances, nothing would have been stranger, than 
that the Jews should not attempt to rear, on the divinely 
inspired basis of which they felt themselves possessed, a 
system of philosophical theogony, cosmogony, theosophy, 
and ultimately also of theology and ethics, that would bear 
a comparison with similar systems produced by Christians, 
orthodox or heterodox, and by heatnen sages. And all this 
must have begun soon after the dissolution of the Jewish 
Commonwealth, if not before. 

But to conclude, from this very plausible view, that the 
E^abbalistic books are of the age and the authorship to 
which they lay claim, would be very erroneous. This was 
done, to a very great extent, by most of the earlier critics ; 
and the sentiments of the New Testament have often been 
proved, by quotations from these and other Jewish books, 
to have lleen entertained by the pious in Israel eighteen 
centuries ago, while in fact all the Kabbalistic books are of 
a comparatively recent date, and some of them can be shown 
to have been written under the acknowledged influence of 
Christianity; while other Eabbinic works, used for the 
same purpose, are as recent as the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century of our era. Of no higher antiquity than 


this, even, is the Kiibbalistic book TdOcut Rubeni, so often 
quoted by Schoettgen and Wetstein, the author of which 
published it first in 1681, at Prague, where he was a teacher 
at that time. 

The three Kabbalistic books which bear the marks of the 
highest antiquity, are the Safer Bahir, the Seftr Yezirah, and 
the Sefer Zohar, The first I have never seen. It pretends 
to hav5 been written by Eabbi Nehonyah Ben Hakkanah, 
who is said to have been the teacher of Rabbi Akiba, of 
femous memory, which, if it were true, would carry back 
the book into the century before Christ. But the very first 
mention made of the book by the Rabbis, occurs in tne be- 
pnning of the fourteenth century. The great Kabbalist 
Rabbi Mose Ben Nahman, who made a pilgrimage to Jeru- 
salem in 1267, knew nothing of the book. It made its first 
appearance in print at Amsterdam, in 1661. The Sefer 
Yezirah pretends to come down firom Abraham, at least as 
to the matter of the book. But, although the Gemara men- 
tions a book of this title, which must have existed as early as 
the fifth or sixth century, yet, considering the language, and 
the argument, of the Book Yezirah now in our possession, 
Dr. Zunz places it between the eighth and the tenth centuries. 

We come to the Sefer Zohar, which may be considered 
the Talmud, if not the Bible, of the followers of Shabba- 
thai Zevi. It pretends to have been written by Rabbi 
Simeon Ben Yochai, about the middle of the second century. 
But, to be brief, the result of investigations made by RaD- 
bis, modem Jewish critics, and Christian writers, is that the 
original Book Zohar was composed by a certain Rabbi Mose 
Ben Shemtov, of Leon in Western Spain, who died in 1295. 
Ever since its appearance, this boot has occasioned much 
ferment and dissension among the Jews, has given rise to 
other works covering the same ground, in the shape of 
commentaries, and in other forms, and has called forth the ana- 
themas of various Synagogues, against suspected individuals; 
and it is still nourishing the spirit of opposition between 
the so-called Hasidim and the orthodox Kabbinists, among 
the Ashkenazee, or German and Polish Jews, in Europe, ana 
the violent antagonism between the Doenmehs and the Jews, 
in Turkey. 

The form in which Rabbi Mose Ben Shemtov presented 
his mystical cogitations to the world, is that of a commen- 



tary on the Pentateuch. From the text of this, he takes 
occasion to speak of the most abstruse subjects within the 
compass of human specidation, in the department of reli- 
gious philosophy. In this connection, we are taught a lesson 
on the nature oi God. Abstractly considered, he is En-sofy 
or the Endless, Unlimited, or Absolute Beijig ; and some carry 
the abstraction so far as to caU him Ain^ ^''fie, or Naught, 
fearing that the idea of his being something, or some one, 
might involve a limitation, and therefore a negation, of his 
absolute existence. The En-sof reminds us of the t6 fiy, or the 
Being, of the Greeks, the highest conception to which their 
speculations reached, and which was so pertinaxjiously adher- 
ed to ty many Christian writers, especially in the first three 
centuries, and which they labored to reserve for the first Per- 
son in the Trinity, but denied to the second and the third.* 
This Ain anticipates the speculations of the philosopher 
Fichte, who demed even the attribute of existence to God, 
to guard the absoluteness of his character ; and especially 
those of the Hegelian school of the left side, or the New 
Hegelians, whose God is Ain, Naught, until he gets his pre- 
canous concrete existence in the human individual, while his 
eternity is nothing but the continuance of our race. Then 
follow the ten Sefiroth, of which the Kabbalists themselves 
ffive us explanations difiering from each other. They are 
aivided into three, and seven. According to some, the first 
three are absolutely spiritual, and form what may be called 
the Kabbalistic Trinity, and the following seven are divine 
attributes. According to others, all the ten Sefiroth are 
attributes of the En-sof, or Ain. Most probably, they rep- 
resent a system of emanation. With this is connectea their 
fourfold world, Aziluth, Beriah, YeziraJi, Astah, and the 
Adam Kadmon, who seems to be the first man, not the 
created concrete Adam of the Bible, but the essential ideal 
of humanity, as existing in the Divine mind, and involving 
the potential existence of creation, and of our race as the 
crown and ultimate purpose of it. I have neither time nor 
room for proof texts from the Zohar ; they can be easily 
gathered from the well-known Kcthbala Denicdata of Eosen- 
loth, and the Theologia Soharica of Sommer. 

* See Dorner^B Lehre von der Person Chrisii, as the chief work on this 


I will add here the names of the ten Sefiroth, because 
they may throw some light upon the communication which 
I shall presently introduce, (1.) The highest of the Sefi- 
roth is the I anif or the Highest drawn; on the right of it, 
(for they are arranged in a sort of descending tree,) is (2.) 
e/o/i, or Wisdom; on the left, (3.) Jehovah^ (here pronoun- 
ced Elohim,) or Understanding ; mrther down, on the right^ 
(4.) Eloiihy or Oreatness^ on the left, (5.) JEIohim, or Power; 
between these last two, a little lower, and perpendicular t6 
the I am, is (6.) Jehovah^ or Beauty ; fiirther down, on the 
right, (7.) Jeliovah of HostSj or Victory, on the left;, (8.) Chd^ 
(Elohim,) of Hosts, or Honor ^ nirt; between these last two, a 
little lower, and perpendicular to the I am and Jehovah, is 
(9.) El Hid, or the Living Ood, or Foundation, andjust be- 
low that, stands alone (10.) Adonai, or Lord, or Kingdom, 
Of these, the four central and perpendicular Sefiroth would 
be, according to some Kabbalists, (1.) the I am, Grod Su- 
preme, (2.) Jehovah, or the Messiah, as uniting Gh'eatness, 
also called Mercy, and Elohim, or Power, also called Se- 
verity, and cxhiDiting their harmony in his person, (3.) the 
Living God, or Foundation, as being the foundation of the 
Church, and of all the divine knowledge she possesses, and 
(4.) Adonai, or Lord, or Kingdom, representing thfe Church 
herself, with God indwelling in her as Lord actual, and reign- 
ing in his kingdom, which she is. Many doubts might be 
entertained as to the correctness of this interpretation. The 
terms designating the ten Sefiroth are obviously capable of 
a great variety of mystifications. Let it not, however, be 
thought an objection to the correctness of the above exposi- 
tion, tliat it is too Christian. The confession of faith which 
the Zoharists laid before the Bishop of Kamenietz, in South 
Eussia, iu 1760, or a little after, and upon which they re- 
ceived a promise of toleration, exhibits the following ar- 
ticles: I. What God revealed in his Law, rightly under- 
stood, according to the tradition, (i^robably the Kabbala, not 
the Talmud, which they had just burned publicly,) must be 
received. The worship of God must be the result of our 
knowledge of him, otherwise it is a dead work. 11. The 
doctrines of Moses and the Prophets have a hidden sense, 
beside the obvious and literal, and from that hidden sense 
flows that knowledge of God. III. The comments of the 
Talmud are ftdl of errors, and lead to immorality. IV. 


There is one God, Creator and Preserver of all. V. God 
manifests himself in three Persons, (probably, in their minds, 
fi"*:©, or faces, which leaves room for a definition widely diflfer- 
ing from the meaning of ibndajaais in Greek, or person in 
English.) VI. God revealed himself on earth as man, (prob- 
ably the Adam Kadmon, as indwelling in Adam before the 
fisdl ;) he laid aside this form after the fall ; but he took it 
again afterwards, for the purpose of an atonement. VII. 
Jerusalem will never be re built ; no carnal Messiah is to be 
expected ; but God will once more appear in human form, to 
deliver all men from sin. This is doubtless the most fitv- 
orable exposition of their tenets, made to suit the taste of 
the Bishop. It remains true, however, that they have very 
much in common, in their views of the Divine Being, and of 
the person and character of the Messiah, with the Ebionites, 
the Nazareans, the Valentinians and other Gnostics. 

I now give the promised communication. Writing, as I 
do, under the pressure of other avocations, I shall probably 
add but little to it, by way of elucidation. Some of its 
mysterious hints I do not comprehend ; but I hope that 
wnat is intelligible of it, may still prove enough to reward 

The only thing I have to add, in order to place this paper 
in its proper light, is, that the Messiah so often referred to 
in it, was declared orally, by the author of it, to be Jesus 
of Nazareth, and not as we might have suspected, the leader 
of their sect, namely, the famous Shabbathai Zevi. 

ye truth-seeking men I As mine ears have heard a few 
words concerning you, and my heart has rejoiced, I also, 
one of those known to you, have in some sort advanced one 
word out of a thousand. 

A kingdom divided by a water has become two, so that 
from each shore of its division I make known to you a little 

1 hope that with (hearing) thus much, if any man has his 
eyes in his head, hia heart wUl rejoice. 

* The lenie of this panuraph, wbidi ia expressed very awkwardly and ob- 
teoreij, I do not underBtand. 

TOL, n. 8 


Now, first, it is to be known, that the knowledge of wis- 
dom is a garden, which is called Paradise. And in this 
garden-like world there have entered four (kinds of) persons 
upon an Unknown, (a mysterious existence). One died, an- 
other became deranged, a third denied the faith ; but one 
entered in peace, and went out in peace. On this account, 
one of the teachers says, " Blessed is he who enters in peace, 
and goes out in peace."* 

Behold, this garden is the Book of God, which consists 
of forty-eight boJiir and five volumes, so that it makes 
fifty -three.f In reference to that, it is said, " God planted a 
garden." As for the first garden, its computation is fifty- 
three.:]: This proves that that garden is a book. And in 
this garden there are found fifty kinds of eatable fruit, 
because the word earth makes fifty ;§ therefore it brought 
forth according to its power, and learned men have taught 
that there are fifty kinds of eatable fruit-trees. This may 
appear much, but what remains of them, now, follows the 
number thirty, and these thirty are divided into three divis- 
ions, of ten kinds each. So that first come apples, raisins, 
figs, and fruits like unto these, which are eaten entire. These 
are ten. The second kind numbers ten, namely, filberts, 
almonds, walnuts, and such like, and what is eatable in them 
is within a shell. TTie third kind numbers ten, namely, 
dates, plums, olives, and such like. They are also ten, and 
that which is eatable of these is outside oi a shell, (or stone). 
All these together are thirty kinds ; and although they are 
three tens, they are divided into three kinds. And there 
are in the world thirteen kinds of herbs ; there are indeed 
many others besides, still these are superior. And there 
are seven other kinds of food. All these make fifty in num- 
ber. In reference to all these the true Lord God Most High 
commanded our father Adam, that he might eat of all the 

* lliis little allegory renmids us of the Tabula CebetU. The quotation may 
be from Psalm cxxL 8. 

f What this division of the Old Testament means, I do not understand ; nor 
do I know what to make of the expression "bahir," for the connection in 
which it stands excludes any reference to the Kabbalistic Book Bahir, men- 
tioned above. There is probably a mistake, here, in the original, which I am 
unable to rectify. 

X The word for garden, M, gan, stands in the Hebrew numeral system for 68, 

} being 3, and t, 60. 

§ The word for earth, HOIK, makes 60. 


trees in the garden. There are of eatable trees fifty kinds, 
which are all in the garden of wisdom. Behold, my friend. 
and know, that however many prophets, and wise men, and 
perfect men, have come, they have all eaten of the delicious 
fruits of the trees of this garden ; some of one kind only, 
some of five, some of fifteen, according to the ability of 
each. But Moses attained to forty -nine kinds, that is, one 
less than fifty. But as for the fiftieth, which is wheat, also 
called bread, none but he whom God hath sent knows, or 
can eat, that bread. Therefore said Adam, " I have eaten, 
and I shall eat." Adam, by eating this, (probably the fiftieth 
kind,) did sin ; but the one coming after him, the Messiah 
sent of God, he, making up for that sin, saved the world 
from the power of the enemy, and from his captivity. 
Behold, my fiiend is after a significant vision, as it were. 
These woras are a kind of vision. Blessed is he who un- 
derstands the significancy of it I 

And the Messiah, by his own power, has pardoned and 
remitted all manner of sins, and by the waters of his fountain, 
has purified our souls ; has made Known and manifested to us, 
afterwards, the Creator of the earth and the heavens, and thus 
has made our souls to be, again, gifl;ed and happy. For this 
is clear, namely, the soul is spiritual, and therefore nothing 
can make it happy, except the knowledge of the true God. 
If thou askest the question, whether, if a man should perform 
a good action, his soul is not rendered happy by it? (the 
answer is,) This is true; but the good deed of the man 
came from his knowing God. If a man does not know 
God, no good action will ever come from him. It is a 
deliberate word ; a good work comes from the knowledge 
of God, and if a man should say, I know God, without 
believing in the Messiah, this is beyond question contrary 
to the truth. We must first believe in him, then, by his 
kindness, learn to know God, to know him and to serve 
him. And that the faith in him whom he has sent, comes 
from knowing him, (God.) is clear from this, that the Lord 
God has thus said, " From the trunk of Jesse a rod shall 
come forth, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. The 
Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom 
and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of might, the 
Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord."* Behold, 

* Isaiah zL I, 2. 


the Spirit is four-fold, and the Second Verse says of this 
Spirit, " Tlie Spirit of God moved upon the deep." When 
the worlds were not yet, that Spirit was, and of this Spirit 
the void (chaos) was full ; he laid hold upon what was in- 
tangible ; darkness became light. With this Spirit was the 
First, (Adam ?) and so also was the Last. Therefore it is said, 
" The Urst represents the last." And besides this it is said, 
" The Spirit, (wind,) comes from the four winds."* The ex- 

Elanation of this word is, that the excellent name of the 
ord Most High, sii?T», has four letters. From these four 
letters comes this Spirit. The Lord declares, and says, 
** Behold, as for him who is sent from God, unto him will 
I give this Spirit ;" he says, " I will pour out my Spirit upon 
you, and ye shall livc."t How blessed are those who accept 
the Spirit of the Lord Most High, and believe in him 1 And 
on this account, the Lord has said, " He who is sent by me 
wall delight in nothing, but in the fear of the Lord. He will 
not judge after the sight of his eyes, nor reprove after the 
hearing of his ears. But he will judge the poor according 
to righteousness, and administer the rights of the meek of 
the earth in justice. He will smite the earth with the rod 
of his mouth, and slay, with the breath of his lips, the 
w^icked.":j: And by this it is easily understood, that to 
believe in him is a duty, and that, without knowing him, 
there is no possibility of knowing God. And on this 
account, the possessors of knowledge, who are the family of 
perfection, have made a saying, njmiely, "With Adam late 
the (forbidden) meat; witli Noah I fell into the full bowl; 
thrice 1 came into the world ; once more I must come." 
Behold, my friend, and understand that saying by this text; 
for why does he say, " He made them male and female, and 
he called their name man, (finJ*, Adam)T'' As to this verse 
there is a question, for every man is a man, but he has still 
another name. But for that man whom he created with his 
own hands, he created no other name, but called him merely 
Adam, so that we might understand and know, from the 
nature of tlie very letters, that Adam, t]iJ<, has three letters ; 
the aH] ^, is Adam, the (/a/, i, is David, and the mem, b, 
is the Messiah. Behold, the knowledge of this men receive ; 
it is mysterious, passing from one understanding mind to 

* Ezekiel xxzvil 9. f Id. xxxvil 5. % Isaiah xi. 8, 4. 


another, and from one endowed with sight to another. It 
is a plain proof that the first one who was Adam, (man,) is 
that one ; and afterwards comes from the stem of Jesse a 
rod, which is David ; and the branch growing out of him is 
the one coming afterwards, the Most Holy.* In reference 
to him, it is said, " I am the First," that is, I am that Adam, 
(man,) who is first of all,f and " I am the Last," that is, I 
came last of all ; " and beside me there is no God, "J which 
means, beside me there is no one who makes God known. 
He it is who makes the Lord known to ns. And the Lord 
has thus said, concerning him, " Therefore shall the Lord 
for his own sake give you a sign. Behold, a virgin shall be 
with child, and shall bear a son, and shall call his name 
Immanuel."§ ye blind 1 open your eyes, and behold 
him. We have not said it, but the Lord has commanded it, 
and has called him "my rio^hteous (servant).''! And he is 
that righteous one of whom he said, " The just one shall live 
by his faith."^ A mysterious word ! That "just one" is 
the Messiah, who is now alive by his faith, and who quick- 
ens and justifies all who are just, by this faith.** And how 
blessed are all those who live by this faith I Concerning 
these, he has said, " Ye who cleave to your Lord, are safe. 
Now this means, indeed, that they are buried under the 
groimd, but yet, however many departed with this faith, that 
they are even now alive, and shall never perish. And on 
this account, Solomon said, " I praise the dead, who have 
died already, more than the living, who are now in life."f f 
This means, as for those dead, who departed in the faith, 
their praise is greater than the praise of those who live, 
but have no faith. Therefore, if there be no faith in a man, 
there cannot possibly be any good works. And thou must 
know that faith is a tree; and therefore is its computa- 
tion one with that of faith,:|::|: and faith is called the tree 
of life. And thus a verse says,*" This is the tree of life to 

♦ Daniel ix 24. 

t [UEfMm DIK, the first Adam of the Kabbala. 

X httiah zliv. 6. § Isaiah yil 14. | Isaiah liil 11. 

^ Habakkuk il 4. 

** That is, who quickens and justifies, by this faith, all the righteons. 
f f Ecclesiastes iv. 2. 

XX What manner of mysteriouB Rabbinic computation is referred to here, 
I do not know. 


those that embrace her." And to our sire Adam it was 
said, '^ The tree of life, in the midst of the garden." Behold, 
the garden is a book, and the tree of life is faith. Behold, 
my iriend, this tree of life which is in the midst of the 
garden, is our faith. Behold, the Lord has said concerning 
this, '' As often as a man, (or Adam,) shall stretch forth his 
hand, and take of its fruit, and eat, he shall live forever." 

Now, as for this faith which is a tree, its root is the first 
letter, (•>,) in the Lord's excellent name, (mrr*). And the 
stem, or upright part, of the tree of life, they made in five 
hundred years one,*^ which means that the stem is the 
second letter, (n). The tree itself is the third letter, (i). 
The fruit is the fourth letter, (n).t 

This renders it quite plain that faith, which is a tree, is 
the Lord's name ; and our faith is that tree. Therefore, no 
service is acceptable to the Lord, difterent fi-om these three 
things. These three things have their beginning in the 
heart, their confession by the tongue follows, and the works 
of the hands make the end. If these three exist, then faith is 
right. First, a firm faith in the heart is the root of the tree, 
hidden and buried ; the confession of the tongue is the tree 
itself; and the works are the fi'uit of it. In reference to this, it 
is said, '^ Every man shall eat of the works of his own hands." J 
These three make one tree, and the true faith is that which 
is bound up in the Lord's name," (mrT»).§ As for those meu 
who confess with the tongue the faith which they have, 
and who do works according to their confession, of those 
men God says, " Ye are men," men who are the children of 
God ; and tliey are those who are attached to his Messiah. 
It is tlie desire of God, that a man should have faith. To 
these men God said, *' Ye are my children." And as con- 

* Here the manuscript makes no sense. 

f This whole speculation is unintelligible, except so fjir as the writer labors 
to make the name Jehovah symbolical of the different stages of a life of faith. 

\ Psahn cxxviii. 2 ; Isaiah iii. 10. 

g The Book Zohar on Deuteronomy, fol. 127, coL 503, says about mTT* "KTI 
KTI' J<ini 'in i<ni rrn," that is, he was, and he is, and he will be. This 
designation of God as him that was, is, and is to be, we find frequently in the 
Kabbala. But it is not there only. I add another Rabbinic passage, because 
of its extniordiiuuy chiu-acter, namelv, that of Saarliah Oaon, quoted by 
Stollberg, Rel. Jcftu. I. 388, and Baehr, Synibolik des Mas. Cult, I. 166, "These 
three lights are one ; their relation to one another is that of unity ; they are 
the uniting and the united ;" and again, " They are beginning, middle, and 
end; they are one point; this is the Lord of the world." 


ceming belief in his Messiah, God has said, " Behold my 
servant whom I uphold, mine elect in whom my soul 
delighteth ; I have poured upon him my Spirit, that he may 
bring forth judgment unto the Gentiles. He shall not cry, 
nor, lifting up his voice in the streets, cause it to be heard. 
The bruised reed he shall not break, and the smoking 
wick he shall not quench. He shall bring forth judgment 
unto truth. He shaU not grow tired, (neglectfiil,) neither 
weary, (disgusted,) to put judgment in the earth, and the 
islands shall wait for thy law. And that Lord who created 
the heavens, and spread them out, and made the earth, and 
the things that grow therein, who giveth soul (breath) to the 
people upon it, and spirit to those who are in it, the 
Iiord God, saith also, *I, the Lord God, ^dll call thee in 
righteousness, and take thee by the hand, and will preserve 
thee, and will give thee for a covenant to the people, and 
for a light to the Gentiles ; that thou mayest open tne blind 
eves, and bring out the prisoner from the chains, and those 
that sit in darkness, from the prison-house. I am the Lord, 
this is my name. My glorv will I not give to another, nor 
mine honor to idols. * On this account, the Gospel also 
says, ** Holy is he who cometh in the name of the Lord." And 
the Lord said, " This is my name." About this, the Lord 
has said, "The just one is the foundation of the worid."t 
Whatever kind of burden exists, he has borne it upon him- 
selfj and taking upon himself the sins of all those who believe 

in him, he ever asks pardon for us from his Lord, (^^..^^Vjo). 
And thus some have indicated, that God together with all 
things, constitutes one edifice. That just one is the founda- 
tion of that edifice ; so that the edifice is indeed greater 
than the foundation, but the foundation is that which sup- 
ports the edifice ; and the foundation is the expositor.:}: An 
edifice, without a foundation, is no edifice at all ; this is plain. 
To say, there is a God, without that just one, is like say- 
ing, there is an edifice without a foundation, and is a lying 
testimony. It is necessary that we should first have fidth 

• Igaiah xlii 1-8. 

J Which means the ninth Sefirah, called Foundation, and the Livinff Ood, 
whidi represents, according to some, the Messiah. The tenth Senrah is 
then the Church built upon him. 
X That is, the one making manifest the edifice. 


in him ; then, to say, " His God is,"* will be a true confession. 
Behold, my friend, there are many passages foimd to this 
effect, that we should get a knowledge of him by believinff 
in his Messiah ; and whatsoever his Messiah has commanded 
according to that we should serve him. And the Lord de- 
clares thus, " Ho, ye who are saved from amon^ the na- 
tions, assemble yourselves and come, draw near. Those who 
cany the log of a carved idol, those who pray to a god 
that cannot save, have no understanding."f Now, if it be 
asked. To whom, gathering ourselves together, shall we 
draw near? he commands, "Assemble and draw near to 
him whom I have sent, the Messiah ; for he whom I have 
sent, knows of me, and he will make it known to you, that I 
am God. And I have raised him up in righteousness, and 
will make his paths even. He will build my city, and he 
will make fi^e, without price and without reward, those 
who are persecuted and bound, saith the Lord of hosts."! 
Behold, this one will open your eyes, and ye shall see ana 
know. This is clear and obvious, that, as he said, "I have 
raised him up in righteousness," there is no other Messiah 
beside him wno is raised up in righteousness. This Lord, 
(v^x^L»,) has "made his paths even ;" he has also shown 
unto us those paths. And as concerning those paths, he 
has said, that his ways are ways of peace, and all nis paths 
are paths of pleasantness ; and in nis ways are not found 
quarrels, nor evil or wicked worki^, at all. And as for that 
he said, " He will build my citv," the city of God Most 
High is the Book of God, whicn is a city of knowledge. 
This book he has built up anew ; and God proclaimed this, 
saying, Thus shall it be ; and thus it has happened, and 
thus is our faith. And the persecuted, and tne captives, 
the Creator of all, freeing them from Satan^s power, has 
brought back. And now, my friend, he who will not listen 
to the explanation given of these passages, nor believe in 
his Messiah, nor by him know the Lord his Creator, that 
man is, beyond doubt, even now a bond-slave of Satan. 
" What is crooked cannot be made straight,"§ and in refer- 
ence to those men, God has said, " Make known, and cause 
them to draw near, yea, let them take counsel ; who is he 

* That is, he has a God to reveal f Isaiah zhr. 20. 

X Isaiah zIt. 18. § Eodeaiastes L 15. 



that declared this from fonner days, and made it known 
fix)m that time ? Is it not I, the Lord, and there is no God 
beside me!"* And God said thus, "From the rising of 
the sun to the going down of it, let them know that there 
is none beside me; I am the Lord, and there is none beside 
me." Behold, this text is to thee a sign, that in these days, 
as it may be seen, they need to know the Lord in every 
part of the world, and to believe in his Messiah. 

Thus much is sufficient. And God, in order to make him- 
self known, has thus spoken, " I am the First, and I am the 
Last, and beside me there is no God." " I am the First" 
means, I have no father, for the father of any one is his 
senior, that is, there is none before me, who should be a 
&ther unto me ; but I, the Lord, am the father of all those 
who know me. To use a comparison, it is just as with a 
silk-worm, which comes forth from the butterfly, and the 
butterfly is older than the worm, but the latter has in its 
turn produced the butterfly, and afterwards, remaining within 
that, (such being the design,) has gone abroad, in order to 
make itself known, and when it has gone abroad, has become 
two-winged. Behold, if thou takest the significance of akf 
in brie^ it means that God is one. This is the meaning of 
alrf. Behold, my friend, I have begim to speak to tnee 
about the alef; but also about the other letters thou art in 
error. " I am the Last" means, after me there is none other 
who is come forth from me, and is like unto me, so that he 
might be my son, for the son is like unto his father ; and 
therefore he nas said, *^ To whom will ye liken me ?" There 
is none other God like unto him. But us who have become 
like unto him, he has called sons. "There is no God like 
me" means, there is none who can be my brother, (fellow,)t 
for I am, and there is none like unto me, either before me, 
or coming after me, who might be my brother, (fellow). 
But ye know me, ye are my brethren. And thus a text 
speaks, saying, " For my brethren and for my companions, 
1 will now say, * Peace r "J Behold, my friend, this is the 
God whom 1 know, and there is none besides. O my 

• Isaiah zlv. 21. 

f Compare here Zecfaariah ziiL 7, and the meaning of n^739, or fellow, in 

the Hebrew Coooordance, and the reasoning of the writer may suffer yery 
% PHum OCDL 8. 

TOL. n. 4 


friends, I have not seen you, nor known vou, nor heard you, 
that I should make unto you a true (fim ?) confession. A 
man who confesses his faith, without seeing or hearing some 
thing (first), transgresses the command of God. If it be so 
decreed, and we meet one another by the compass I have 
here given, then we shall understand one another, and I 
shall inquire of the state of all who are on your side, fSar 
and near, together with peace and prayer. Amen. 

I have nothing to add, except that the hint the writer 
has given, that farther disclosures might be expected upon 
a personal acquaintance, is well calculated to excite my 
curiosity. The manner of interpreting Scripture has doubt- 
less appeared strange to some. The quotations are often 
made from memory ; but a comparison of those adduced 
with Kiefler's translation of the Old Testament into the 
Turkish, has fully convinced me that the writer of the above 
communication must be in the habitual use of that version. 
This circumstance naturally leads to various not uninteresting 
reflections, as that KicflFer's version of the Bible into Turk- 
ish is probably far more extensively used than we are aware 
of; that the leader of the followers of Shabbathai Zevi, 
using the Turkish language, cannot be very familiar with 
the original of the Hebrew Scriptures ; that consequently 
his flock understand little of it ; and other like inferences. 






(Read October 24, 1849.) 

^MW^»»^^i^^i^^^*^*^^l»»^»»^^^^^^»^^^^»V^^^^^^V^^^^V^^^IV W ^^ ^^'^^'W^'^l^^^^^^^'^^ ^^«^^i^*^^>^>^^^ 


Events are now in progress which clearly indicate that 
the energetic, intelligent, and in many respects interesting 
nation which people the islands of Japan — ^the Englishmen 
of Asia, as they nave not inaptly been termed — ^w3l not be 
allowed to remain much longer in the isolated position 
which they have preserved for the last two centuries. The 
rapid settling of the northwestern portion of the American 
continent by the enterprising inhabitants of this country, 
must lead in the natural course of events to a speedy ex- 
tension of the intercourse of Europeans and their descend- 
ants with the countries of Eastern Asia, among which 
Japan, in consequence of its prominent insular position, the 
abimdance, variety, and desirableness of its natural produc- 
tions, and the industry and ingenuity of its inhabitants, 
holds a most important rank. To the gradual but sure 
operations of this cause are to be added the eflForts which 
are continually repeated from time to time by various 
nations to open an intercourse with the Japanese, dictated 
chiefly bv commercial rivalry, and partly by scientific curi- 
ositv ana missionary zeal. 

The eflForts of Americans in this behalf in which we are 
most interested, have already assumed, during the last few 
years, a considerable .viegree of prominence ; but before 
giving an account of them, it may be well to sketch very 
briefly, by way of introduction, the principal events attend- 
ing the connexion of Europeans witn Japan. 

In the year 1542, the accidental discovery of Mendez 
Pinto laid Japan open to the Portuguese, who immediately 
began a commercial intercourse with that country. This 
led to the speedy introduction of the Jesuits, headed by the 
enthusiastic Xavier, who had great success in the so-called 
work of conversion. 


In 1580, Spain and Portugal were united under one 
crown, whicli resulted in the introduction of Spanish mer- 
chants and missionaries into Japan, along witn the Por- 
tuguese. Mutual jealousies, intrigues, and accusations were 
the consequence ; which, with the insolent conduct of the 
new comers, and above all the interference of the priests in 
the political convulsions which agitated the country at the 
close of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the 
eighteenth, produced a gradual mistrust and dislike of the 
Eoman Catholics, and of the ^aniards in particular, in the 
minds of the ruling powers. These feelings were heighten- 
ed by the representations of the Dutch, who, having escaped 
from the bloody domination of Spain, extended their com- 
mercial speculations to Japan, and established a factory on 
the island of Firando in 1609 ; in which representations it 
is supposed they were joined by their fellow-protestants the 
English, who established themselves at the same place in 
1613. After partial persecutions, an edict was issued in 
January, 1614, for the demolition of the Catholic churches, 
and the banishment of the priests. 

In 1623, the English East India Company, finding their 
establishment at Firando a losing concern, abandoned it; 
and all subsequent attempts on their part to reopen the trade 

J)roved unavailing. In 1624, the Spaniards were banished 
brever, and the ports of Japan were closed against Europe- 
ans, with the exception of Isagasaki for the Portuguese, and 
Firando for the Dutch. Severer restrictions were also laid 
upon the Chinese and Corean traders. 

In 1635, the Portuguese were confined to the artificial 
islet of Desima, constructed in front of the town of Naga- 
saki, to the great joy of their rivals, the Dutch. The arma- 
ments of their ships were now taken away while they were 
in port, and no one was allowed to speak to a native on 
religion, or to walk into the city without a guard. The fol- 
lowing year was marked by the introduction of the famous 
ceremony of trampling on the cross. In 1637, the Portu- 
guese with their priests were banished forever and forbidden 
to return ; and after a series of bloody persecutions, and a 
battle in which the Dutch lent their aid to the government, 
Christianity, such as it was, was completely extinguished 
in Japan, — another proof added to those already on record 
that persecution, to effect its object, need only be sufiiciently 


In 1640, the suspicions of the Japanese against all for- 
eigners, and especially all Christians, to which their recent 
experience had given birth, caused them to consign the 
Dutch to the prison of Desima, just emptied by the expul- 
sion of the Portuguese. To this the Dutch submitted with 
a good grace, as they were now left in sole possession of the 
European traffic with Japan ; and since that time, as is well 
known, their monopoly has never been disturbed. It is to 
the superintendants and physicians of the Dutch factory at 
Desima, to Kaempfer, Thunberg, Titsingh, Meylan, Fischer, 
DoeflF, and Von Siebold, that we owe neariy all our reliable 
knowledge of Japan for the past two hundred years. The 
annals of this factory, and the accounts of the host of hard- 
ships and annoyances to which its members are fain to sub- 
mit for the sake of commercial advantages, at one time of 
great magnitude, though now insignificant, form a most 
curious chapter of history, which cannot be dwelt upon 

The English have continued at intervals, down to the 
present day, their attempts to regain the footing in Japan 
which they soon saw tney had too hastily relinquished. 
Their ships have been treated with varying degrees of hos- 
tility or kindness, at different times ; but the result has uni- 
formly been failure, hitherto. The attempts of the Russians 
and Americans to open a communication date only from 
the close of the last century, and they have not as yet been 
more fortunate. The promised account of the most recent 
and important visits made by American vessels will now 
be given. 

In July, 1837, the ship Morrison, Capt. D. IngersoU, was 
despatched by Messrs. Olyphant & Co., an American mer- 
cantile house at Macao, to return seven shipwrecked Japanese 
who had been residing there several months, and to make use 
of the opportunity, which it was hoped might thus be afforded, 
of producing upon the Japanese government a more favora- 
ble impression of the character of foreigners, and perhaps of 
inducing them to relax their anti-social poUcy. " In order to 
take advantage of any opening, a small assortment of cloths 
was put on board, and a great variety of patterns of different 
cotton and wooUen febrics, which, from their adaptation to 
a temperate climate, were calculated to attract the attention 
of the Japanese, and induce them to trade. A list of pre- 


sents was added, consisting of a pair of globes, a telescope, 
a barometer, a coUection of American coins, some books, 
and a few paintings, ampng which was a portrait of Wash- 
ington. Documents explanatory of onr object were drawn 
up in Chinese ; one of wnich stated the names and residence 
of the seven men, and a few notices of their adventures: 
and another gave a short account of America, its commercial 
policy, that it possessed no colonies, and that the men were 
returned in a vessel of the country where they were wreck- 
ed ; and a third gave a list of the presents, together with 
the proposition, that, if it met the approbation oi the court, 
one of the party would remain in tne country, to teach the 
meaning of the books. Dr. Parker accompanied the expe- 
dition, provided with a stock of medicines and instruments, 
and a number of anatomical plates and paintings, which he 
thought would attract the notice of a people who hold the 
healing art in high estimation. He was also furnished with 
a paper stating his profession, and his willingness to practice 
gratuitously on all who had diseases."* Mr. S. Wells Wil- 
liams and the Eev. Charles Gutzlaff were also on board. 
After an interesting visit to the islands of Lew-Chew, they 
anchored, on the 30th of July, in the Bay of Yedo. No in- 
tercourse however was permitted. On tne following day, a 
brisk fire was opened upon the ship fix)m the shore, and tney 
were obliged to leave in haste. Another attempt made in 
the Bay of Kagosima met with a similar repulse : so that the 
vessel was compelled to return, bringing back the ship- 
wrecked men with her ; for after the attention these latter 
had excited, they dared not land in a secret manner, for 
fear of condign punishment by the authorities.f 

Tlie visit of the whaler Manhattan of Sag Harbor, Capt 
M. Cooper, in 1845, was on a similar errand. In the month 
of April, as Captain Cooper was proceeding towards the 
whaling regions of the Northern Ocean, he touched at the 
barren island of St. Peters, a few degrees to the South-East of 

* Chinese Repository, Yol. vi. p. 210. 

f A full* account of the voyage of the Morrison, in addition to that in the 
Repository, is given in The Claims of Japan and Malaysia upon Christendom 
exhibited in Voyages made in 1837, ete. By C. W. King and G. T. Lay. 2 vols. 
New York. 1839. Tlie reader who wishes for a fuller narrative of the inter- 
course of Europeans with Japan than that given above, will find one well 
drawn up in the first volume of this work. 


Niphon to look for turtle. He found on it eleven Japanese, 
who had been shipwrecked there some months before. 
Captain Cooper immediately formed the humane and patri- 
otic design of proceeding at once to Yedo, in order to re- 
store the shipwrecked men to their homes, and to make a 
strong and favorable impression on the government as to the 
civilization of the United States, and its friendly disposition 
towards the emperor and people of Japan ; and while on his 
way he picked up eleven more men from a junk in a sinking 
condition. Captain Cooper was treated more civilly than his 
predecessor had been. Instead of being kept in the lower 
Day, and fired upon to make him hasten his departure, his 
vessel was towea up within a furlong of the capital, and the 
shipwrecked men were allowed to land. But neither the 
captain nor the crew of the Manhattan were allowed to go 
over the ship's sides. A triple cordon of boats kept the 
strictest watch over her, day and night. They were recruit- 
ed with every thing of which they stood in need, and all re- 
mimeration was refused ; but they were told in the most ex- 
plicit terms never to come again, on any pretence, to Japan.* 
The next visit was that of the Columous and Vincennes, 
under Commodore James Biddle, in 1846, made conform- 
ably to instructions received from Secretary Bancroft. The 
Commodore judged it most advisable to proceed at once to 
the Bay of Yedo, where the vessels arrived on the 20th of 
Julv. Before anchoring, they were boarded by an officer 
with a Dutch interpreter, to whom the Commodore stated 
that the object of his visit was " to ascertain whether Japan 
had, like China, opened her ports to foreign trade, and if she 
had, to fix by treaty the conditions on which American 
vessels should trade with Japan." Copies in Chinese of the 
French, English, and American treaties with China, were 
produced for the officer's acceptance; but he declined receiv- 
mg them. The usual coraon of boats was established 
about the ships, and no one on board of them was allowed 
to go on shore. It was not till the 27th that an officer with 
a suite of eight persons came on board with the emperor's 
answer. It was to the eifect that, according to the laws of 
the country, the Japanese were not allowed to trade with 
any but the Dutch and Chinese ; and that consequently no 

* See Chinese Repository^ vol. xt. pp. 172-199. 
▼OL. n. 6 


treaty could be made with Americans. Every thing con- 
cerning foreign countries, they were told, was arranged at 
Nagasaki, and not there in the Bay. And, finally, they 
must depart as quickly as possible, and not come any more 
to Japan. 

" I stated to the officer, (says Commodore Biddle in his 
despatch,) that the United States wished to make a treaty of 
commerce with Japan, but not unless Japan also wished a 
treaty ; that I came there for information on this subject ; 
and having now ascertained that Japan is not yet prepared 
to open her ports to foreign trade, I should sail the next 
day, if weather permitted." The ships accordingly took 
their departure on the 29th.* 

In June, 1848, fifteen men deserted in three boats fi-om 
the whale-§hip Ladoga, on account of bad usage. These 
men were taken into custody by the Japanese authorities, 
and were treated in very much the same manner as Go- 
lownin and his companions were. About a month after 
this event, a solitary individual threw himself on the coast of 
Japan, for the express purpose of obtaining a knowledge of 
the country and its language by a residence there. The 
young man who ventured on this hazardous enterprise was 
the son of Archibald McDonald, Esq., formerly in the em- 
ploy of the Hudson Bay Company, at Port Colville, Colum- 
oia. He made an agreement with Captain Edwards, of the 
whaJeship Plymouth, of Sag Harbor, to be left; in a boat off 
the coast ; and he effected the landing in safety on the 2d of 
July. He likewise was placed under surveillance ; although 
his treatment, in consequence no doubt of his more prudent 
conduct, was better than that experienced by the men fix)m 
the Ladoga. 

On the 12th of February, 1849, the United States sloop 
of war Preble, Commander James Gl3mn, left: Hong Kong 
for Nagasaki, for the purpose of rescuing these men, and 
returned on the 20th of May, with the thirteen survivors of 
the Ladoga's crew, and Mr. McDonald.f By a letter from 
Mr. S. W, Williams to John R Bartlett, Esq., published in 
the Providence Journal, in September, 1849, we are informed 
that Commander Glvnn intends to recommend to the Presi- 

♦ Niles's National Register for March 20, 1847. 
f See Chinese Repontory, vol xviiL No. 7. 


dent to make a naval station at Lew-Chew. It is considered 
that the presence of a ship of war at Napa would necessarily 
impel the Japanese government to notice such an infringe- 
ment of their territory. This would lead to a request on the 
part of the Captain at the station to know the exact author- 
ity which that government held over Lew-Chew, and what 
right they had to order him oif ; since the Chinese claim 
equal power over it, and Lew-Chew could not well belong to 
both. It is easy to imagine how these negotiations would 
open opportunities for future intercourse. 

The best and most unanswerable argument in favor of 
using every righteous means for opening a regular inter- 
course between this country and Japan, as speedily as pos- 
sible, is drawn from the met that the vessels of the two 
nations frequent the same seas, and that consequently the 
accidents of navigation will often call for the exerci^ of 
benevolence on the part of both. The Japanese j unks, owinff 
to their imperfect construction, are often wrecked; and 
scarcely a year passes in which we do not read accounts of 
the rescuing of their crews, and their restoration to their 
native land, through the intervention of Americans. Such 
conduct deserves a better return than has been experienced 
by those Americans who have been cast upon the hospital- 
ity of the Japanese. Food and shelter, it is true, have been 
given them, and they have at last been allowed to depart ; 
but the long and rigid confinement, the ceaseless question- 
ing and watching, and the thousand other humiliations, 
annoyances, and privations, occasioned by the suspicions of 
their hosts as to the objects which may nave brought the 
foreigners into their country, conspire to produce the at- 
tempt to escape, which is sure to end in recapture and addi- 
tional severity. It has been conjectured, and not without 
considerable probability, that this harshness may be in part 
a retaliation for offences committed by American whalers. 
It is difficult otherwise to account for the barbarous treat- 
ment experienced by the Lawrence, Capt. Baker, of Pough- 
keepsie, which was wrecked near the Kurile islands, in 
May, 1846, only a year after Captain Cooper restored the 
twenty-two Japanese to their homes.* 

* See Memoir Oeographical^ Political^ and CommereiiU, addressed to J. K, 
Polk, Preadent of the XJnited States. By A. H. Palmer. 


The interests of humanity, then, demand that no efforts 
be spared to open and sustain a friendly communication 
between the governments of the United States and Japan, 
in order that improper conduct on the part of the seamen 
of one country, or the officials of the other, may be promptly 
made known and punished; and when this object snail 
have been secured, many solid advantages to both nations 
will necessarily ensue."^ 

A very different, but not less important, means of becom- 
ing acquainted with this singular nation, are the attempts 
now making to obtain an accurate knowledge of their lan- 
guage, which, ever since the expulsion of the Portuguese, 
has been monopolized, like the trade, by the Dutch employes 
at Desima. One of the most successful of the few scholars 
who have as yet devoted themselves to this branch of study, 
is our distinguished fellow- member, Mr. S. Wells Williams, 
of Canton. Another is the celebrated missionary and lin- 
guist, the Rev. Charles Gutzlaff. They both accompanied 
the Morrison in her expedition to Japan; and both have 
made diligent use of the shipwrecked seamen, and such 
other means as they could command, to acquire a practical 
knowledge of this difficult tongue. The deep interest which 
Mr. Williams feels in every thing that can throw light on 
the condition of Japan, and the best mode of obtaining 
access to it, is shown by the number of articles on the sub- 
ject inserted in the Chinese Bepository, with which he has 
been connected for many years, and which, consequently, 
is the most complete and authentic source of information 
respecting that country, especially as regards recent events, 
that exists in our language. The ninth volume contains a 
translation by Mr. A\^lliams of a curious Japanese treatise 
on the smelting of copper ; and in the tenth volume he has 
inserted some valuable notes on Japanese orthoepy and 
orthography. He also had a fount of types cut in the sim- 
plest or hatakana character, in the city oi New York, when 
ne revisited his native country in 184/. 

Another scholar who has devoted himself with wonder- 
ful perseverance and success to the study of the Japanese, 

♦ These are well stated in a Letter to the Hon. John M. Clayton, Secretary 
of State, enclosing a Paper geographical, political, and commercial; on the In- 
dependent Oriental Nations ; and containing a Plan for opening, extending; 
and protecting American Oommeroe in Uhe East Bj Aaron H. Palmer. 
Washington, 1849. 


is Dr. August Pfizmaier, of Vienna ; of whom I wish to 
speak more particularly. An interesting sketch of the career 
of this persevering genius is given in the Athenaeum for 
April 25, 1846, fix)m which I will extract a few particulars. 
Dr. Pfizmaier is the son of an innkeper of Carlsbad, in 
which city he was bom in 1808. At the age of nineteen, 
his passion for linguistic study had enabled him to master 
the principal languages of Europe, and then he set about 
acquiring those of the East. He began with the Turkish, 
from which he proceeded to the Arabic and Coptic. In 
1839, he published a translation of the Turkish poems of 
Lamy ; and in 1847, a Turkish Grammar, written in French. 
But for some years past, his attention appears to have been 
mainly devoted to the languages of Eastern Asia, the Chi- 
nese, Manchoo, and Japanese. The following letter, address- 
ed by Pfizmaier to the writer of the article in the Athenaeum, 
shows what had been the result of his Japanese studies, up 
to the time when it was written, and also the proficiency at 
which he had arrived in English composition. 

« Vienna, 1845. 
" I have much pleasure in answering your letter addressed to me ; and 
though my labors hitherto are not important enough to attract general 
notice, I hesitate not to give you the desired explanations. As to the 
Chinese, it is true that I formerly translated two longer [longish] pieces 
of poetry, but they are scarcely intelligible without the commentary ; 
and their subject, etc., will prevent their ever being published without 
the original, and for the use of the scholars in Chinese, as the translation 
is in €rerman. I will, if you wish, transmit you a specimen, (if you will 
pardon the venture,) translated into English verse, submitting it, as a first 
attempt, to your kind judgment In the mean time, I have obtained 
finom Paris a very rare work, known by the name of * Tso Chuen,' which 
contains memoirs of the principal feudal states of China, that would 
serve as a most interesting addition to the history of that empire, from 
1722, B. C^ to Confucius's time. As the Austrian Government has now 
taken care to get a eomjAdt sd of Chinese types, there will be every hope 
of having this work printed, with a European translation, the first pub- 
lished out of China. You are somewhat in error when speaking of 
Japanese and Chinese as having a similarity. Many Chinese words 
have been, it is true, introduced into the former language ; but by far 
the greater number of works are written in the pure and native idiom, 


which has not the least resemblaDce to the Chinese, having its own 
alphabet, composed of a very large, almost unlimited, namber of figures. 
Hitherto, only the works written in Chinese could be understood by 
European scholars, and even these, as translated by Dutch authors, could 
only be done through the medium of the interpreters of Nagasaki All 
the lighter reading, such as novels, plays, poems, etc^ have been quite 
inaccessible to the researches of the scholar; and one of the most emi- 
nent, Abel Rcmusat, endeavored in vain to get a knowledge, deeming it 
almost impossible to even compass the alphabet Since Japan has at- 
tained so high a state of civilization, and the literature of the country 
might vie with any other in fertility, and, as I supposed, in originalitjr, it 
struck and grieved me, not to have any approachable access to its trea0- 
ures ; and on investigation, I soon found that this was caused by the 
total want of any work deserving the name of a dictionary of the lan- 
guage. I therefore commenced to excerpt, for my own use, all the orig- 
inal lexicographical works of the Japanese within my reach, and by 
arranging alphabetically the words they contained, distributed according 
to subjects, I succeeded in setting down almost a complete dictionary; 
and with its help, I am now enabled to read Japanese books, though as 
yet witli some trouble ; exercise will, I hope, soon make my task an easier 
one. As to the characters, I can not only very pleasantly read them, but 
I have also engaged the Government printing-office to let cut the letters 
of the Firakana alphabets that are generally in use, so that Japanese 
works can now be printed at Vienna with moveable types. A specimen, 
consistmg of a fragment of a Japanese romance, will, in a few weeks, 
leave the press ; and I could now undertake the publication of whole 
texts, if the Government does not fear the expense. As to my diction- 
ary, I need but translate the explanations into any European language, 
(the Japanese authors themselves render them in Chinese,] to have it ready 
for publication. I am still making additions, chiefly of words which I 
find in autliors I am reading, so that it may be rendered as complete as 
possible. It contains, however, as it is, about 40,000 words, a number 
quite extraordinary; since the Vocabulary Japanese and English, by 
Medhurst, published at Batavia, 1830, only numbers 7,000, and that by 
Siebold, 1840, Leyden, (with an arrangement according to subjects, 
which makes it almost useless, and explanations chiefly in Chinese,) 
contains little more than 20,000 words. I intend to publish mine as 
soon as any Government grants me favorable terms. I trust, sir, to have 
given you the chief matter capable of interesting you bs regards my 
Oriental studies, and am,** etc. 


His Japanese studies have since been prosecuted with such 
success as to enable him, in the year 1847, to publish a work, 
to introduce which to the notice of the English-reading pub- 
lic, is the immediate object of this paper. It is entitled : 

Sachs Wandschirme in Oestalten der vergdnglichen Wdt, etc., 
L e.. Forms of the Passing World, in Six Folding-screens. 
A Japanese Romance in the original text, containing fac- 
similes of 57 Japanese Wood-cuts. Translated and edited 
by Dr. August Pfizmaier. Vienna, 1847. 

The original work was printed at Yedo, from wooden 
blocks, in the year 1821. The author's name is Riutei Tane- 
fiko, and that of the designer of the illustrative wood-cuts 
is Utakawa Toyokimi. The following explanation of the 
title is given in the preface. A Japanese proverb says, 
"Men and screens cannot stand straight," i. e., as the latter 
cannot be made to stand upright without being bent, so the 
former are unable to preserve perfect rectitude of character. 
The author has undertaken to prove that this proverb is 
erroneous, and his tale exhibits screens in forms of the 
^ssing world, i. e., human beings, of genuine uprightness. 
The expression, "six screens," refers to the six divisions of 
the book, each consisting of five double leaves, folded in 
the manner of a screen. The original work is printed in 
thirty double leaves, or, (as each leaf is printed only on one 
side,) sixty pages. Each of these pages, with the exception 
of two leaves, contains an illustrative wood-engraving, 
extending in most cases across two opposite pages. 

Dr. Pfizmaier's edition contains a reprint of the original, 
and a Grerman translation. It was his design to reproduce 
the former as exactly as possible, in form as well as in sub- 
stance. Thus, the engravings are exact copies of the origi- 
nals, the color of the ink is made to resemble that of India 
ink, and the paper and binding are imitations of the Japan- 
ese model. The title-page and the illustrations are executed 
in zinco-Uthography, and the text is printed with moveable 
typeSj the first ever constructed in Europe for this lan- 
guage.''^ They were prepared under the direction of Herr 

* It is a singular drcumstaDce that one fount should have been made in 
Xorope and another in America, at the same time. By the kindness of John 
T. Wbite, Esq^ of this city, who cut the fount for Bir. WiUiams, I have been 


Aloys Auer, who has done so much to make the Imperial 
printing-office of Vienna the first in the world, as regards 
the number and variety of its alphabets ; and they accurately 
represent the characters of the original in every respect, 
with the exception of a few of the ligatures. The Japanese 
text begins at the right side of the book, and is arranged in 
perpendicular columns, which follow each other fix)m right 
to left, in the Chinese manner; and the illustrations are 
inserted in the midst of the text, as wood-cuts are with us. 
As the shoulders of the types would not admit of the lines 
being placed as close together as in the original, the Japan- 
ese part extends to eighty -two pages ; one-fourth of wtich, 
in consequence, contain no illustrations. 

Let us now turn to the translation, which begins of course 
at the other end of the book, and with the preface, etc., makes 
fifty-four pages. In making this translation. Dr. Pfizmaier 
had difficulties of various kinds to contend with. In the 
first place, so little had been hitherto done in Europe for 
the study of the Japanese, that he was obliged to construct 
his own aids as he went along, that is, beside deciphering 
the text, he had to a)mpose a dictionary, and to divine 
most of the rules of the grammar. The language of the 
original is that commonly imderstood throughout Japan, 
but which for Europeans is the most difficult of all, since 
a knowledge of the Chinese is of very little assistance 
towards understanding it. The words from the latter lan- 
guage which frequently occur in it, are expressed in the 
syllabic character of the Japanese, and only by way of excep- 
tion, and for the sake of perspicuity, in the word-characters 
known to Sinologists. In consequence of the well known 
homophony of Chinese words, which is greatly enhanced 
by the dissimilar and varying pronunciation of the Japanese, 
those which have been introduced into their language, 
although they almost always form combinations, ca.nnot in 
general be understood, unless they are to be found written 
})h()netieally in a dictionary, together with the eorre.spond- 
ing wonl-cLaracters. But even this is often insufficient, if 
the meaning is not also given ; as to which, as the Japanese 

allowed to consult his books, from which it ap])cars that the set of seyenty 
punches was completed December 12, 1846, and the last of the charges for 
alterations, caatiog type, etc^ was made May 6, 1847. 


have much that is peculiar in this respect, the greatest 
uncertainty may exist. To the difficulties presented by 
single expressions, are to be added those of fframmar and 
style. A number of forms which essentiallj^ belonff to the 
grammar of the language, are not laid down in any book of 
instruction ; and the syntax had to be constructed from the 
foundation. Yet a knowledge of this latter department of 
grammar is here absolutely indispensable ; for tne Japanese 
language, notwithstanding its surprising richness in forms, 
has no distinction of nimiber, gender, or person; and as 
the subject of the proposition is much less frequently ex- 
pressed than in languages which, as the Latin for instance, 
accurately make these distinctions, nothing but a perfect 
knowledge of the niceties of syntax can lead one to a 
correct understanding of the sense. It also deserves to be 
mentioned, that the Japanese periods, as regards both the 
construction of the principal sentences and the parenthetical 
clauses they contain, are of excessive length, having in 
fact, as a general rule, no other limits than the termination 
of an event, or, in dialogues, the end of a speech. Hence, 
although Dr. Pfizmaier has endeavored to make his transla- 
tion perfectly faithful, it was impossible in most cases to 
follow the construction of the periods ; it was often necessary 
to break off on coming to a verb, and, in the case of paren- 
theses, to give them a different turn. Yet, notwithstanding 
these difficulties, he thinks that he has furnished a translation 
tolerably free from faults, there being only a few isolated 
expressions with respect to which he is still in doubt, as to 
whether he has hit tne right meaning. 

I will now give a sketch of the story, premising, that, in 
drawing it up, the object has been to famish an accurate 
outline of the plot, and to preserve such of the details as 
are necessary to assist those who may have an opportunity 
of inspecting the book itself, to understand the illustrations. 

Part First 

Tamontara Kadzuyosi, governor of the district of Kuanto,* 
whose palace was situated in Kamakura, had a numerous 
band oi retainers, and was a powerftd nobleman. He was 
fond of hunting, and had country-seats at various places, for 

* Comprisiiig eight proyinces lying about Tcdo. 
VOL. n. 6 


the purpose of putting up at them when on his excursions 
after game. Once, towards the end of the harvest, he went 
out on a hunting expedition to one of his chateaux, and, after 
wandering about all day, came towards dusk to a place 
called the Snipe Marsh. One of his attendants spied at 
some distance off what he took to be a snipe ; anotner said 
that it was more like a partridge, and that there were no 
snipes in that place ; whereupon a dispute arose. A lad of 
fourteen, named Simano Suke, now stepped forward, and told 
them to cease their quarrelling, for he would decide the 
matter. He let fly an arrow from his bow, and grazed the 
back of a bird on the wing. The governor was enraged at 
his impertinence in thus interfering where he was not call- 
ed upon, and wounding a bird ; but Simano told his servant 
to go and fetch the arrow. When it was brought, he laid it 
berore the governor, and told him that all he wished to do 
was to put an end to the dispute : his object was accom- 
plished, for there was a snipe's feather sticking to the 
arrow; and he had taken particular care not to nurt the 
bird. The governor became still more furious at the cool- 
ness with which the voungster put himself in the right ; he 
ordered him to quit his presence, and at the same tmie dis- 
charged Simano s father from his service. The voung man, 
without again seeing his parent, on whom he had innocently 
brought this disgrace, immediately took himself off, no one 
knew whither. 

Eight years after this, the following events took place. 
An old rice-dealer, named Kadziyemon, in the province 
of Sessiu, having no children of nis own, had aaopted a 
youth named Sakitsi. In his eightieth year, the old man 
died; whereupon his wife turned nun, assumed the reli- 

Sioufl name of Miosan, resigned the management of the 
usiness to young Sakitsi, and, retiring from intercourse 
with the world, spent her whole time in devotional exercises 
at the temple. Sakitsi, being a young man of very con- 
scientious character, devoted himself to the care of the busi- 
ness and household, with a diligence beyond his strength. 
The consequence was a severe attack of intermittent fever, 
which brought him very low. As he grew better, his 
adoptive mother, by the advice of the physician, engaged a 
merry-andrew and a young female singer to come and 
amuse him, with the hope of arousing his mind from its 



languid state. At first lie grew better ; but by the time the 
rivers began to thaw, and the cypress-hills to put on the 
appearance of spring, the state oi seclusion in which he 
lived had aggravated his lowness of spirits and the other 
symptoms of his disorder. His mother thereupon exhorted 
him to travel, for the purpose of recruiting his health ; and 
as he had some business to transact in the province of 
Yamato, he determined to make a journey thither, and visit 
the localities in that part of the country which have been 
celebrated from ancient times. He gave the shop into the 
care of a trujrtworthy person, and with a few attendants set 
out on his tour. 

In the city of Nara, situated in this last mentioned 
province, there was a certain tea-house, where a beautiful 
and amiable young maiden, of the age of seventeen, came 
every day to sing and play upon the dulcimer, accompanied 
by a little girl only four years old, who went about among 
tne company and gathered their contributions. The young 
artist's exquisite voice and skill in playing attracted a great 
deal of company to the place. Sakitsi, on coming to the 
city, happened to visit this house ; he heartily joined in the 
general feeling of admiration, and ordered his servants to 
find out who she was. They ascertained that she was a 
person of respectable birth, above the common order of 
those who exhibit their talents in such places. Her motive 
in coming there to earn money was to assist her aunt, a 
woman in poor circumstances, whose little daughter it was 
who came with her. The accoimt of this excellent conduct 
inspired Sakitsi with a great liking for the beautiful girl, 
which gradually ripened into love. Antiquities had no 
longer any charms for him ; and he visited the tea-house 
daily. He took occasion to make several presents to the 
young lady, who was called Misawo ; and as Sakitsi was a 
good-looking young fellow, his attentions excited a corre- 
sponding sentiment in her breast. 

One evening, as the company were leaving the tea-house, 
a man named Saizo, a keeper of a hoiLse of entertainment 
in the seaport of Simano Utsi, a part of the town of Naniwa, 
called Misawo aside, and spoke with her privately. It ap- 
peared from their conversation, that she had agreed to bind 
nerself to the service of Saizo, and was to receive, as the 


price of her freedom, a hundred taels.* Before parting, they 
settled that Saizo should call at her dwelling the next 
evening, receive from Misawo the written document he had 
drawn up and given her to sign, pay over to her the money, 
and take her with him. All this w^as to be managed with- 
out the knowledge of her family, for whom Misawo was 
now sacrilicing herself. 

To explain the reasons for her conduct, it will be neces- 
sary to describe the situation of the fiimily more fully. A 
man named Tofei, now a sedan-bearer in the city of Nara, 
the present scene of the story, had formerly been a foot- 
soldier in the service of Kadzumura Teidaifu, a military 
commander in Kuanto. He there fell in love with Fanayo, 
his commander's sister-in-law, and they ran away togetner 
to Nara, where Fanayo soon presented him with a daughter, 
now four years old, and named KoyosL Tofei had living 
with him his mother, named Kutsiwa, who, after suffering 
for many years from a disease of the eyes, was left totally 
blind. But this was not the only trouble of the worthy 
couple. After they had been for some time at their new 
place of abode, they learnt that Tofei's old master, Teidaifu, 
had been deprived of his command, in consequence of 
haviug offended his superior in authority, and was reduced 
to poverty. Now Fanayo, ever since her running away, 
had kept up a correspondence by letter with her sister, and, 
to prevent any uneasiness respecting her fate, had assured 
her that she and her husband were doing well. When 
therefore Teidaifu lost his means of subsistence, and had no 
prospect of supporting his daughter Misawo comfortably, 
lie sulYered himself to be persuaded by his wife to commit 
her to the care of Fanayo and her husband. They both 
loved her very much, and Tofei felt an especial respect for 
her as the daughter of his old commander. He labored 
hard to maintain his family decently, but instead of being 
able to lay by any thing, his earnings were barely sufficient 
to support them from day to day ; and as his mother's long 
illness often prevented him from attending to his business, 
he was at length obliged to sell some of his furniture to keep 
them all from starving. Misawo could not bear to witness 
the distress of the household, without making an effort to 

♦ Very nearly a hundred and forty dollars of our currency. 


relieve it ; wliich caused her to hit upon the plan of turning 
her accomplishments to account, by playing and singing 
in the tea-house. Her daily absences were accounted fot 
by pretending that to procure from Heaven the restoration 
of the family to their former home and condition, and the 
recovery of the old lady's eyesight, she had made a vow- 
to visit the temple of Nanyen (which stood near the tea- 
house) two days m succession, and there to read the Prayer 
Book of a Hundred Chapters. The small change collected 
by little Koyosi she converted into gold, which she gave to 
her aunt under the name of remittances received from home. 

But notwithstanding these exertions and sacrifices, in 
consequence of the continued illness of the old lady, the 
house remained nearly destitute of furniture and comforts ; 
and when Saizo proposed to her to sell herself into his ser- 
vice, she consented, thinking that she would thus relieve 
her relatives from the burden of maintaining her, and that 
the price of her liberty would furnish the means of restoring 
the old grandmother to health. She accordingly made all 
the necessary arrangements for putting her generous design 
into execution, concealing her own agony of mind at the 
prospect of parting with her kindred and ajb the fate which 
awaited her, under her usual gay and pleasing exterior. 

On the morning when Saizo was expected, which was the 
day of the peach-festival, Koyosi was playing with several 
dolls which she had arranged on her mother's dressing table ; 
and as she had only one peach for herself, and none to give 
to her mute little ones, she undertook to entertain them by 
telling some stories out of her picture-book, called The 
Parents of the Flowery Field. Tofei, after paying his usual 
morning-respects to his mother, took the sedan on his shoul- 
der, and went forth to his work. It now remained to get 
Fanayo out of the way. Misawo accordingly feigned indis- 
position, and begged her aunt to visit the temple in her 
stead. She consented and went, telling Misawo to take 
good care of herself and give the old lady her medicine, 
and bidding Koyosi be a good girl. 

Saizo soon arrived, and brought with him the hundred 
taels, which Misawo put, together with a letter to her rela- 
tives, into the drawer of a small chest, on the lid of which 
was the figure of a dog reclining. They had some difficulty 
in quieting the suspicions of old dame Kutsiwa, who came 


out of her bed, groping about, and wanting to know what 
was going on. Saizo said he had come with a magnificent 
sedan to take Misawo to a lady of rank, the wife of a high 
judicial functionary, who desired to engage her as one of 
her attendants. He blundered several times in his story, 
as he attempted to answer the questions which the old laay 
put to him, but was helped through by the ready wit of 
Misawo. This was not all; for Kutsiwa, supposing that 
Misawo must have on a very grand dress for such an occa- 
sion, took it into her head to examine the quality of the stufC 
But Misawo escaped this danger, by snatching the covering 
from the domestic altar of Buddha, and placing it on her 
knee ; and the old lady, on feeling it, was quite delighted 
to find her so comfortably and handsomely clad. Misawo, 
suppressing all outward marks of grief as well as she was 
able, beckoned little Koyosi out into the hall, and said to 
her, " When your father and mother come home and want 
to know where I am, repeat to them the explanation of this 
page in the Picture-book of the Flowery Dwelling, fit)m 
which I have been accustomed to give you instruction every 

Scarcely were they gone, when Tofei returned in search 
of his pipe, which he had forgotten. On hearing from his 
mother of Misawo's departure, it occurred to him that near 
the house he had passed a large sedan, the occupant of which 
suddenly drew down the blind at his approach. He was 
hastening out of the house to go in search oi it, when Koyosi 
ran to him, and said she could tell him where Misawo was 
gone. Her father bade her do so immediately; whereupon 
she took up her picture-book, and began to repeat with in- 
fantile sim]:)licity, " Once upon a time. Her mther's impa- 
tience could not brook this. He bade her never mind the 
story, but tell him, like a good child, where her cousin was. 
She rej)lied that Misawo had told her to repeat this story, 
which would show whither she was gone. As her father 
saw no remedy but submission, he let her go on, which she 
did as follows : " Once upon a time, there was a man named 
Sioziki Dzitsi-i, who saved the life of a little puppy, and 
took him home and reared him. When he had grown up 
to be a big dog, he one day said to Dzitsi-i, * H you will go 
out with me to-morrow, and dig at the place where I throw 
myself down, and follow the (firections I give you' — ^Here 


he awoke from his dream, and as soon as it began to grow 
light, he went out with his dog, and dug at the place where 
the latter lay down. After digging a while, he came to a 
great quantity of gold pieces, and so was made rich all at 
once." After impatiently hearing the child to an end, Tofei, 
who could make nothing of it, was rushing towards the door, 
to set out on his search for the fugitive, when he stumbled 
over the dog-chest, and the money fell out, thus explaining 
the meaning of the story. He sat down, and was weeping 
over the letter in which Misawo related the real state of the 
case, and her motives for the step she had taken, when his 
wife returned home. Tofei was for taking the money with 
him and starting off to Utsimo Sima, for the purpose of 
refunding the money and annulling the contract. But his 
wife convinced him that this could not be done ; that the 
contract having been formally made, not twice the money 
would suffice to cancel it ; and that their only course was 
to set themselves up in business with the means thus placed 
at their disposal, as Misawo had recommended in her letter, 
and when tney had acquired enough, to leave no eflfort un- 
made to recover the generous ffirl's freedom. He perceived 
the correctness of his wife's aavice, and acted accordingly. 
They immediately set off, and paid a visit to Misawo ; who 
silenced their expressions of concern at the sacrifice she had 
made, by telling them she regarded what she had done 
simply as an act of filial duty towards her absent mother. 
With the money thus obtained, the old lady after a while 
was cured of her blindness ; and then Tofei and his wife 
removed, and set up a house of entertainment in the harbor 
of Naniwa, for the double purpose of being near their 
niece and of earning the wherewithal to purchase back her 

Misawo, when the time arrived for changing her name, 
[as is customary with every one in Japan, at the age of 
twenty,] took that of Komatsu. Her lover, Sakitsi, who 
had long sought her in vain after her mysterious disappear- 
ance, had now returned home to Simano Utsi, and conse- 
quently was again in her vicinity ; but he was not aware of 
it, and as his business often called him to other parts of the 
country, he was thus prevented from meeting her. 


Part Second, 

On a certain cky, five years after the occurrences just 
mentioned, Komatsu, on returning home from a visit to a 
temple, met her aunt Wofana ;* and the latter asked her to 
accompany her home, where Woyosif was alone, practising 
her singing-lesson. Just as they arrived there, they perceivea 
Tofei, and three persons with him, getting out of a boat at 
the landing-place in front of the house. These were no 
other than Sakitsi and two of his friends. As they drew 
near the house to take some refreshment, Komatsu recog- 
nised her lover; the ladies retired within doors, and Ko- 
matsu gave her aunt an account of Sakitsi, and of his former 
attentions to her. As the gentlemen sat talking over their 
wine, without observing the presence of the ladies in a dis- 
tant part of the room, the conversation turned on the songs 
of a favorite Japanase poet, and on a certain female singer 
of repute, named Komatsu. Sakitsi said he had not seen 
her, and was making some not very respectful remarks on 
persons of her profession in general, when suddenly his eye 
alighted on our heroine, in whom he immediately recognised 
the long-lost mistress of his affections. 

As may be supposed, he lost no time in seeking an inter- 
view with Komatsu, and making a formal declaration of his 
passion. He had also the happiness of learning from her, 
after some bantering on the subject of his recent remarks, 
that his love was returned ; in proof of which she showed 
him a paper, containing questions about her lover, with 
which she had been a hundred times to the temple of Aizen, 
and the responses she had received. The consequence was 
that Sakitsi neglected every thing else, to enjoy the pleasure 
of her society, and lavished his money in taking her about 
from place to place. When his mother Miosan heard of 
this, sne determined to trust him no longer out of her sight ; 
and accordingly she sliut him up in his chamber, where his 
only consolation consisted in the many beautiful letters which 
his friend the physician secretly brought him from Komatsu. 

* This is made by contracting her former name Fanajo, and prefixing the 
particle too, which is placed, for the sake of distinction, before female name& 

f This name is made from Kojoei, by substituting the prefix wo for ko^ 
which latter means *^ little.** 


One day, as Miosan was remonstrating with him on the im- 
prudence and want of moderation of his conduct, a woman 
disguised as a fortune-teller came to the door, saying that 
she had been sent for by Sakitsi to perform a conjuration, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the cause of his illness. It 
was Wofana in disguise, who came to bring him tidings 
of importance from his mistress. When the old lady had 
been with difficulty got out of the way, Wofana told him 
that Komatsu's father had been taken into favor again by 
his superior, and restored to his former position ; and that 
a young man named Yukimuro Riusuke, the foster-brother 
of Komatsu, had come to take her back to her father, who 
had affianced her to the son of a wealthy neighbor. She 
told him also that Riusuke, as soon as he was informed of 
the present servile condition of Komatsu, had taken steps 
to procure the money for her freedom : thus the long cher- 
ished design of Wofana and her husband, of freeing her 
themselves, would be frustrated ; in which case, they would 
never dare to show themselves before the face of the old, 
officer. Moreover, Komatsu had declared that she would 
die rather than break her plighted faith to Sakitsi. The 
object of Wofana, in coming to him, was to inform Sakitsi 
of these facts, and to let him know that Komatsu would be 
that evening at a neighboring house, where the pressing 
nature of the circumstances made it necessary that he shoula 
meet her. 

In the evening, Sakitsi, having obtained Miosan's permis- 
sion, and being furnished by her liberality with the sum of 
one hundred taels, sallied forth to the neighbor's house, 
where Komatsu was already seated at the window, anxiously 
awaiting his arrival. As he drew near and spoke to her, a 
dog sprang forth and barked ftiriously. Saldtsi threw a 
stone at him, and in so doing the packet of gold fell from 
his bosom to the ground. Not perceiving the accident in 
the dark, he caught up the packet also,, thinking it was a 
stone, and threw it at the dog. As he did so, he heard a 
sleepy voice exclaim, from a boat lying at the shore near 
by, "Hola, woman! what are you throwing out here?" 
d[e made no reply, but slipped into the house, where he 
found Komatsu m a state of great agitation. She confirmed 
the account of Wofana; and expressed her determination, 
much as she loved and revered ner parents and longed to 

TOL. n. 7 


see them again, to die rather than return home and wed 
another. Sakitsi bade her be of good cheer. He told her 
that the money he had brought with him would enable her 
aunt to purchase back hej: freedom, in which case she would 
be under no necessity of going home against her will. But 
when he was about to produce the gold, he discovered to 
his horror that it was gone. This last blow of misfortune 
drove the lovers to despair, and they resolved to put an end 
to their lives together. 

At this juncture, they heard the voice of persons ap- 
proaching the house. Komatsu hastily concealed her lover 
under a dresser, and endeavored to remove the traces of her 
recent agitation. The new comers proved to be Wofana 
and Yukimuro Riusuke. The latter announced that he 
had just obtained and paid over the money for Komatsu's 
release, so that from that evening forth sTie was free. The 
joy this news was calculated to excite, was more than coim- 
terbalanced by the obligation it imposed on Komatsu of 
going home with Kiusuke. Both she and her aunt besought 
him to return to her parents, and tell them that Misawo 
was already engaged to be married, that she was sick, dead, 
any thing, rather than force her to accompany him back. 
Riusuke, however, was firm in urging the superior claims of 
filial duty over love. He depicted the ardent longing with 
which her parents counted the days till her return, and the 
despair into which her undutiful conduct would throw them. 
Komatsu feigned to be convinced by his arguments, and 
promised to set-out with him for Kamakura the following 
morning. Satisfied with this assurance, Eiusuke took leave 
of her along with Wofana, whom he was to accompany to 
her own home. 

Sakitsi then came forth from his hiding-place, and the 
two lovers, hand in hand, fled from the house along the 
shore. As they wandered along, they perceived people 
with lanterns, belonging to the house they had left, wTio 
were evidently in search of them. The fugitives were then 
near Tofei's house ; and as all was silent about it, they pro- 
posed to take refuge there. Sakitsi told his companion to 
conceal herself, while he went forward and reconnoitred. 
He found no one at home but Woyosi ; who informed him 
that her father and mother, learning that Komatsu had run 
away, were gone in search of her. Woyosi was longing to 


ffo out and listen to the singers on a neiglibor s balcony, it 
being the night of a festival ; but was obliged to stay in 
doors, as there was no one but herself to mind the house. 
Sakitsi told her she might go, and he would take charge of 
it in her absence, — a permission of which she gladly availed 

As soon as she was gone, he brought Komatsu into an 
inner apartment ; and as they sat there in silence, and listened 
to the chant of the choristers which described the vain and 
fleeting nature of earthly things, the gentle Komatsu melted 
into tears at the thought of the fate she was bringing on her 
beloved. This reminded Sakitsi of the unfortunate loss occa- 
sioned by the barking of the dog ; and seeing before him the 
little dog-chest, which had been preserved by Tofei and his 
wife in grateful remembrance of the self-sacrihce of Komatsu, 
he in his rage struck the mute image a violent blow. Great 
was his surprise when out rolled the identical packet of money 
which he had thrown away, and which he afterwards learnt 
had fallen into Tofei's boat, as he lay there waiting for some 

{)assengers. He regarded this unlookcd for piece of good 
brtune as a happy omen ; and he now besought Komatsu 
to read the letter brought by Eiusuke from her mother, 
which she had not yet had courage to open. The account 
of the preparations making by Kutsiwa for her daughter's 
reception grieved the heart of Komatsu, as she thought 
of the terrible blow her death would give to her affection- 
ate parent. But as she 'read on, Sakitsi learned to his 
unbounded delight, that the bride-groom to whom she had 
been betrothed in her third year, was Simano Suke, the 
youth whose expcrtness in archery had brought him into 
disgrace with his lord. The latter, Kutsiwa proceeded to 
say, was now willing to forgive the youth; and as soon 
as he could be found, the wedding would be celebrated. 
Sakitsi informed the astonished Komatsu that he himself 
was the young man spoken of. As she had never disclosed 
to him her family name, he had been prevented from recog- 
nising, in the object of his affections, his long affianced 

Of course all their sorrow was now turned into joy ; nor 
had they suffered in vain, since the trials they had under- 
gone haid thoroughly tested the strength and constancy of 
their affections. Our friends immediately set off together 


for Kamakura ; there the meeting between the parents and 
their children was of a joyful and aflecting nature, such as 
words are inadequate to describe. The old Commander was 
in ecstacies at the hapi)y turn which aflairs at length had 
taken, and he presided at the wedding with great glee. 
Tofei was also restored to favor, and he and Wofana were 
pet up in the rice establishment formerly kept by Miosan. 
Being all distinguished for filial duty and affection, they 
were blessed with a numerous oflfepring, and led hencefor- 
ward peaceful and happy lives. 

The Japanese would seem to be very fond of seasoning 
their conversation with proverbs, from the number of these 
specimens of ancient wisdom which the book contains. 
The wit of the piece seems to consist in certain plays upon 
the meaning of proper ntunes and other words, and in a 
variety of innocent deceptions ])ractised by the characters 
upon each other, to free themselves from the dilemmas into 
wliich they are brought. Notwithstanding the pains be- 
stowed by Dr. Pfizmaier on his translation, it must be con- 
fessed that it is very obscure, and sometimes quite unintelli- 
gi])le ; which without doubt is owing to the meagre nature 
of the helps at his command. Indeed, to render all the allu- 
sions perleclly intelligible to an Occidental reader, would 
re(pure a body of annotation at least as large as the book 
itself. But for this the materials do not yet exist ; even the 
names of tlie towns, rivers, etc., mentioned in the tale, are 
not all to be found on any European map. Yet, in spite of 
these diHiculties and drawbacks incident to the incipient 
state of the study, an attentive perusal of the work as it is 
affords no little insight into the social condition of Japan^ 
which, amidst all its peculiarities, bears a curious resemblance 
to that of Europe in the feudal ages. 

The wood -cuts, too, as re.spects the amount of information 
,they convey, are nearly as valuable as the text ; they aflbrd 
many interesting illustrations of the descriptions we possess 
of the dresses, furniture, and domestic manners of the peo- 
ple. A lithograph of one of these cuts is here given, as a 
specimen. In the original, it is cut into two, down the 
middle, the two halves being placed on two opposite pages ; 


and the Japanese text fills up all the space which in onr 
copy appears blank. It represents the household of Tofei 
on the morning when Saizo was to come. To the right, 
Misawo is handing a drink to old dame Kutsiwa. Koyosi 
is playing with her dolls ; and near her, on the floor, are 
the little dog-chest and her picture-book. In the centre, 
Fanayo, with a prayer-book in her hand, is preparing to go 
to the temple ; and on the left, are Tofei and his sedan. In 
the background, over the head of Misawo, is a recess ^form- 
ing a sort of domestic altar, where the follower of the Sintoo, 
or ancient national religion of the Japanese, pays his devo- 
tions. It is thus described by Dr. Gr. H. Burger: "In the 
worship of the kami^ (spirits or gods,) particular dwellings 
for them are erected on earth, which are called miya ; these 
are temples of various sizes, and built of wood, — the smaller 
of lignum vitae, the larger of cypress. In the centre of 
them, slips of paper fastened to pieces of Ugnum vitaB are 
deposited as emblems of the godhead, and called gohei. 
These gohei are to be found in every Japanese house, where 
they are preserved in small shrines, on an elevated spot. 
On both sides of the miya stand flower-pots with green 
boughs, generally of the myrtle or pine, then two lamps, a 
cup of tea, and several vessels filled with the liquor sake. 
Here every Japanese, morning and evening, oflers his 
pravers to the creator, Ten-syoo-dai-zui."* 

Among the things in this picture that most deserve no- 
tice, are the varieties of head-dress of the different charac- 
ters. Thus, the child Koyosi's head is shaved, with the 
exception of two or three httle tufts. The old lady's scanty 
locks are simply secured with a riband. The head-dress of 
the younger adults is more elaborate, and is thus accurately 
described by Mr. Williams: "The Japanese shave the 
crown of the head, leaving the hair on the sides above the 
ears to grow long, and combing it back to the occiput, 
where the whole is gathered up into a cue, and brought up- 
wards and forwarcls to the crown, and tied with a cora ; 
when tied, the end is cut square off, leaving a little tuft on 
the top. The women arc not shaved, but bind their long 
hair on their heads, with a profusion of combs, and oma- 

• Chifiete Repontory, vol ii, p. 821. A fuller description will be found in 
Yon Siebold's Archiv tur Buehreilmng wm Japan, Abtk y. p. 29. 


ments, making rather a fanciful head-dress."* It will be 
observed also, that Fanayo's eyebrows are shaved off, that 
being a mark of the married state. One of the peculiarities 
of the Japanese dress is the coat of arms worked upon it, 
which Mr. Williams thus describes: "The blazonry is a 
white circle about an inch in diameter, within which is the 
device. The ignohile vulgiis are content to have their family 
coat of arms worked in the seam on the back, between the 
shoulders; but the officers bear their heraldry upon the 
seam of the dress in five places, — on the back between the 
shoulders, inside each elbow, and on each breast."f This 
custom has aflforded the ingenious artist a ready mode of 
designating his characters, by marking them with their 
initials ; a device which it will be perceived he has availed 
himself of, and which, in consequence of the discrepancies 
that present themselves between the different portraits of 
the same individual, is, as Dr. Pfizmaier remarks, by no 
means superfluous. 

♦ Chinete Repository, vol. vi. p. 860. f lUcL, p. 867. 






[The following statements by Mr. Williams, of Hong-kong, j^specting the 
several forms of writing in use among the Japanese, an^ their origm, wiui the 
accompanying specimen of the Japanese type recently cut and cast in this 
countiy, a fount of which is in the possession of the Corresponding Secretary 
of the Society, form a suitable appendix to the foregoing article. 


The influence which the language and literature of the 
Chinese have exerted upon the surrounding nations, during 
a long course of ages, dating even from before the Christian 
era, is almost unequalled in the history of the human mind. 
The Cochin-Chinese, Coreans, Tibetans, Manchus, Lew-Chew- 
ans, and Japanese, have all been more or less brought un- 
der the intellectual sway of Chinese philosophers, through 
the medium of their language, which they have studied 
with a 2seal and patience worthy of a better reward than is 
aflforded in the writings of Confucius and his disciples. All 
these nations have alphabets of their own, except the Co- 
chin-Chinese, but none of them have so complicated a sys- 
tem of writing as the Japanese and Lew-Chewans, who, in 
respect to their literature, may be considered as one people. 

Up to the time of the sixteenth ddirij or monarch, nam^d"" 
Olizm-tenwo, the Japanese had no writing, but during the 


reign of this prince, about A. D. 284 * Chinese characteis 
began to be employed. He sent an envoy to the southern 
part of Corea, to obtain learned men by whom the litera- 
ture and civilization of China might be introduced into his 
dominions. The messenger returned with Wonin, a de- 
scendant of K^u-tsu, the founder of the Han dynasty, who 
was appointed instructor to two princes, and diftused among 
the people a knowledge of the Chinese characters, and ex- 
plained the meaning of the classics. The pure Chinese 
characters are now employed principally in works of learn- 
ing, but are also usea throughout the country, to write 
names of places, persons and other things. 

However, as the construction of the Japanese langua^ 
differs materially from that of the Chinese, the use of tne 
written characters of the latter, alone, was found to be at- 
tended with many inconveniences ; one of which was that 
most of the common characters had several meanings, and 
consequently required a number of synonyms in the collo- 
quial Japanese. It was not until the beginning of the 
eighth century, that a remedy for this inconvenience was 
found in the formation of a syllabary, by selecting Chinese 
characters, in whole or in part, as symbols for all the sylla- 
bles in the language. The author of this syllabary is sup- 
posed to have been Kibi, and from its being derived from 
fragments of Chinese symbols, he called it kata-kana^ or 
parts of characters. It is used in dictionaries, to explain the 
meaning of the Chinese ; and in religious writings, and other 
works, by the side of Chinese characters, to indicate their 
pronunciation, or signification ; or between them, to mark 
the grammatical forms of the idiom, rendered difficult by 
the use of isolated characters. This i-ro-ha, or syllabary, is 
formed on the same principle as the one invented by Guess, 
to write Cherokee ; it consists of forty-eight distinct sym- 
bols, increased to seventy-three syllables by the use of dia- 
critical marks, which affect the consonantal part. A foimt 
of tyi)e for this syllabary has recently been cast in New 
York, of which a specimen is here introduced, with the pro- 
nunciation of each character : 

* In the Chinese Bepository, vol. z. p. 207, this date is erroDeouslj stated as 
before Chri^^t The xvith Dam reigned from A. D. 270 to 812. See Titsingh^s 
Annates det Empereurs du Japon^ p. 19. Coioi. or JHtbl. ' 


Y i ^ wo y no -if za 

f3Toar\o •? wa ^ o 3^ ki 

>^N ha or fa ^ ka j^ ku 3if gi 

?< b9L ^ &^ ^" gu -3. yu 

-^^ pa 3 yo "V ya ^ nae 

,n ni ^ ta "^ ma ^ mi 

l^^ ho or fo ^ da ^ ke 2^ ehi 

lij; bo V re or le ^ ge i^ z^i 

it> po y 80 ? fu iL ye 

-^ he or fe y* zo ^ bu tz hi or fi 

>< be *y tsu ^* pu t£ b^ 

-^ pe !5^ dzu n ko fcT pi 

]• to 3" "® ^* g® t ™o 

]•* do :^ na X ye onrf e -fe she 

4^ chi ^ ra or la 5" *® ^ ^^® 

:P ji ^ mu ^ de J^ su 

I) ri or li ^ u 'fa X *" 

^ DU ^ i and wi i^ sa ^ 'n 
)V ru 0^ lu 

As in most Asiatic languages, so in Japanese there are no 
capital letters to designate proper nouns, nor are marks of 

Sunctuation always employed. The farmer are occasionally 
enoted by drawmg one or two lines along the side of the 
characters, or syllables, standing for the name of a person 
or place. Fifteen out of the forty -eight symbols are Cfhinese 
characters still in use, the others are parts of characters 
arbitrarily taken to denote their respective sounds. 

After the death of Kabi, a second syllabary was invented 
by Koiibo, which could be used to write Japanese, without 
having recourse to the Chinese, called hira-kana, or equal 
writing. Like the first, it is derived from Chinese charac- 
ters, but instead of one symbol for each syllable, there are 
two, three, and in a few cases even five, modes of writing 
the same sound, the whole amounting to one hundred, ex- 
clusive of the diacritical marks. A fount to print the hira- 
kana would require even a larger number of types th^ 
this, because of the manner in which the difierent sym bgjp 
imite, when written one after another in the column. IW 

TOL. n. 8 


kata-kana is held by Japanese authors to be appropiiate to 
men, and the hira-kana to women ; the two mi^nt be prop- 
erly termed the Roman and the Italic, though they nave 
little or no resemblance to each other. The hira-Kana is 
employed for epistolary intercourse, in books of a li^ht kind, 
and on all common occasions, and every scholar is taught 
to write it elegantly and rapidly ; there seems to be no re- 
striction as to which of the symbols standing for a single 
syllable shall be employed, and the writer chooses the one 
which coalesces with its predecessor the easiest 

A third syllabary was invented about A. D. 1006, by a 
Buddhist priest called Ziaku-so, who was sent on a mission 
to China u'om Japan. He did not understand the spoken 
Chinese, but, as he wrote it readily, he was directed to make 
out a list of Chinese characters, with their meanings and 
soimds in Japanese. He also made forty-seven letters for 
his countrymen, which are now used inaiscriminately with 
the hira-kana, and it is not unlikely that some of tne du- 
plicate forms included under that, are derived fix>m his 

There is still another ancient syUabaiy called Many(>4o(xna, 
because a collection of odes, styled the Mdn-yo, or Myriad 
Leaves, was written with it. It consists of complete Chi- 
nese characters, used phonetically, and written m full, or 
in abbreviated forms. It is mixed up with the two preced- 
ing syllabaries in a very perplexing manner, because, with- 
out a full ac(|uaintance with the author's meaning, it is 
difficult to decide whether, in a given instance, he is using 
the characters phonetically, or lexigraphically. A Japanese 
writer is at liberty to employ the Chmese characters when 
his composition can be made more perspicuous, energetic, 
or accurate, and the popular taste favors their frequent 

Another syllabary, made of other Chinese characters than 
those used in the Manyo-kana, considerably contracted, is 
called YamatO'kanay or Japanese writing. It is used in com- 
bination with the hira-kana, and the syllabary of Ziaku-so, 
the three forming the common ^vriting of the people, and 
giving them the choice out of one hundred and forty-seven 
symbols, to express forty-seven sounds. In order to add to 
the labor of reading, other Chinese characters are inter- 
spersed here and tnere, sometimes with and sometimes 


without the meaning, or sound, being given on the side, 
and generally written in the cursive and not the square 
printed form ; so that, if the number of signs employed in 
the five syllabaries, and the variants allowed in the Manyo- 
kana, all of which cannot be much less than three hundred, 
together with the unlimited use made of Chinese characters, 
are all taken into consideration, it will be conceded that the 
scholars of Japan have succeeded in making their language 
one of the most diflScult to read of any in the world, if 
indeed it be not the first in this respect. So close and so 
extensive is the connection between it and Chinese, that 
before a Japanese student can make satisfactory progress in 
his own literature, he must acquire a knowledge of three 
or four thousand Chinese characters, ascertain how they are 
used by authors in his own country, and learn the modes of 
combining them with his own syllabic symbols, and the 
modes of writing them. Much of his time, therefore, is con- 
sumed in merely learning to read and write the numerous 
symbols contained in the syllabaries, all of which are con- 
tracted or mutilated Chinese characters; and when these 
are mastered, he is constantly liable to be stopped in his 
reading by unusual Chinese terms, thrown in to show the 
writer's learning, or to illustrate his meaning, for which he 
must recur to a dictionary. The cause of this fondness for 
using Chinese, seems to be pedantry on the part of Japanese 
authors, rather than that their own tongue is meagre, or 
uncertain. It is allowable, when a Chinese character is a 
common one, to insert it in the text, without writing either 
the sound or sense, by its side; and if this explanation 
is given of unusual characters, it is omitted when the char- 
acter is repeated in the same section. This license increases 
the labor of deciphering a page, inasmuch as the author's 
opinion of the commonness of a character may be far from 
coinciding with his reader's attainments, so that the latter 
is compelled to refer to a dictionary, or shut up the book. 

The Japanese language is written in columns like the 
Chinese, Manchu and Corean, and reads from right to left. 
The books are printed in the Chinese manner, firom blocks; 
and the skill exhibited in the cutting of the page in the 
tortuous hira-kana, and other syllabaries, united with the 
cursive form of Chinese characters, and the intellectual labor 
required to decipher them, together, form a striking instanelb 


of misapplied ingeniiity in blocking up the avennes to 
knowledge, and compelling the student to devote his ener- 
^es to learning the means, rather than to making progress 
in the ends of knowledge. Books are printed upon paper 
made from a species of mulberry, wmch possesses much 
more tenacity and durability than the Chinese bamboo- 
paper. They are sold for a small price, and there is a 
greater diffusion of knowledge and acquaintance with the 
written language, among the mass of the people, than one 
would suppose, considermg the labor of acquiring it.* 

♦ See Chinese Repository^ voL x. pp. 207 ffi, where is a note by myself on 
Japanese syllabaries, drawn chiefly from the Nouvtau Journal Anatiqtte^ 
vol ii, which has furnished most of the facts here stated. 










(Reftd May 24, 1860.) 




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s '% ^ .' 


T «' ■ ■. 

■■ ■e — "V 

■= •; ■'% ^ 



il — 

«» ^" ^ *** 

- ••. '3 

^•^. v-^ 

- -3 ?- 

^ c :i 

V, :„ ' 


■ ■» J • 

" -x. ■ 

./- •^•a 

-•2 5 *■ -i ! ' 2 .^ 
s 2 S * >". * ~ r 


9 - 




'Aintab, Turkey, Augnst 20, 1849. 


» accomDanyiiig map of a portion of Koordistan is 
rded to tne Society, with the nope that, though a small, 
y not be an uninteresting contribution to the geogra- 
i that part of Asiatic Turkey. Its value, when com- 

wiih the maps of other travellers, must depend upon 
mparative accuracy; and as I feel no disposition to 

my own production, permit me to state briefly the 
ar in which it was constructed, and to add such farther 
doe as seems to prove its approximation to the truth. 
5 tour during which this map was made, was performed 
e, in company with Eev. Thomas Laurie, as a mis- 
y of the American Board to the Mountain Nesto- 

in August and September, 1844. Considering the 
;ude and latitude oi Mosul as sufficiently settled, I 
lenced my survey, and my map, from that city as a 
ig point. Having men and mules at our own disposal, 
availed only in the morning and evening, and I em- 
1 the middle of each day in plotting the ground gone 
luring the previous twenty-four hours. The direction 
ii course was taken with an accurate pocket-compass, 
le distance travelled was measured with a watch, each 
of time being reckoned at three miles. Each course 
tien laid down upon a sheet of three miles to an inch, 
tnmediately after our return to Mosul, the whole was 
red, and reduced to the size now forwarded. The 


accompanying map has been prepared from the one thus 
made, Dy placing upon it a thin sheet of paper, and tracing 
the lines with a pen and ink. If any errors have been 
made, therefore, they were made at the time of the survey, 
and it may be well to state a few precautions which were 
taken, to guard against them. 

As the route passed over was for the most part exceed- 
ingly mountainous, and the steeps often very difficult of 
ascent and descent, an allowance for these was suggested in 
the margin of my notes, at the end of each such course ; 
and by counting and measuring the steps of our animals on 
level and hilly, rocky and smooth road, an attempt was 
made to reduce all to the standard of level travelling. The 
direction of the individual courses was verified by back- 
ward observations from every elevated point; all short 
courses, except when my animal was restless, being taken 
without dismounting, but all long ones, as well as the obser- 
vations of verification, with the compass resting upon some 
elevated object, and with every corresponding care. It was 
not deemed that these or any other precautions, in such cir- 
cumstances, would form a perfectly accurate map, but with- 
out them, it was plain that even an approximation to truth 
could not be hoped for. 

By comparing the map thus made with that of Dr. Ains- 
worth, puolished at London in 1841, in the Journal of the 
Boyal Oeographical Society ^ it will be seen that, though we 
both left Mosul with the country of the Mountain Nestori- 
ans (Chaldeans) in view, as the special object of our visits, 
we have made it to differ in latitude more than the whole 
distance which he has removed it from our starting point. 
Were this difference smaller, or the distance travelled great- 
er, it might be difficult to ascertain who was most in error ; 
but in a diversity of more than half a degree of latitude, 
there seems space sufficient to find somewhat to put either 
or both of us, as tourists, in the wrong. The following 
statements, it is hoped, will serve to guide the reader to a 
truthful comj^arison of our results ; and to make them more 
intelligible, I have annexed to my map a small chart of the 
whole country lying between v an, Jesire, Zacho, Mosul, 
and Oroomiah, and placed upon it the situations assigned to 
the places presently to be mentioned, by Dr. Ainsworth, 
(marKed A,) and myself, (marked S.) 


In goinff from Mosul to Ashitha, ( Ashitab^ our route was 
direct, and our course nearly due North. We were thirty 
four and three-fourth hours in performing the journey, our 
road the first eight hours being fine, and almost perfectly 
level, and the remaining twenty-six hours and three-quar- 
ters, one-third of it at least being such as might be called 
good road for travelling on horseback. Is it conceivable 
that we should have made only 36' of latitude,, as laid down 
in the map of the Eoyal Geographical Society? Or, to 
take a stronger case of the same kind, we were seven houm 
in going to Ashitha from a point directly East of Koomroo 
Kala, (fodah Kumri,) whereas, according to Dr. Ainsworth, 
the distance cannot be more than two or three miles. 

Again, at Julamerk (Julamerik) we were told, by good 
authority, that a foot messenger could go to Van, although 
through a mountainous region, in three days ; and to Mosul 
by way of Jesird, the road being mostly level, in five days. 
According to Dr. Ainsworth, Julamerk is much nearer to 
Mosul than to Van, and one would sooner think of going 
from Julamerk to Jesir^ by the way of Mosul, than from 
Julamerk to Mosul by the way of Jesir^. 

Farther, (caUing in other travellers to aid us in our com- 
parison,) Dr. Wright, missionary of the American Board 
at Oroomiah, in describing a tour through Koordistan, in 
1846, says that his route was nearly direct north-westward, 
until arriving at Kermi, a village Korth-East of Julamerk. 
Under the date of August 24, 1846, in reply to a question 
as to the comparative latitude of Julamerk and Oroomiah, 
he says, " As to the latitude of Julamerk, I can only conjec- 
ture, as we had no instruments with us to make observa- 
tions. My opinion is, and Mr. Breath's" (his companion in 
the tour) " agrees with mine, that Julamerk is farther North 
than Oroomiah, say ten or twenty miles, if not more." 

Still ferther, after leaving the church of Mar Georga, Dr. 
Wright pursued a westerly course about two hours, to the 
head waters of the Khabor, down which he went south- 
westward five and a half hours. Some seven hours farther 
on, part of the time going eastward even, he reached a 
castle of the Artooshai Koords.* Afterwards, leaving the 

* The reader will obeerre that this location of the Artooshai Koords ae- 
oords nearlj with the range of mountains bearing that name, as laid down 
OD mj map, ConceniiDg this range, I would here, add, that from the Zab 



Kliabor, he went West and South- West, and after a twenty- 
four hours' ride reached Derffull^ which is a Koordish town 
(according to Dr. Grant, who passed between the places 
June 13, 1843,) eighteen miles North-East of Jesir4 

Finally, it gives me no little pleasure to refer to an un- 
published wort: of the late Dr. Grant, as affording the best 
authority upon the question under examination. As the 
tour ancl publication of Dr. Ainsworth followed dose upon 
those of Grant in 1840-1, the latter felt greatly interested, 
in his three subsequent tours, to verify or oisprove the 
accuracy of his former map. In the work now referred to^ 
entitled by him. Life in Koordisian, I find the following 
statement under the date of August 16, 1842. He was then 
going to Ashitha from the pasture grounds of the Melek of 
Chumba, North of Malota, in company with Mar Shimon, 
the Nestorian Patriarch. He says, "After crossing the 
brook called by Ainsworth the river of Itha, we rode four 
hours to the top of a mountain commanding a most ex- 
tended view. From here we saw Zacho, which by compass 
lav directly West-South- West ;" and he adds, "this was 
allerwards verified by counter observation." These two 
observations of Dr. Grant seem to 'prove the inaccuracy of the 
mapof the Royal Geographical Society ; for the compass used 
by Dr. Grant was exceedingly delicate, having a line needle 
some three inches in length ; and as it was applied to both 
ends of the course, no variation conceivable can account 
for the ditference between the direction West-South- West, 
and that of West by North, as it is laid down by Dr. 

Between Dr. Grant and Dr. Ainsworth, there is another 
important geographical question at issue, which it seems 
desirable to settle. We refer to the large stream laid down 
by Dr. Ainsworth under the name of the Little Zab. Is 
there any such branch of the Zab extending fifty or sixty 
miles to the North, in the direction of Van? From the 
smallness of the mouth of the stream alled^ed to have this 
remote origin, I might doubt as to the allegation; but happily 
the question can be settled without having resort to mere 

westTrard it is exceedinglj well marked, being as it were a vast tide rising 
above the broken, irregular waves of mountains on both sides of it. Ita 
course was therefore carefully noted as we crossed one of its peaks. 


conjecture. Dr. Wright, having traversed the country be- 
tween the Zab and the Khabor, in the precise region in- 
volved in the question, is a witness whose testimony cannot 
be set aside, in the note dated August 24, 1846, referred 
to above, Dr. Wright thus speaks, " The only river to the 
West of the church of Mar George, is the Khabor, — ^a 
range of mountains intervening. Just East of the church 
is a small stream, a branch of the Zab." Upon such au- 
thority, there can be no hesitation in striking out the Little 
Zab of Dr. Ainsworth, and in laying down the Khabor in 
accordance with ita position on the map published by Dr. 
Grant, in the spring of 1841. This I have done upon the 
small chart, and I have added the Hazil branch of tne Kha- 
bor, which is a river so large as to be crossed with rafts, 
about nine hours £rom Jesir^, or three-fourths of the dis- 
tance from Jesir^ to Zacho. The river Van, six hours fix)m 
Jesird, I have also laid down, although much smaller than 
the Hazil, as its name seems to import a distant source near 
the city of that name, and indeed I was informed that its 
origin is as thus indicated. 

Among other objects of our tour, an important one was to 
ascertain, by approximation, the population of the Mountain 
Nestorian districts. For this purpose I counted, as accu- 
rately as practicable, the houses in every village which we 
visited, and in other cases I sought to arrive, by inquiries, 
as near to the true number as possible. In the following 
list of the villages of Tiyary, the nimibers unmarked are 
actual counts, those marked with an interrogation are the 
estimates of Dr. Grant, and those marked with two interro- 
gations are estimates derived directly from natives. When 
Dr. Ainsworth's spelling differs from mine, I have added it 
in brackets. Bumpta and Kalayatha are clusters, the first, 
of ten villages, and the other, of seven. Berawola was given 
me as the name of several villages, so distinct as to be sepa- 
rated by ranges of hills; but as I could obtain no otner 
name for either of them, I have included all in one. 

Ashitha (Ashitah), . . .300? Bizizu, 12?? 

Bedyalatha, 14 Chumba, 20 

Bemeriga, 15 Chumba-ber-Hai, 4 

Berawola, 89 Chumba d* Besusina, . . 2 

Besusina, 18 Chumba d' Hatha, 14 


Chumba d* Isku, 4 Malota (Malotah), .... 15 

Chumba d' Karora, ... 3 Mar Sawa, 1 

Chumba d' Koordhaya, 7 MathaKusra, 50 

Chumba d'l^ssu, 5 Merga, :•;•••.•• ^^ 

Chumba d' Waltwai, . . 3 Minyaiiifih(Mimyaiii), 80? 

Chumba Smoka, 4 Musra, 2 

Chumba Tena, 4 Oriatha, 12?? 

Chummiktha, 5 Eawola d' Nai, 12 

Dadush, 80?? Eoma Smoka, 4 

Derawa d* Walto, .... 19' Rumpta, 91 ?? 

IshikNahra, 9?? Salaberka, 160? 

Kalayatha(KalaAtha), 86?? Serspidho (Teraspino), 62 

KhanDadush, 3 Shurt, 15?? 

Koo(Kiyau), 20?? Siyadhor, 12 

Legippa, 20?? Zawitha (Zawit^), . . . 60? 

Lizau, 200?* Zerawa, 6?? 

Mabua, 20? 

Total of houses in Tiyary, 1522 

In estimating the population of the Mountain Nestorian 
districts from the number of houses, it is necessary to make 
a liberal allowance of individuals to each, probably not less 
than ten. Supposing, then, that some villages may have 
been omitted m the above estimate of Tiyary, we are war- 
ranted in setting down its population as at least fifteen thou- 
sand. From independent inquiries made of several intelli- 
gent Nestorians, both at Mosul and in the Mountains, the 
Patriarch himself being one of the number, and with the 
help also of Dr. Grant's Life in Koordiatan, I made out, in 
1844, an estimate similar to the above, of all the Nestorian 
tribes, and the result convinced me that the whole Christian 
population of Koordistan, belonging to this sect, at the 
commencement of the difficulties in 1843, did not exceed, 
nor in any way var}'^ much from fifty thousand souls. It is 
to be hoped that the reduction of this country by the Turks, 
now nearly if not entirely realized, will remove the barriers 
which have heretofore excluded this people from inter- 
course with the Christian world, and that the missionaries 
at Oroomiah will hereafter be able to fill up the blank, yet 
existing, in our knowledge of one of the most ancient and 
interesting of Christian sects. 

*■ ^■^■^ ^ ■^ ^^^ 1 * ^- ^ ■ ■^ i ^ i '^ ^ i ^t^ ^ ■*^ i ~' ^~i -" ^r~.~'j~- i j^.r'u~<j~Lj~u"u^_r^_r"_ i ~Tj~ j~LJ~ ~' ~ ^ 












(Read May 24, 1860.) 




April 25, 1849. — ^Leaving my home at Seir, at 7 o'clock, 
A, M. I started for Mosul. I rode to the city, and remained 
there till 1 o'clock, P. M. engaged in completing my prepa- 
rations for the journey. 

We rode to Takky, a Nestorian village near Ardishai^ 
and stopped for the night with Priest Shaleeta, who accom- 
panied us from the city. Ardishai and Takky are about 
fifteen miles South-South-East of the city of Oroomiah. 
They are large villages, the two containing from twelve to 
fifteen hundred inhabitants. 

April 26. — Mar Gabriel accompanied us on our way as 
fsur as to the Barandooz river, about two miles from his 
village. He dashed through the swollen stream, with his 
characteristic boyishness, tne water rising to his horse's 
back, while we preferred to cross the bridge, which was 
near at hand. Our road to-day lay near the lake, and its 
direction was South by East. After proceeding five or six 
miles, we halted an hour for the muleteers to bait their 
horsee. As we looked back, the immense plain of Oroo- 
miah lay stretched out before us in all its grandeur and 
loveliness, which, at this verdant season, more than any 
other, utterly defy description. Eeloading our horses, we 
crossed a gravelly ridge which runs down to the lake firom 
the western mountains, and thus passed into the small dis- 
trict of Dole, which is the southern extremity of the plain 
of Oroomiah, corresponding to the district of Anzel, in 
which Gavalan is situated, at the northern extremity. Dole 
is a very fertile district, shut in between the Koordish 
mountains and the lake. We stopped for the night in the 


lower part of it, at the village of Kergan, which is perched 
on a bold promontory that stretches a short distance into 
the lake. The lake is gaining upon the village by gradually- 
undermining it, the soil at the base of the hill on which it 
stands being sand, which is overlaid by thick rocky strata 
of conglomerate. We passed along the high cliflF thus 
formed. It hung frightfully over our heads, while the 
waves dashed angrily below. 

Our stage to-day was short, not more than sixteen miles ; 
but our muleteers, being from KergSn, must stop there with 
their families, for the night. 

We were invited to take lodgings in an upper room of 
the highest house in the village, belonging to Kareem Khan 
of Oroomiah, who is the owner of Kergan, and occupies 
this house only when he happens to be in the village, usu- 
ally some part of the summer. The views of the lake from 
this point are very extensive, and almost enchanting. 

At evening, a villager with gun in hand brought to us a 
present of a pigeon, which he had shot, and said to us, as 
he presented it, " Such, Sir, may your enemies be," an inci* 
dent that naturally reminded us of the terms in which the 
death of Absalom was reluctantly announced to his anxious 
jBsither by Cushi: "Is the young man Absalom safe? and 
Cushi answered, * The enemies of my lord the king, and all 
that rise against thee, to do thee hurt, be as that young man 
is.' " Another villager brought us the finest flower that I 
ever beheld^ which he had picked, in its wildness, on the 
neighboring mountains. It had the appearance of a larj 
bouquet, and it was only by inspection that we could 
persuaded that the whole grew upon a single stem. It con- 
sisted of some fifteen beautiful tulip-flowers, entirely dis- 
tinct, which encircled the stem, bending gracefully aown- 
ward, while a rich tuft of long green leaves rose in the 
midst, and hung over the tulips, as if to give a modest 
blushing air to the splendid cluster, by partially veiling their 
brilliant crimson color. 

Aprit 27. — Our road to-day lay near the lake, most of the 
way. We left the district of Dole, bypassing over green 
meadows and fertile wheat fields three or four miles, and 
then, crossing low rocky ridges, entered the district of 
Sooldooz. On a former occasion, almost fourteen years ago, 
I travelled this way by the upper road, from the vill^fe 


of Sheitanava, in Dole, to Negaddeh^ the principal towH 
of Sooldooz ; but the danger from the Koords on the moun- 
tains above was now considered as too great to allow us to 
go that way } and even on the lower road, near the lake, 
we were pointed, in a deep ravine, to the graves of several 
Persians recently murdered there by the Koords, and to a 
cave in a rocky ridge, near by, that is much frequented ad 
a den of robbers. And as we advanced toward Sooldoofc, 
the people on the way expressed great surprise that We tad 
come over the fearful stage unharmed* There is a great 
deal of disorder in this part of Persia^ at the present time, 
resulting from the negligence and inefficiency of its misera- 
ble rulers ; and robberies and murders are very frequent. 

The day we left Oroomiah, we observed a few very small 
locusts, by the road-side, and we had seen increasing num- 
bers all the Way, as we proceeded. But to-day, some of the 
declivities along which we passed were literally coveted with 
them. Their earlv appearance presents a melancholy pros- 
pect for the inhabitants, especially the poor, who are now 
obliged to pay four times tne ordmary price for grain, on 
account of the ravages of this same scerurge, the locusts, in 
this district, the past two years. 

After passing down upon the plain of Sooldooz, we pro- 
ceeded two miles, and came to the river Jedder, which flows 
down to the lake from the W^st. It was now overflowing 
all its banks, owing to the melting snow on the upper ridges 
of the surrounding mountains, as well as the rain that was 
fidling. The river, which is ordinarily one hundred and 
fifty feet wide at this place, now spread itself out to a 
breadth of five or six hundred feet, and was so deep that 
we were obliged to hire strong men to carry our loads over, 
on their shoulders. Afl«r reaching the southern bank of 
the Jedder, we rode out of our direct road, two miles, to 
the village of Eakhtana, which contains six Nestorian fami- 
lies, for the sake of stopping among our own people* 

Sooldooz is a very fertile district, more than twetity miles 
long from East to West, and from ten to fifl;een miles broad. 
It is shut from the lake by a low, btoken ridge of hills, and 
enclosed on its other sides by grassy mountains* Immense 

Juantities of grain are annually exported from Sooldooz. 
Q this time of scarcity, we pas«ted many loads of wheat 
from this district. 
TOL. n* 10 


April 28. — ^We proceeded five fiirsaks, more than twenty 
miles, to-day, in a South-South-East direction, to the town 
of Saouj Boolak. Sooldooz is at the south-western comer 
of the lake, and our stage to-day led us back from it, among 
the Koordish mountains. We gradually rose, after leaving 
the plain of Sooldooz, till we reached the top of a high 
mountain-ridge. From thence our way was down a steep 
descent, and then we wound up another ridge, fix>m the top 
of which we saw the town of Saouj Boolak lying directly 
below us, in a small, deep valley, encompassed on all sides 
by mountains. Near the town we crossed the Saouj Boolak 
river, by an old high stone bridge of four arches, two of 
which are broken down, and their places supplied by tim- 
bers covered over with sticks and loose stones. This bridge, 
which is about one hundred and fifty feet long, was origin- 
ally built of fi^e hewn limestone. Just on the southern 
bank of the river are several soda-springs which deposit a 
species of white limestone, and grave-stones are hewn firom 
a quarry of the same near by. The town probably takes 
its name, Saouj Boolak, or Cold Spring, fix)m a pure spring 
just below it, said to be remarkable for the coldness of its 

Several showers fell in the course of our ride to-day, and 
hail in one instance. But our India-rubber cloaks shielded 
us jfrom harm, or exposure ; and the scenery was delightftil 
among the mountains, now green to their 'tops, except a 
few patches of snow, and with large flocks here and there 
grazmg on their declivities. The season is now very pleas- 
ant, and favorable for travelling over these regions, though 
we may expect more or less rain. 

The town of Saouj Boolak lies directly on the south- 
eastern bank of the river, half a mile below the bridge. 
It is unwalled. Being low, and surrounded by high moun- 
tains, it must be very hot in summer. It is a Koordish 
town, of twelve or fifteen thousand inhabitants. The houses 
are built of the dark red sandstone and limestone soil of the 
valley, which the rains soon wash down fi-om the walls. 
Most of the roo6 project a little, and thus partially protect 
the buildings. 

There are four Armenian families in Saouj Boolak, with 
one of whom we took lodgings for the Sabbath. 



Saonj Boolak is a place of a good deal of trade. In the 
baasaar, we saw mercnants from Tabreez, IkIosuI, and Oroo- 
miah. It is particularly important for its trade in gall-nuts, 
which are brought to this town from the different parts of 
Koordistan, and thence transported to Constantinople and 
Europe, by way of Erzeroom and Trebizond, and to Bussia, 
by way of the Caspian Sea. 

There are about a hundred families of Jews in Saouj 
Boolak, and we had met with some at Muhammed Shah, 
the &st village in Sooldooz. Thus scattered over all these 
regions is the remnant of Israel. 

April 29. — In the evening, an Armenian priest from a 
village eight or ten miles distant, called Daralek, stated to 
us that there are fifteen Armenian families in his village, 
and ten Nestorian families, the latter, also, in their deficiency 
of a priest of their own people, looking to him as their 
roiritual shepherd. These ten Nestorian families, and one 
mmily in the town, are now the only Nestorians in the dis- 
trict of Saouj Boolak, which formerly contained a consider- 
able population of that people. 

April 30. — Being unable to obtain horses, we were obliged 
to linger at Saouj Boolak another day. In the afternoon, 
we visited the soda-springs already mentioned. There are 
six or eight of these springs, a few rods apart, around each 
of which has arisen a conical mound of soft white lime- 
stone, from the accumulating deposits of the water. Mr. 
Stocking carried with him some tartaric acid, which we 
mixed with tumblers of soda-water from the spring, and 
drank to our own satisfaction, and the great astonishment 
of the natives who accompanied us, and who before knew 
nothing of the valuable properties of these springs. A 
Koord who accompanied us stated that there are marble 
quarries in a mountain about two or three miles to the 
South-West of Saouj Boolak ; and there were slabs of mar- 
ble in a grave-yard near by, said to have been taken from 
that mountain. 

May 1. — Considerable rain fell during the last night, but 
the weather was perfectly clear this morning, for the first 
time since we left Oroomiah, though the sun had frequently 
appeared, during this time, at short intervals. 

At Saouj Boolak our course changed from South-East to 
South-West Hitherto, we had b^n receding somewhat 


from Mosul, instead of advancing toward it. Now, we were 
happy to turn our faces directly toward the place of our 
destmation. This circuitous route is probably the best, and 
perhaps the only practicable one, at this season. The dis- 
trict of Ooshnoo, through which the more direct route 
passes, has been in a very disturbed state, ever since the 
koorcls of that place made their irruption upon a part of 
the plain of Oroomiah, last autumn. Besides, the deep 
snows on the high mountains between Ooshnoo and Bavan- 
dooz would doubtless j?ender the passing very diflScult, if not 
impossible, on that route, so early in the season. The same 
obstacle, deep snows, would also prevent our going, at this 
time of the year, through the mountains, by the still shorter 
route among the Nestorians. 

On the top of the highest ridge on the route between 
Ooshnoo and Ravandooz, which is called the Pass of OcJeed 
Sheen, meaning in the Koordish language, the azurenpillar, 
is a dark marbla pillar, eight or ten feet high, placed on a 
large pedestal, on which are inscriptions in the cujieiform 
character. This pillar was visited a few years ago by Major 
Eawlinson, who copied the inscriptions, and supposes the 
pillar to commemorate the journey of Alexander, on this 
route, in his pursuit of Darius,^ 

The locusts are now making their appearance on the de- 
clivities around the town of Saouj Boolak, to the no small 
apprelicusion and sorrow of the inhabitants. There is a 
certain bird in the East, resembling the sparrow in size, 
which eagerly devours the locusts, and there is a prevalent 
belief, among all classes in these lands, that water from some 
rei)utcHlly sacred localities attracts this bird, At Shiraz, 
for instance, there is a spring which is regarded as such a 
locality ; and at Ardebil is another. A bottle of water, pur- 
chased with money, from the Moolah who presides over the 
eprinfr, was lately brought from this latter locality to Saouj 
Boolak, as an antagonist to the locusts. And yesterday 
there was a rumor abroad, that a flock of the sapient birds, 
jittracted by the power of the mysterious water, was ap- 

* Dr. Perkins is not entirely correct in tlus Rtntcment. Major Rawlinson 
'* could only copy a few isolated letters on tlie eastern face of the slab, which" 
be iwlds "are however certainly of the Assyrian type." See Journal of Royal 
Aniatic Society^ vol x. ]). 25, and Journal of kot/al Geographical Society ^ 
VpL X. p, 21. COIOL OF PPBL. 


proaching the town ; and a band of musicians was immedi- 
ately mustered, to go out and escort them, as a token of the 
popular joy ; but the whole proved to be only a rumor. 
The bird did not respond to the noisy welcome by making 
its appearance. 

May 2. — We rose early, our horses were soon at our 
quarters, and we were on our way. We recrossed the stone 
bridge by which we had approached Saouj Boolak, and fol- 
lowed the narrow valley of the river, on the northern bank, 
our course being a little to the South of West. The moun- 
tain scenery, on each side of the river, was at once grand 
and beautiful, and strongly renainded me of the first stage 
on the route firom Trebizond to Erzeroom, and vividly re- 
called my impressions and feelings on my first land journey 
in these eastern countries, which was on that route. The 
moimtains were verdant to their summits ; and small fields 
of wheat, and thrifty orchards of the pear and apricot, 
skirted the margins of the river, at frequent intervals. 

About five miles above Saouj Boolak is the small village 
of Byram Shah, a Koordish village, as are all others m 
these regions. A short distance above Byram Shah our 
road turned more directly toward the West, and at length 
the river, so deep and furious below that it could not be 
crossed except by the bridge, being now much swollen by 
the melting snow on the mountains, suddenly disappeared, 
and we saw only small brooks gliding down as many sloping 
valleys, which radiated in the mountains before us, troxn 
the larger one that we had followed. Near this junction is 
the village of Diarbakoor. 

Our course now lay on one of the large brooks, along 
the margin of which we wound our way upward and still 
upward, beguiled by the charming views, the odors, and the 
sounds, that regaled our senses, till the brook had become a 
tiny rill, and we found ourselves almost at the summit of a 
snow-capped ridge. Our enjoyment of nature had been 
exquisite, during our ascent. There were, still, small fields 
of wheat, and clusters of apricot, pear, apple, and walnut 
trees, on the margin of the brook, the trees seeming in 
some places to grow wild, and now in luxuriant blossom 
and foliage, mingling their various hues like sheets of bril- 
liant nosegays. There was a rich fragrance from the fresh 
smiling flowers that decked the mountain sides; and the 


sweet notes of many warbling birds afforded ns most grateM 

We halt<?d for the night near an encampment of nomad 
Koords. Wc had come a stage of only about three hours, 
fourteen or fifteen miles, but were told that there was no 
other stopping-place beyond us, near human habitations, 
that we could reach to-day. The place of our encampment 
was so charmingly rural, and commanded such a variety of 
grand and bcautiiul views, that we were not very reluctant 
to halt, though we had made but a short day's journey. 

Till now, we had not pitched our tents. The rainy 
weather had deterred us. To-day for the first time on our 
journey, therefore, we tasted the luxury of encamping on 
the green grass, which was on a level with patches of snow, 
of inhaling the air pure from its native heavens, and of 
looking abroad freely on the wonders and delights that a 
divine hand had si)rcad out around us, instead of being 
caged in a dark, filthy, native hovel, surcharged with not the 
most agreeable odors, and swailning with loathsome vermin. 
We could now dip water from the crystal spring near our 
tents, and ice it with the snow tGat lay sparkling in the 
bright sun near by ; and we could obtain plenty of fresh 
milk, yofjo^ml and Uimak, from our migratory neighbors. 

On the southern bank of the Saouj Boofak river, about 
two miles above the bridge which is near the town, we 
observed to-day several more soda-springs, marked by their 
white couiwd mounds, like those already mentioned. The 
common rocks on our route are a bluish limestone, and 
more or less red sandstone; and such are the prevailing 
rocks in all these regions. Several clusters of large juniper 
trees, ])v the road-side, also arrested mv attention to-day, 
and, on niquiring, 1 was told that this tree is very common 
in all ])arts of Koordlstan, and on some of the islands of 
the lake of Oroomiah. 

May t3. — About day-break, we were waked up by a sud- 
den gust of wind, which, with almost the violence of a 
tornado, caused our tents to dance like witches, and the rain 
soon fell in a heavy shower. Our tent-pins began to give 
wav, and they would have failed, and let the tents down 
uj>on iLs, liad not the ru])es been immediately secured by 
means of large stones. The rain continued to pour down 
for an hour, and our prospect, it must be confessed, was 


sxiflBcieiitly dreary, high up the mountain, as we were, with no 
human habitations near us, except those of our rude, nomad 
neighbors. The clouds, however, at length cleared up, and 
the rising sun broke out upon us almost as suddenly as the 
storm had done, and it was all the more grateful to us, in 
the drenched state of our tents, from the strength and sud- 
denness of the contrast. 

We proceeded about two miles, still in a western direc- 
tion, and reached the mountain-top. From the lofty summit 
of this ridge, scenes of most sublime grandeur suddenly 
opened upon our view. Far below and bevond us lay the 
plain of Lejan ; and along its southern boraer stretched the 
great mountain -range which forms the general boundary 
between Turkey and Persia, now covered with snow half 
way to its base, and with its summit towering in the dim 
distance, and blending with the skies ; while its lower sec- 
tions, and the lower ridges that were nearer to us, of various 
heights and every diversity of contour, were in one case 
dotned in the softest ana most beautiftd green, and in 
another projecting in the roughest and boldest crags and 
profiles of naked sterile rock, this endless variety of aspect 
stretching away thirty, forty or fifty miles, and limited bnly 
by the horizon. 

Our course now changed again to a little South of West, 
and lay down a steep, narrow, rocky ravine, four or five 
miles. The plain of Lejan then began to open distinctly to 
our view, in a narrow valley, which gradually expanded, as 
we proceeded, until one of the most picturesque and charm- 
ing landscapes that I ever beheld, filled our vision ; and it 
was of such vast extent that the eye wearied in attempting 
to take it in. 

The plain of Lejan is naturally one of the finest in the 
East. It must be nearly fifty miles in length, and firom two 
to twenty in breadth, sweeping around fi-om the north- 
eastern extremity, where we entered it, in the form of a 
crescent, to the West and South, the middle portion of it 
being much the broadest. This plain is gently undulating. 
Its soil is rich, and well watered ; but most of it lies entirely 
waste, its Koordish masters and occupants having little dis- 
position to cultivate it. A small river is gradu^ly formed 
nrom the mountain ravines on the north-eastern side, which 
the inhabitants denominate simply Rvbri, or the river ; and 


auotlier, of about the same size, the Levan, enters the plain 
from the mountains on the South- West. The two, beside 
many smaller streams, sufficient to sustain thrifty villages 
all over the district, uniting their waters, flow onward to 
the South, toward the Persian district of Serdasht. ' 

On the part of the plain which we first entered, we 
observed several clusters of juniper trees, shading a few 
graves, which, as our muleteers told us, mark very sacred 
localities; and they proceeded to entertain us with some 
account of the marvellous cures j^eribrmed here, and the 
judgments which the presiding spirits of these places are 
said to have visited on many persons, dispensing them at 
will, respectively, to their favorites and tliose whom they 
chance to dislike. The muleteers also told us that, among 
the other merits of this charming country, it is much cele- 
brated for the production of a great variety of medicinal 
plants and grasses, physicians from India, even, coming here 
to gather them. 

Ijcjan is nominally Pei'sian soil, and is reckoned as be- 
longing to Sooldooz, from which it is separated only bv 
a low range of mountains. But the wild Bilbos Koorcis 
who iuliabit it, acknowledge little allegiance to any govern- 
ment. 'J'he Persians of Sooldooz, for instance, two years 
ago, repaired an old fort in Lejan, to aid them in maintain- 
ing their authority ; but the K(X)rds soon summarily demol- 
ished it, the garrison hardly escaping with their lives. 

Our sta":c to-day was about tliirtv miles. We were on 
our horses nine hours, travelling slowly, at the pace of a 
caravan. We encamped for the night at the south-western 
extremity of the plain, just at the base of the high, snowy 
mountnius that here form the boundary between Persia and 
Turkey, near the village of Hanee. This village is the 
reijidence of Kara-ina Agha, the most prominent chief of 
the large, powerful tribe of the Bilbos Koords, and the 
same who was the most conspicuous leader of the Koordish 
hordes which invaded Oroomiah last autumn, and sacked 
some fifteen villages on the southern part of the plain, the 
nearer chiefs of Ooshiioo having implored him to come to 
their aid, and share in the spoil. Our anticipations of being 
the guest of the man whose name is so terrible as a robber, 
were naturally somewhat peculiar, and not altogether agree- 
able. We however failed to see the chief, who was absent 


from his village, having gone to-day to Ooshnoo* His 
eldest son, Mourdd Agha, about thirty years old, welcomed 
ufl very cordially, and of his own accord immediately 
ordered for us a sumptuous supper, which, in compliance 
with our choice, was brought to our tents, where he and a 
younger brother joined us at the table, and spent the even* 
ing. He is a fine-looking man, and generous and hospitable, 
yet doubtless, like his father, lawless in his habits, and of 
a bloody disposition. He treated us with great respect, and 
with the utmost kindness. 

This young chief stated to us that he had never known 
Europeans to pass through Lejan before, though they may 
have done it There certainly is, however, more or less 
danger in travelUng here, at the present time. Our party 
were thrown into a momentary apprehension to-day, when 
about ten miles distant from our stopping place, on meeting 
a Bilbos chief whom our muleteers, as he approached us, 
announced to us as a noted robber, or as they expressed it. 
"one who fears not God, nor regards man." This chief haa 
with him fifteen or twenty attendants, horsemen, all armed 
with spears, swords and pistols. Broad, silent desolation 
reigned around us, in every direction ; it was a cloudy day, 
ana toward evening — a fit place and a fit time for bloody men 
and bloody deeds. The party spread themselves out as they 
approached us, and drew up around us, so that we were of 
course entirely in their power. They halted, and the chief 
demanded who we were, when our principal muleteer adroitly 

Eroduced a letter which he had procured and brought with 
im, from a distinguished merchant in Saouj Boolak, ad* 
dressed to Paroo Khan, an uncle of this chief, bespeaking 
for us kind treatment. We had failed of seeing that imcle, 
his village, Peesav, the principal village of Lej^n, being sev- 
eral miles distant to the right of our road. The muleteer 
therefore presented the letter to this chief, assuming that he 
would extend to us the favor requested of the uncle. The 
wild Koord acknowledged the compliment, with true oriental 
politeness, by promptly offering to turn about, and escort us 
to our memiL We declined his courteous offer ; he politely 
bowed, thus signifying our release; and we passed on, grate* 
ftd for the deliverance. 

To-morrow we hope to enter Turkev, where there is a more 
efficient government, and much less (umger from the Koords* 
TOL. n. ir 


Our host, the young Bilbos chief, expressed a stroDff 
desire to be under Turkish, instead of Persian rule, which 
is a prevalent feeling among most of the Koords in Persia; 
and it is not strange, considering that, in common with the 
Turks, they are all of the Soonee sect. 

In crossing the plain of Lejan, we observed the mounds 
of the ancient fire-worshippers, which are to be seen also in 
Ooshnoo, Sooldooz, and otner districts of Azerbijan. 

May 4. — Mourad Agha, the young Bilbos chief, was 
again with us at breakfast; he furnished the meal, as he 
did last evening, which consisted of bread, ypgoord, and 
boiled dosliap, or molasses. We held a pleasant conversa- 
tion of an hour with him, this morning, in the course of 
which we told him about railroads, electro-magnetic tele- 
graphs, etc., etc., to his no small astonishment and gratifica- 
tion. And he, to take his turn in the narration of marvels, 
then stated to us an item of important information, which, 
he said, had just reached him. A remarkably strong wind 
had arisen, over beyond Constantinople, so strong that it 
laid bare a portion of the bed of the sea, and even swept 
the sand from its bottom, and there revealed a mountain of 
pure gold ! This wonderful locality, the chief continued, 
IS about eight hours, thirty or forty miles, this side of Enc- 
land, and the English had placed a guard over the goloL 
We told him that we had not before heard of the facts as 
he stated them. He replied, "There can be no mistake 
about it. The English Consul at Mosul has received the 
intelligence, and a Moolah there, who saw the letter con- 
taining it, wrote these facts to us." This, doubtless, is one 
version of the story of the discovery of gold in California, 
as now current in the wilds of Koordistan. 

The chief also told us, as a wonder of another descrip- 
tion, which he supposed would interest us, that there is an 
ancient, lofly, hewn stone-pillar, according to his statements 
more than twenty feet high, in Lejan, not far from the road 
over which we had travelleci He stated the color of the 
pillar to be dark, like the celebrated pillar of Ooshnoo. 
He (lid not seem to know whether or not it contained 
inscriptions. We had not time to return and examine the 

{)lace defined, and the insecurity of the district would have 
)een an obstacle to our lingering, had we had leisure for 
the purpose. The pillar is said to be near the village of 


Our morning visit with the chief made ns rather latie in 
starting, but we regretted this the less, as rain, during the 
night, had drenched our tents, and we wished to dry them 
by the morning sun, before proceeding, that they might not 
impose an intolerable buraen on the horse tnat carried 

Leaving the extensive and charming plain of Lejfin, just 
where we encamped for the night, near the village of Hanee, 
we commenced ascending the great mountain-range which 
forms the boundary between Turkey and Persia, the same 
which, branching oflf from Mount Ararat, at Bavazeed, runs 
toward the South and South-East, passes atout twenty 
miles West of Oroomiah, and advancing still, stretches away 
to the plains of Assvria. ,The ascent was quite steep. 
Beaching the top of the lirst ridge, we had a magnificent 
view of the beautiful country over which we passea yester- 
day, and the lofty mountains that bound it. Then descend- 
ing, and crossing a small elevated, grassy valley, which 
communicates through a ravine with the plain of Lejan, we 
ascended another, higher and much broader ridge, passing 
over a number of patches of deep snow. Here we encoun- 
tered a heavy shower of rain ana sleet, which would have 
drenched and chilled us, had we not been well guarded by 
cloaks. The pass over the high, broad ridge which we 
were crossing, is skirted on either hand by still more lofty 
mountain-peaks, now covered with deep snow, much of 
which remains during the year. These mountains, as well 
as GaleeS Sheen, the pass on the route from Ooshnoo, which 
is just to the North of them, are distinctly visible at Mosul. 
Springs soon began to appear, all running westward, and 
instead of hastening to pour themselves into the lake of 
Oroomiah, like those on the former part of our journey, 
destined to mingle with the waters of the Tigris, the Persian 
Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. This reminded us that we had 
now crossed the boundary, and were in Turkey. 

Near the summit of the boundary-ridge is a large ancient 
cemetery, partially shaded by clusters of large juniper trees, 
and containing one tomb as large as a small building. The 

nee is regarded by the Koords as very sacred, being 
lowed by the ashes of a venerable saint, called Sheikh 
Muhammea. On the graves, and around them, are manv 
beautiful flowers, probably placed there, of the kind which 


we met with in the district of Dole. I marvelled from 
whence so many dead had been brought to the mountain- 
top for interment ; but the secret was soon explained by our 
coming to villages, 

Babk is the name of the first district, on this route, in 
Turkey. It is in the province of Ravandooz, and in the 
pashalik of Bagdad. It is a large district, extending to a 
considerable distance beyond the town of Ravandooz. Our 
stage to-day was about thirty miles, in a direction still a little 
to the South of West. After entering Turkey, our way lay 
down a narrow, steep, rocky valley. The numerous springs, 
and the melting snow on tae mountains all around us, soon 
enlivened our way by a large stream, which was constantly 
swelling its waters by receiving tributaries from the smaller 
valleys on either hand. This proved to be the Bavandooz 
river, an important branch of the Zab, the ancient Zabatus 
of Xenophon. The lower sections of the valley were at 
length dotted with many small green fields of wheat, and 
with oak bushes and small trees, from which the gall-nut is 
gathered, scattered all about on the mountain-side, here and 
there adorned by wild grape-vines, gracefully creeping up 
their branches. The whole scene, so different from the bare 
mountains of Persia, reminded us strongly of our loved 
native land. 

Proceeding down the deep valley, the mountains on either 
side piercing, and ofl;en peering far above the clouds, we at 
length came to the village, of Kayat, at a point where two 
other considerable streams enter the one we were following. 
Here our loads were suddenly seized by some rude-looking 
Koords, who proved to be custom-house men, and who sup- 
posed we might have merchandize. They were so reluctant 
to believe our declaration to the contrary, that they actually 
led away the horse that carried our provi8ion-\)oxes, to 
examine them ; and sharp words passed between them and 
our muleteers and companions, and blows were threatened 
on the j)art of the Koords, before they would yield the 
point and let the horse go^ Then our men, in their turn, 
feeling that they had the advantage, enjoyed the satisfaction 
of frightening the other party, by taking down their names, 
and threatening to represent their rude conduct at Ravan- 
dooz, which the Kooros earnestly besought them not to do. 
Annoying as was this interference, it was still a gratefiil 


token tliat we were 'in a land of government, order, and 
general security. 

As we proceeded, our principal muleteer, who, it seems, 
was won over by the men at the custom-house, to act as 
their apologist, repeatedly, when he met persons, came up 
to my norse, took hold of the skirt of my garment, and 
then addressed those who were passing him. I could not 
understand the jingle of his Koordish conferences, but on 
inquiry I found that he was telling them to announce to 
their mends at the custom-house, that he had hold of the 
skirt of my garment, entreating me not to represent them 
to their superiors, and had hope of prevailing on me not 
to do it ; while he had, in fact, said nothing to me on 
the subject. Such adepts are even rude Koords in the 
art of finesse. This same muleteer, to enhance his own 
consequence on the road, was in the habit of magnifying 
ours, calling us consuls, and great consuls; and in one 
instance he told the people of a village which we were 
passing, that he had charge of four consuls, on their way 
to Mosul, an English, a French, a Persian, and a Turkish, 
Mar Yohannan and Deacon Isaac being pointed out as the 
two last. The ignorant, simple villagers were easily duped 
bj such statements. 

The village of Rayat has a strong castle, built of stone 
and lime, and the same is true of most other villages in this 
valley, and, indeed, in this district, the fortifications having 
been erected fifteen or twenty years ago, by Muhammed 
Pasha, or Koor Meer, Blind Chief, so called from the defect 
of an eye, the powerful chief of Ravandooz who rebelled 
against the government of the Sultan, and spread ravages 
tnronghout Koordistan, and sent terror into all the adjacent 
parts of Turkey and Persia. 

Proceeding still down the valley, we came to Derbent, a 
fine village, though not large, snugly lodged in the fork 
fonned by the Ravandooz river and a large tributary which 
enters it from the North. So great is the descent of this 
river, and so powerful the stream, that, were it in a civilized 
land, it might turn the wheels of thousands of factories, 
drawing wool for manufacture from the myriads of flocks 
throughout Koordistan ; and the same may be said of many 
other similar rivers, among the lofty mountains of these 
wild regions. The site of Derbent is so steep and narrow 


that the houses, which are built of stone, are constructed in 
tiers, the base of one tier being on a level with the top of 
another. Beautiful trees skirt the streams above and below 
the village, and small fields of wheat, and even a vineyard 
of a few rods square, were smiling near it. 

The rocky mountain-sides were now covered with a thick 
growth of moss, the sight of which also reminded us grate- 
mllv of home, as we seldom see mosses in Persia, owing 
probably to the dryness of the atmosphere. 

Proceeding a few miles below Derbent, our road being 
rocky, and often very narrow and difficult, where a single 
mis-step of our horses would have dashed us down a h\m- 
dred or more feet, into the foaming river, we reached an 
expansion of the narrow valley, the village of Memehall 
lymg back on a gentle decKvity half a mile distant from 
tne road. Here we halted for the night, deeply impressed 
with the wonders and sublimities still spread out around us 
by the Creator's hand. 

A Koordish traveller who passed along, told us that a 
great Turkish army had assembled at Havandooz, to take a 
rebel chief, ** so vast an army," said the Koord, " that one 
would call it the resurrection." On reaching Ravandooz, 
we learned that a thousand troops had come from Bagdad 
to the neighboring district of Khoy, to chastise some refrac- 
tory Koords, who had fled towards Persia as the army 
advanced. The rude peasant who first reported the matter 
to us, must have been very much over-excited by the sight 
of a thousand regular troops. 

May 6. — Although we pitched our tents last night about 
half a mile from any village, here in the wilds of Koordis- 
tan, we still slept securely, without a watch ; which strongly 
impresses us with the fact that there is a very different gov- 
ernment in Turkey from that of Persia. Fifteen years ago, 
this region was regarded as entirely impassable for Europe- 
ans. But fearful Koor Meer was at length conquered by 
the concentrated efforts of the Turks and the Persians, and 
these mountains have since been brought into effectual 

Our stage to-day was about thirty miles, on a course 
still nearly West, Following down the Eavandooz river, 
we aoon left the expansion of the valley in which we had 
encamped. This was succeeded by a rocky pass, so narrow, 


steep and frightful, that we deemed it safe to dismount. 
There was only a shelving parapet, for a considerable dis- 
tance, along the side of the cliff which descended a hundred 
feet below us, almost perpendicularly, to the river, and tow- 
ered many hundred feet above us. This rocky pass was 
succeeded by another expansion of the valley, broader than 
the first, and that again by another rocky pass, bolder and 
wilder than the former, and so on. The sides of the moun- 
tains were clothed with a rich growth of gall-nut oaks, and 
the lower declivities, with numberless beautiful fields of 
wheat and barley, nearly to the edge of the river, the mar- 
gins of which were skirted by thrifty trees and hedges of 
various kinds. Beside the gall-nut oak, the juniper, the 
walnut and the mulberry were very common, and grape- 
vines, growing wild, often hung so thickly over our path as 
to impede our passing. But we rejoiced to be hedged up 
by trees, so rare on the desert mountains of Persia. The 
scenery, on the whole of to-day's stage, was marked by 
beauty, grandeur, and sublimity ; and such was the variety, 
combining all the elements of each, from the frowning snow- 
capped summit down to the smiling vineyard, that it is 
fruitless to attempt a very minute description. 

Aft«r following down the eastern branch of the roaring 
Bavandooz river, about four miles, we crossed the stream 
by a bridge of timbers covered over with cross-sticks, stones 
and sand ; the river being spanned by the length of a tim- 
ber, resting on a notch in tne cliff on one side, and on a 
stone abutment on the other. 

Following the south-western bank, we then passed three 
villages, one on the eastern, and two on the western side of 
the stream, namely, Choman, Eizan, and Omarava. I name 
them in the order of their location on the river. They 
consist of miserable stone and earth structures, half buried 
in the ground, but are surrounded by the rarest charms of 
rural loveliness, patches of wheat of the purest green, and 
hedges of fruit-trees, and small vineyards. 

At the last village above named, we recrossed the river 
by a bridge of timbers resting on a stone abutment on each 
bank, and on two pillars in the stream. Here we left the 
river, the road, which still follows it, being pronounced by 
our muleteers so dangerous that, of every two horses that 
should attempt to travel over it, one at least would Ml 


and be dashed in pieces. We immediately ascended a 
high mountain-ridge, a spur of the general range, which is 
clothed with a heavy forest of gall-nut oak ; I might perhaps 
rather say, an orchard, and yet it was not precisely tnat^ the 
trees not being in rows, but scattered in careless irregularity, 
so far apart as to allow a rich growth of grass under them. 
The descent of this ridge, on the opposite side, was longer 
and steeper than the ascent. At the foot of it, we came to 
the village of Charaarakin, similar in appearance to those we 
had last passed. It lies on the eastern bank of a river of the 
same name, which is a southern branch of the Savandooz 
river, and nearly as large as the main stream where we left 
it. \Ve here crossed this river by a bridge resting on stone 
abutments and pillars, like the one at Omarava. Leaving 
the Chamarakin river, we soon struck one of its tributaries, 
which we followed up two miles, passing through a more 
charming growth of trees, shrubs, hedges and wild vines, 
than we had before seen. The walnut was of great size, 
and the sycamore, thougH not tall, was large and very 
abundant. We soon came to the village of Dergala, which 
is romantically situated on a liigh point of land, formed by 
the junction of the stream with a small tributary. A strong 
castle crowns the brow of the promontory. Dergala is a 
large village, and is inhabited entirely by Jews. Several 
children came running to the road to see us, and one man, 
calling after us for custom-house duties. They addressed 
us in the Syriac, which is their native language. Their 
faces all strikingly indicated their nationaUty. 

We had already encountered several slight showers to-day ; 
but tlie rain now began to pour down copiously, as we 
wound our way up another mountain-side. When we had 
reached the summit, and descended a short distance on the 
opposite side, our muleteer determined to halt there for the 
Sabbath ; but the place was too elevated to be comfortable, 
and too distimt from any human habitation to allow us to 
procure provisions. We therefore proceeded, notwithstand- 
ing the reluctance of the muleteer, and soon descended one 
of the steepest decUvities I had ever encountered. The 
rain was still falling profusely, — " the mercy of God," as 
the muleteer piously remarked, when some one of our party 
alluded to the inconvenience which we were likely to expe- 
rience from it. Our descent would have been rendered 


entirely impracticable, by slippery mud, bad not the surface 
of the ground been covered with a layer of crumbled lime- 
stone, so thick as to absorb the rain as it fell, which afforded 
us a deep and easy foothold. This descent was quite long 
as well as steep. After reaching the bottom of the declivity, 
we followed down a narrow valley several miles ; but the 
rain still falling, the road becoming very muddy, and our 
loads wet and heavy, we abandoned the purpose which we 
had entertained, of reaching Eavandooz, though now within 
ftLx or eight miles of the town. We halted for the Sabbath 
near the village of Mawill, which is situated about half a 
mile North of the main road. Here, too, we were sur- 
rounded by scenery combining the same grandeur, beauty, 
and variety as before noticed. The valley and plain of 
Bavandooz appeared toward the West, though still partially 
shut from us by spurs of the mountains. 

We were reminded of the change of climate, to-day, by 
observing barley in the ear. We have descended hun* 
dreds, and probably thousands of feet, since entering the 
Turkish territory, and shall descend much more before 
reaching the plains of Assyria and Mesopotamia. This 
great descent accounts for the overpowering heat of those 

The quantity of gall-nuts yielded annually by each bush, 
or tree, varies from half a dozen to many pounds, according 
to its size and thriftiness. The labor of gathering them, 
scattered as the trees and bushes are, over the Koordish 
mountains, scores and hundreds of miles in different direc- 
tions, must be immense, furnishing employment to multi- 
tudes of men, women and children, for a considerable period 
every year. 

May 6.-— A bright sun rose upon us this morning, and 
spread an almost unearthly hue over the charming scenery 
around us. Although by accident, in our haste, in the rain, 
we had chosen this as a practicable spot for spending the 
Sabbath quietly, we could not, in any circumstances, have 
selected a more desirable situation. We had ascended a 
low, but bold ridge that runs down from the village near 
which we had encamped, transversely, to the centre of the 
valley, and thus commands a fine view of its whole range, 
up and down, to the distance of filYy or more miles above 
us, and at least thirty, below, the whole presenting a pano« 

TOL. n. 12 


rama of green fields, vineyards, grassy hill-sides, and moun- 
tain-clifis, in almost endless succession, all thickly sprinkled 
over with the gall-nut oaks, which now extended quite to 
the mountain-tops, excepting a few of the highest points 
that are covered with snow. 

May 7. — We were amused this morning by the making 
out of our reckoning, which, as our attendants were xinable 
to converse with the peasants in Koordish, was attempted 
by a blind Koordish beggar whom our muleteer had lea by 
the hand, several hours, on Saturday, on his way towaid 
Ravandooz, and who knew a little Turkish. ImpTessed 
with the high importance of the agency entrusted to him, 
he seemed inspired literally to magnify his office as account- 
ant, rattling over and over the list of paras, ten of which 
make a cent, that we were to pay for the simple articles of 
food that we had purchased, and reiterating the same at the 
top of his shrill voice, that we and the villagers might 
clearly comprehend both the charge for each item, and the 
sum total, till we were heartily wearied as well as amused 
with the jingle of his protracted calculations, and directed 
him to stop. 

We proceeded down the valley in which we had encamped 
for the Sabbath, about three miles toward the West, and 
then came again upon the Ravandooz river, which dashed 
down from the East, much increased since we had left it 
by receiving several tributaries from the mountain-valleya. 
We now followed down the south-eastern bank of the river, 
as it roared along through the same variety of grand and 
beautiful scenery as already described. From the base of 
the lofty ridge on our left, boiled forth several springs, 
the waters of which, like small rivers, foaming across our 
road, rushed down the bank, and mingled with the river 
below. These springs are very striking natural objects. 

At the distance of five or six miles from our stopping 
place, we came in sight of the femed Ravandooz, now hardly 
two miles distant. It is situated in an undulating valley, 
of a few miles in extent, which is entirely surrounded by 
mountains. The town itself is perched upon a rocky de- 
clivity, flanked on the North and West by the Ravandooz 
river, which here suddenly bends toward the South, and on 
the East by a tributary that enters the river at this place, 
both having very high, bold, precipitous, rocky banks, 


the tributary having cut a winding furrow in the solid 
rock, sixteen or eighteen feet wide, and more than twenty 
feet deep, which perfectly serves the purpose of a fosse. 
On the South, the town is secured, across the gradually 
ascending mountain-side, between these rivers, by a strong 
wall of stone and lime, and several towers. It is naturally 
a very strong place, firom its peculiar position ; but it can 
easily be commanded, and has been commanded, by cannon, 
from all sides of it. The town is farther guarded by an 
imposing stone castle, perched on a bold hill on the oppo- 
site side of the river, about a mile distant toward the South- 
West, and by numerous smaller castles and towers, in va- 
rious directions. 

The situation of Ravandooz, in this low valley, is hot 
and not pleasant, yet it is said to be healthy. It is sup- 
posed to contain aoout fifteen hundred families, eighty of 
which are Jewish, and the rest Koordish. There are Jews, 
also, in several neighboring villages, and there is one small 
village of Papal Nestorians, on the road to Ooshnoo, about 
four miles distant from Ravandooz. The Jews speak the 
Syriac language. We wished to obtain a specimen of their 
dialect, but their suspicious old Rabbi would not consent even 
to write or to dictate a chapter from the New Testament. 
Four hundred Turkish troops are stationed at Ravandooz, 
to aid in governing the town and province. The place does 
not appear, from without, so large as I have stated ; but the 
houses being built in tiers, the flat roof of one serving as 
the court of that next above it, are very compact, and may 
amount to fifteen hundred. 

This, then, is the femed Ravandooz, the name of which 
was so terrible in all these regions, when I first came to 
Persia, as the seat of Muhammed Pasha, or Koor Meer, as 
he was familiarly called, who then had twentv thousand 
wild Koordish warriors in the field, but was finally con- 
quered in 1836, as above stated, by the concentrated efforts 
of Turkish and Persian armies. He was truly » man of 
blood. It is related of him, for instance, that on one oc- 
casion, when his slumbers on the roof of his lofty castle, in 
summer, were disturbed by the crying of his infant daughter 
in the cracjle near by, he arose in his wrath, took the child by 
the hand, and hurled her into the river that roars along in 
its deep bed at the foot of the castle, " God never gave 


the monster another child," said the Kooid who related to 
us this instance of his savage cruelty. The Koords have 
an elegy on the tragical death of his infant daughter, current 
among them to this day. 

Bassoul Pasha, a brother of Koor Meer^ succeeded the 
latter in the government of Ravandooz. But the Turks at 
length found that their confidence in him was misplaced, 
he too discovering symptoms of revojti Three years ago, 
he was compelled to flee before an advancing Turkish army, 
into Persia, from whence, through English interference, he 
has since been permitted to return as a private person, to 
reside at Bagdad. 

The present governor of Ravandooz is Hfijee Muhammed 
Agha, an honest Turk. Thus has this wild region been 
effectually subdued, and the Koords transformed, in a few 
years, from wild marauders into quiet peasants and husbandr 
men, and the country, from one too fearfiU to be entered 
by Europeans, without imminent peril, into an abode of 
peace and entire security. Success to the arm of Turkish 
power that works such changes in Koordistan ! 

One of the most important expeditions of Muhammed 
Pasha, or Koor Meer, in the height of his devastating career, 
was an attempt to subdue Tiaree, a short time before I came 
to Persia. In this attempt he signally failed, and so many 
of his men were killed in their encounter with the desper- 
ate Tiareeans, that, if one of the latter people were to be 
identified in the region of Ravandooz, he would immedi- 
ately be slain, to repay blood for blood, unless rescued by 
the Turks. The savage Emcer, however, laid waste many 
Christian villages elsewhere, without mercy or partiahty, 
during that expedition. The large Papal village oi Elkoosh, 
and raaiiv others in that vicinitv, were then sacked and 
nearlv destroyed by him. 

Our blind accountant made his appearance at our tent 
again, soon after we encamped. It would seem that he had 
also acted as banker for our attendants, with the few shil- 
lings of Turkish money in his possession, they not yet 
having obtained money in that currency. This poor lieg- 
gar was totally blind, and yet he could distinguish sm^ 
pieces of money with the nicest accuracy, and seemed to 
enjoy feeling them, quite as much as if his eyes had rested 
on the shining metal. 


The sound of martial music, toward evening, in the bar- 
racks in the town, near which we were encamped, was 
grateful to our ears, the familiar notes transporting us to 
our early homes. When we remember, too, what European 
tactics have done, within the last thirty years, to promote 
the peace and advance the civilization of Turkey, and 
recently in these wildest portions of that empire, we find it 
not in our hearts utterly to repudiate the military profession. 

We visited the city, so called, though it hardly deserves 
to be dignified ^-ith the name. The houses are built partly 
of stone, and partly of very large sun-dried bricks. The 
bricks are made of mud mixed with a large quantity of 
cut straw, after the stvle of Ecrvpt of old. The loose sand- 
Stone soil here is not sufficiently cohesive to serve the pur- 
pose of bmlding, without an ample mixture of the straw. 
Of some of the houses, the lower storj' is built of stone, and 
the upper, (for many of them are two stories high,) of this 
kind of brick. The streets are narrow, crooked, and very 
filthy. The bazaars are hardlv worthy of the name, either 
for their size or the business done in them. A few petty 
merchants finom Mosul seemed to figure in them the most 
conspicuously. The gall-nut trade must, however, be ex- 
tensive here, and very important 

We called on the governor, who is a native of Bagdad, an 
intelligent and very gentlemanly man. Of his own accord 
he directed a letter to be prepared, bespeaking for us kind 
treatment on the road. We congratulated him on the fiivor- 
able changes in progress in Koordistan, of which he was by 
no means insensible, while he expressed the hope of still 
greater changes for the better. 

We prociired Turkish passports at Ravandoojs, which 
would serve us as travellers in any part of Turkey, for one 
year. How strange to see a Koordish Moolah, in the wilds 
of Koordistan, filling out passports for American citizens 1 

The most influential merchant of Kavandooz, Muhammed 
Ameen Agha, who is also the \'izier of the district, called 
on us at our tents. He brought to us some ore which he 
supposed to contain gold, and at his request we took a small 
quantity of it, proposing to write to him, should we be able 
to give any valuable information in regard to it. The locality 
is still a secret with the merchant. He is a very pleasant, 
intelligent man; has visited Constantinople^ Tabreez, and 


other cities ; and I could hardly persuade myself that so 
civilized a man had grown up in these dark mountaina 
He was loud in his praises of the change from Koordish to 
Turkish rule, though himself a K9ord, saying that the taxes 
are now very moderate, and that nothing is taken in the fonn 
of fines, or bribes. We should find it difficult to suppose that 
so mild and gentlemanly a man had ever been allied to 
banditti; and yet on inquiry it appeared that this same 
Muhammed Ameen Agha had accompanied Koor Meer on 
his unsuccessful attempt against Tiaree, perhaps, however, 
from constraint rather than choice. 

May 8. — It would be utterly vain to attempt any adequate 
description of this day's stage. During nearly the whole 
of it, we were surrounded by the most impressively sublime 
scenery, and passed over the most difficult roads that I have 
yet seen. The stage was short, probably less than twenty 
miles, but so rough that we were seven or eight hours in 
travelling over it Our general course was a Uttle to the 
South of West. Our road, on starting, lay directly through 
the town of Ravandooz, entering it by a bridge thrown 
across the tributary of the Ravanaooz nver, over the natu- 
ral fosse already mentioned. We wound our way up the 
declivity, the road being formed of stone stairs, through the 
narrow, filthy streets, right by the governor's door, near 
which we met His Excellency attended by a retinue. He 
obligingly inquired whether he could not farther serve us. 
In addition to furnishing the letter addressed to the villagers 
on our route within his jurisdiction, he had, unsolicited, 
sent some of his own gate-keepers to guard our tents during 
the last night, and he seemed quite disposed to show us 
kindness in every way in his power. 

We left the town by a gate at the upper or southern end, 
and continued our way still up the gradual ascent. We 
were more impressed with the natural strength of the posi- 
tion of Kavandooz, on rising above it, than we had been 
on entering it from below. The river and its tributary, 
as already stated, flank it on three sides, by precipitous, 
rocky banks that would throw into insigninoance the 
grandeur of the Palisades on the Hudson. These banks 
rise rapidly, as one ascends, and the distance between those 
of each stream, as also between the streams themselves, in- 
creases. The tributary comes down the mountain-side which 


we were ascending ; but the river itself drives in the oppo- 
site direction, right through the solid limestone range, by a 
narrow gorge of unexampled sublimity, so far as my obser- 
vation extends, unless the banks of tne Niagara below the 
Falls be excepted. 

We now had a fair view of the fearful precipice on which 
the governor's castle is perched, and from the roof of which, 
hanging, over the rocky bank of the river, one hundred and 
fifty feet high, the bloody Muhammed Pasha threw his 
infant daughter. From the same dreadful height he was in 
the habit of throwing all such of his subjects as he deemed 
worthy of death, often on the most trivial pretexts, and not 
unfrequently to obtain their money. We were also pointed 
to a cliff, on one of the banks of the tributary stream, 
above the town, of eaual height and abruptness, from 
which two Koordish girls voluntarily cast themselves down, 
rather than yield to the tyrant's mandate that they should 
become the wives of two of his private servants. 

The Mosul merchants accompanied us a short distance 
out of the town, showing us in this, and other attentions, 
true oriental politeness. Though nominally Papists, con- 
verts from the Jacobite Church, they seemed to have little 
of the bigotry of Rome. 

The brow of the ascent, above Ravandooz, is beautifiilly 
crowned with a long range of orchards, in which the mul- 
berry, growing to a great size, seemed predominant. These 
orchards are interspersed with dweUings, and many houses 
appeared outside the walls of the town, in all directions. 
Kavandooz is increasing, and will doubtless continue to 
increase in population, and improve in other respects, under 
its present good government, and being, as it is, on a great 
natural route of commerce. Happiness and contentment 
seem now to prevail among all classes of its inhabitants, as 
much as they can ever be expected to prevail in an ignorant 
and inamoraJ community. Jews, as well as Koords, are 
employed in responsible offices, particularly in the custom- 
houses. And the children of all classes appeared so much 
more playful and happy than in Persia, sporting merrily in 
the evemng, till a late hour, that we were struck by the 
contrast as something remarkable. 

Keceding from the river as we left Ravandooz, we soon 
came to the brow of a deep valley, of three or four miles in 


extent, into wliieh we descended by a steep, zig-zag path* 
This valley is richly cultivated. Among other shruDs in 
the hedges, is what the Bishop called the pepper bush, in 
which he was probably correct. It was for some time a 
problem with us, where the springs of this valley find an 
egress, but a hidden one at length suddenly appeared, a 
narrow gorge being cut, as by some mighty convidsion, 
through the lofty mountain-ridge, here only a few rods 
broad, which separates this valley from the beci of the river. 

In ascending from this valley, we came upon a rooky, 
though not very steep, declivity of the main mountaimunge. 
The rough, broken stones, (which had a singular appear- 
ance, being irregularly perforated, though not lava,) were 
thrown so thickly in our path, and all around us, that it was 
very difficult to pass over them. Soon, great flocks appeared 
among the trees and shrubs in every direction, and at 
length came troops of nomad Koords, moving with their 
families and cattle from the warm regions below, where 
they had spent the winter, to spread themselves over the 
wila bounaary-mountains. They were the Harke^, who 
usually pass the winter in the pashalik of Mosul, and the 
summer on the mountains above Tergawer, toward which 
they were now migrating. 

Our road was so rough and narrow, up the ascent, and 
across the mountain-top, that we found it almost impossible 
to crowd along by the thronging troops of Koords, consist- 
ing of men, women and children, with loads of tents, and 
rude cooking-utensils, and cattle. But how was the diffi- 
culty increased as we proceeded ! We soon found ourselves 
on the brink of a precipice skirting the river on the South- 
East, that is almost perpendicular, and here at least fifteen 
hundred feet high. The problem now was, not only to 
descend this fearful precipice, but also to pass hundreds of 
Koords, with loaded horses, families, and cattle, on their 
way up it. We at first could see no road, but on careftilly 
looking down from the giddy height, we observed Koords 
threading their way on the side of the precipice, in various 
directions, along narrow parapets, little conceiving for some 
time that this was all one and the same road, and our road, 
running in a zig-zag course, successively in diffierent direc- 
tions, wherever ledges and breaks, wide enough for a foot- 
path, could be found or built up. 


We went forward, crowding by the Koords where the 
path admitted of two animals passing each other, and wait* 
mg for them, or they for ns, where it was too narrow for 
passing, till at length, looking up or down, we seemed to 
be hanging in the air, the riyer foaming in miniature still 
far below ns, and the rocks, along which eagles darted mmes^ 
tically, reaching as to the sky, far over our heads. The 
danger was now imminent, from above as well as below. 
The loose stones placed along the parapets above ns, might 
be easily jostled off by the thronging Koords, and come 
dashing down upon us. Only one stone, however, fell, and 
that one harmea none of us. We safely threaded our way 
back and forth, on the side of this awfally towering preci- 
pice, till we had descended within a few hundred feet of the 
river ; when a tributary, the KhaliJSn, of considerable size, 
came rushing down from the South- West, through a very 
deep gorge, and with banks as solid, steep, ana bold as 
those of the Bavandooz river itself. Leaving the river, our 
path now wound around upon a cliff on the South, forming 
one bank of the tributary; and the path slightly descending, 
while the stream descended rapidly m the opposite direction, 
we at length came upon its margin. The lofty mountain- 
sides on either hand had now become somewhat less pre- 
cipitous, and their lower sections were clothed with a heavy 
growth of oak trees and bushes, and the margins of the 
stream with rich grass. The Koords were encamping in 
large numbers on the river-banks, their flocks, herds and 
horses feeding upon the rank grass, and they themselves 
enjoying the cool shade. The wild stream now formed a 
succession of very grand cataracts, extending, at short inter- 
vals, about a mile, some of which were nearly fifty feet high. 
What cotdd be more grand than their dashing foam, and 
wild roar, amid these mountains? And to heighten the 
interest of the scene, now and then a beautiful cascade came 
leaping over the cliffs and plunging into the river. We at 
length crossed from the eastern to the western bank of this 
stream, on a frail bridge supported by stone abutments and 
two stone pillars ; and still following it a mile or two ferther, 
we issued from the mountain-gorge, bounded here by bold, 
rocky pillars, as if to guard nature's wonders and mysteries 
withm, and came to open meadows and fields, where we 

a IS 


gladly encamped. Tlie village of Khaliffin was half a mile 
up the river, the only village we saw to-day. 

Low ridges lay beyond us on the South and West, cov- 
ered with oak trees and shrubs; but we had now completed 
the passage of the great Koordish range, a range far more 
wild, rugged and magnificent than I had ever expected to 
find it on this route, and more strikingly displaying the 
wonders of the Creator's handy works than any of the wild 
mountains I had before crossea in the East. 

Although the hundreds of Koords whom we met in our 
descent of the fearful precipice, greatly enhanced our dan- 
ger and our fatigue, they at the same time aiforded us much 
entertainment. They were about equally distributed in 
families of men, women and children, with their herds and 
flocks, the men being heavily armed, and the women, ihe 
older children, and the quadrupeds, except those very 
young, more heavily laden, and in all conceivable ways. 
Some of the women had cradles lashed to their backs, with 
young children in them, and often, if the child was old 
enough, it sat upright on the toj> of the cradle, with its feet 
astride of the mother's neck. Other women had large loads 
of cooking utensils, in sacks, bound upon their shoulders. 
Many of the children had young lambs and kids, too feeble 
for the ascent, in their arms ; and they and the women, in 
addition to the burdens they bore, often led mares followed 
by their foals, the mares being also laden with large sacks 
of wheat, with rugs, and with tents. Cows in some cases 
had their young calves bound upon their backs, and in 
other cases, sacks filled with children, or with lambs, or 
both together, slung across them, on the top of their loads. 
None were not laden, whether man or beast, except the 
lordly husbands, and the extremely young. Our sympathy 
would have been excited for the poor females thus brutally 
tasked, sometimes even carrying the guns of their husbands, 
in addition to their other loads, had not these women, from 
long endurance of hardship, appeared as robust as the oxen 
and cows they drove. We saw few who seemed fatigued in 
ascending, with their burdens, the clift' of which the descent 
was so arduous to us. They moved cheerfully on, and very 
few of their children were crj^ing, unless from fear of us. 

Numerous and immense flocks of sheep and goats passed 
our tents, after we encamped, belonging to the Harkee 


Koords whom we had met on the road. Our muleteers and 
companions tried repeatedly to purchase a lamb, but in 
vain. It is not deemed profitable to sell them when so 

Joung ; and from the many scores in each flock the shep- 
erds would, on no account, part with one, till a flock passed 
in which there was a lamb that had been lamed, and could 
not travel ; that one the muleteer obtained. 

We had encamped for the night at the south-western base 
of the high mountain along the frightful cliffs of which, 
engulphing the rivers, we had clambered. Three soldiers 
from Kavandooz stopped at the same place, who entertained 
us with narratives of the important events that had trans- 
pired near us. When Muhammed Pasha, or Koor Meer, 
was vanquished, for instance, the Turks drew their cannon up 
this steep mountain-promontory, by ropes, and then dragged 
them along on the top of the snow-capped ridge, being of 
course unable to transport them by the route we had trav- 
elled. On the little plain, too, where we were, according to 
the statement of these soldiers, armies have often encamped, 
in their expeditions against the refractory Koords. The 
Turkish army in Khoy, a day's journey from this place, is 
now in pursuit of the chief of the Navar Koords, who is 
the master of ninety villages, is very powerful, and is much 
feared in all these regions. He is now flying like a partridge 
from mountain to mountain, still often committing robberies, 
though closely pursued. 

May 9. — Our course was nearly South- West to-day, and 
our stage about twenty miles. We first crossed a broken 
ridge, six or eight miles broad, which elsewhere might be 
call^ a low mountain, but is hardly entitled to that name, 
so near to the lofty ranges we had recently passed. Our 
road across this ridge was very stony and rough, though no 
where very steep. The ridge is covered with oak trees and 
shrubs, like the higher mountains, with many small fields 
of wheat, and some fine vineyards scattered here and there. 
Eeaching its western brow, we came in sight of a great 
undulating plain, stretching full thirty miles, and probably 
forty, from North- West to South-East, and at least ten miles 
broad. Low, broken mountain-ridges appeared beyond it. 
Across the widest part of this plain was rolling a large 
river, now faintly seen in the distance ; and on inquiry we 
were told that the noble stream before us was the Zab, the 


Zabatus of ancient histonr, which Xenophon and the ten 
thousand crossed. The Zab breaks its way through a high 
mountain-barrier stretching along the northern side of this 
plain, and far still to the westward, which is like an iron 
escarpment, reared there to guard the sublimities of the 
loftier mountains behind it. Not very far back of this bar- 
rier are the Drincipal Nestorian districts, as Jeloo, Bass, 
Tekhoma, ana Tiaree. The gorge through which the river 
Zab bursts forth from the mountains, as seen by us at a 
distance, appeared fearftilly rugged and sublime. 

We passed down from the stony ridge which we had 
crossed this morning, by a rough descent, and our way was 
also impeded by throngs of migratory Koords, who were 
still c^pwding by us. They were a part of the great Harkee 
tribe, so many of whom passed us yesterday, with here and 
there a few Shekoiks from Oroomiah, who were driven in 
this direction, last year, by the scarcity occasioned by the 
locusts in that province, and who, like the others, were now 
retreating from the hot plains of Assyria to the cool ridges 
of the snow-capped Koordish mountains. We could not 
help being impressed with the wealth of some of the Koord- 
ish chiefs, in passing such thronging thousands of sheep, 
and hundreds of hoises and cattle. 

We left the district of Balak in crossing the stony ridge. 
The great plain which we were now entering, is in the dis- 
trict of Hareer. The Koords who inhabit it are of the 
Soorikchee tribe. The plain contains many villages, and 
much of it is well cultivated. Great fields of wheat were 
waving in every direction, now fully eared, and the barley 
was assuming a golden hue for the harvest. We felt the 
sun to be very warm, as we were crossing this plain, and 
were thus reminded of the great descent which we had made 
from the elevated plains of Persia. We at length crossed a 
deep valley in the centre of the plain. Great limestone 
strata protruded themselves just above the surface, in this 
valley and elsewhere on the plain; and in one section, of 
a mile or two in extent, I observed striking specimens of 
diluvium, or drift. 

In crossing this vallev we had approached within a mile 
of the Zab, near the village of Kandfeel, where one route to 
Mosul crosses the river ; but we now bore away from the 
stream, which here runs toward the South- West, and pro- 

101 •/;/•-. 

ceeded directly across the plain, this being cbiiigidByfe^ the 
nearest road. " •'. ." / 

We encamped near the low mountain-ridge which boutf^ .•"/'- . 
the plain of Hareer on the South, about a mile from the" -.V /-"" 
villf^e of Harash. This ridge is covered with small oak - ^ 

Bhrubs, but very few appeared on the plain itself 

It was interesting to nnd ourselves now so near the river 
Zab, long famed in history, and which draws most of its 
waters from the wild mountains occupied by the Nestorians. 

Of the simple, primitive manners which we observed 
among the Koords on our way, their style of mutual saluta- 
tion arrested our attention. When two men meet, they 
grasp each other's right hand, which they simultaneously 
raise, and each kisses the hand of the other. And when a 
man and woman meet, if familiar acquaintances, the former 
bows his neck to the latter, who kisses it, which forcibly 
reminded us of the felling upon the neck, and kissing it, so 
often mentioned in the Scriptures. 

Near the spot where we encamped, were many Koordish 
tents ; and on a hill at a short distance, the chief of this dis- 
trict, Bayaz Agha, was sitting on his fleet horse, at the time 
of our arrival, with spear in hand, surrounded bv a retinue. 
Our muleteer went to him, and showed him tne letter of 
the governor of Eavandooz, directing that our tents be 
watched at night by the peasants, etc., and the chief, after 
8ome sly intimations from his servants, that we were **good 
game" for him, and some petulant words to the muleteer, 
finally ordered four of his men to act as our guard, but still 
showed far less deference for his superior, than the Koords 
in the wild mountains of Balak, more recently subdued. 
The people where we stopped yesterday had, moreover, 
warned us of the marauding propensities of the Koords of 
Hareer; and taking that premonition in connection with 
the suspicious appearance of Bayaz Agha, in his conference 
with our muleteer, and the fact that, instead of coming to 
welcome us, when we encamped, though near us, he and his 
savage-looking party pranced away behind the hiUs, bran- 
dishing their spears, we were led to apprehend that he might 
seriously entertain the idea of making us his game by nignt 
and perhaps through the watchmen whom he had promised 
as our guard. We therefore struck our tents just at sunset, 
and moved onward across the ridge at the foot of which we 


had p^^isusfic^^. We passed up tHe ridge by a zig-zag path, 
jeiboift tVb miles, and reached its summit ; and descending a 
•/• a^rt distance on the opposite side, we came to the village 
.'•of Babajeejik. It was now dark, and deeming it safe to 
lodge in this village, and wishing to start very early the 
next morning, to avoid the heat of mid-day, we did not 
pitch our tents, but spread our beds in the open air, on the 
roof of one of the houses. 

The village of Babajeejik is romantically situated on the 
southern declivity of this mountain-ridge. It contains forty 
houses built of stone, is guarded by a castle, and has a mosk 
of considerable size. Just above the village there is a very 
sacred cemetery, called Monsofee Karasoolee, which is em- 
bowered by large trees. The village itself seems, indeed, to 
be quite a religious place. The kethodth of it is himself a 
sheikh, and dervishes were* praying and chanting in the 
mosk till a late hour in the evening, who concluded their 
devotions by repeating in exact concert, "There is no God 
but God," and then simply the name of God a hundred times. 

May 10. — We slept soundly on the roof till 2 o^clock 
A. M. when our muleteer waked us, and we were soon 
mounted, and on the road. We advanced about fifteen 
miles before breakfast, the first half of the way toward the 
South- West, and the last half, nearly West, over a very 
broken region. In descending the low ridge from Baba- 
jeejik, we passed through a deep, rugffed ravine, which 
terminated in abrupt, rocky pillars ; and at that point we 
came to a valley running transversely, through which flows 
a considerable stream from the South-East, toward the Zab. 
This valley and its river are called Dara Beeroosh. There 
is a castle perched on a bold cliff a mile South of our road. 
This castle, which is called Deveeree, was one of the out- 
posts of the rebel Muhammed Pasha of Ravandooz, in his 
resistance to the Turks. 

Rising from this valley, we passed over a section of ledges, 
some of soft sandstone and limestone rocks, and others of 
sand and earth, among which were striking specimens of 
drift;. We had descended a great distance this morning, 
but our ascent was now nearly as great ; and when we 
finally reached the summit of the highest ridge, we had 
most magnificent views of the great plains of Assyria, 
stretching away in the distance beyond us. The lofty, 


rugged mountains which we had been crossing for several 
days, had often filled us with inexpressible emotions of sub- 
limity; but the vastness of the level plains now before us, 
bounded only by the sky, so far as our vision could extend, 
appeared no less sublime. 

To the left of our route, on the South, lay the immense 
fertile plain of Arbil,* or Arbeela, on which Alexander con- 
quered Darius ; and on our right lay the great and equally 
fertile plain of Noker, of which tne chief town is Akra. 
The river Zab was rolling in the distance before us, and a 
low mountain, of small extent, far to the West, marked 
the position of Mosul, on the plain of ancient Nineveh. 
How venerable, as well as grand and sublime, is the scene 
on which we now gazed, an early cradle of the human race, 
and the arena of many momentous events of its history, 
both sacred and profane I 

Descending from the height which so advantageously 
commands these impressive'Views, over ridges still more or 
less broken, the sandstone and limestone being so friable as 
to become of itself arable earth, a process obviously and rap- 
idly going on, we at length halted for breakfast at the small 
village of Bawahallen, which is pleasantly situated above a 
deep glen filled with fruit trees, among which the fig and 
pomegranate and grape vines were conspicuous. The houses 
of this village, as also of two other small ones that we 
passed this morning, are of the most frail construction, the 
roofe of some of them being covered with straw, and the 
walls consisting, some of the stone so friable, and some of 
sticks woven together in wicker-work, plastered over with 
a thin coat of mud. There can be little winter here, or the 
people could not live in such frail tenements. There are 
three families of Jews An Bawahallen, and fifteen of Koords, 
who are still the prevailing inhabitants on our route. 

Among the most common shrubs which we observed 
this morning, is one bearing pods, supposed by some to be 
" the husks which the swine did eat," with which the prodi- 
gal would fain have filled his belly. The bush grows from 
three to ten feet high, and the pods are like those of a large 
bean, three or four hanging m a cluster. From the leaf 
of this same shrub a species of coarse silk is made. The 

* This plain ig called by the Koords and Nestoriaiis, Holer, and by tbe 
Turin, ArbiL 


nle of BawahaUen told us that the wonn which Ibniui 
^es not die in the web, but esoapcB, and beodmea a 
butterfly, being very different firom the oommon ailk^wonn. 
The web is formed on the bushes, without any care on«ihe 

Eart of the cultivator, till it is ready to be ffaihered. The 
kbric made of this material is much valued by tibe natives^ 
and extensively worn by the women in this reeion, and in the 
Eoordish mountains, usually in the form of blade dieBsesL 
It is called kazHc The oaks were few on our stage to-day, 
and trees of any kind fewer and much smaller than in the 
higher regions. 

After break&st, we lingered several hours for our horsei 
to bait and rest, under the grateful shade of a large jumper, 
and then mounted, and rode fifteen miles more, and hatted 
for the ni^ht at the village of BesKwSiu Our general oourse 
during this ride was South-West The first hfuf of our way 
lay over rough undulationa ; .bttfhese were less rough than 
the broken ridges which we IHI previously croesed, ayod 
the soil, where Uie rocks did not protrude above the sur&oeu 
was very fertile, and extensively cultivated. Wheat ana 
barley, as is the case in all these regions, are the staple crope 
on the ground. The soft limestone and sandstone strata 
oft;en rose above the surfitce. In some cases, we obeerved 
the rocky strata to be very thin, often not more than a tocA 
in thickness, lying upon a rich stratum of red earth of 
indefinite depth. In one case, the earth on all sides had 
been washed away firom the rock, which lay like an immense 
table, but little inclined, and supported by its earthy pedestal 
to the height of several feet. The Koords. struck with the 
singular appearance, and thinking it something very myste- 
rious, had covered the rock with heaps of small stones as 
votive offerings. On all sides of us, now, the scene was 
one of vast irregularity, the rocky led^ and undulations^ 
stretching away scores of miles to the East and West, being 
so extensive as to weary with the general sameness. On 
this part of our stage, also, I observed sections of drift. 

A\ e were all the way gradually descending, and at length 
came in full view of the city of Arbeela, which loomed up 
distinctly, about twenty miles distant, on the bosom of the 
magnificent plain of t^e same name, that stretched away to 
the South and West as far as the eye could reach, with only 
the sky to bound the horizoiL 


While we were passing over these fertile undulations, 
two antelopes started up just before us, and skipped over 
the hills in all their native beauty^ wildness and fleetness. 
They are said to be common, as well as wolves, bears, and 
wild hogs, in all these regions. 

We at length left the undulations, and came down upon 
a great, level, alluvial plain, one of the most fertile that I 
have seen in the East. It was the northern extremity of 
the plain of Arbeela. Trees and shrubs had now disap- 

Siared, on all sides, with the rare exception of a shadctree. 
reat fields of wheat and barley, of the richest growth, 
were waving in every direction ; and graas, wherever the 
ground was not occupied with fields of grain, was rank 
enough for the mower s scythe. Soon, these fields will be 
ripe for the harvest, and the rich grass will wither under 
the scorching sun, there being but little rain here, after this 
season, and the land not being irrigated. 

Reshwan, where we entilanped ror the night, is a Koord* 
ish village of about one hundred houses, with two houses of 
Jews who speak the Syriac. The walls of the houses are 
built of mud, and the roofs, which are doubly inclined, are 
colTered with straw, fastened to the timbers by strong reeds, 
which are an abundant product of these plains. The straw 
is in some cases plastered over with a thm coaling of mud. 
The name of this district is Bostora ; it is within the juris- 
diction of Ravandooz. A small river, also called Bostora, 
comes down from the South-East, dividing the province 
of Ravandooz, at this place, from that of Arbeela. At 
Reshwan we were withm twelve or fifteen miles of the 
town of Arbeela, which is nearly South from that village. 
This town is partlv built on a circular hill, that part being 
enclosed by a wall, and the rest is around the base of the 
hill. It now contains only about twenty-five hundred or 
three thousand families of Koords and Turks, with twenty 
femilies of Christians, half of them Jacobites, and the other 
half Papal Nestorians, a sad decrease from the amount of 
its population in ancient times. It is much resorted to for 
traae, by the nomad Koords, and the Arabs. 

During a part of our ride to-day, the summits of the higher 
Nestorian mountains rose to our view, which had before 
been concealed by our nearer vicinity to the ranges that 
separate them, on the South, from the lower table-lands and 

YOL. D. 14 


plains. Deacon Isaac who has a very quick eye and mind, 
as a traveller, was able to identify most of these towering 
mountains, and to tell us the districts to which they respect- 
ively belong. 

As we looked around from our tents at our stopping-plac€, 
we could not help being awed with a deep feelmg of vast- 
ness, by the great extent of our horizon ; the almost inter- 
minable plains melting awav in the clear azure sky, except- 
ing on the North, where the loftiest ridges of Koordistan 
reared their snow-capped heads at a great distance, a sight 
most grateful to us, while we were panting from the extreme 
heat of the plains. 

The Koordish chief of the district of Bostora is Sayed 
Hassan, who resides in the village of Keshwan. He had 
now gone to Ravandooz, but his son, who was encamped 
with the people of the village, on the bank of the river, 
half a mile above, sent us a watch of two men to guard our 
tents at night, and seemed modi more obliging than the 
Koords where we halted yesterday. The people of this 
district live in tents for a few weeks, till about a month later 
than the present time, and then return to their houses, find- 
ing their tents insufficient to shield them against the intense 
heat of this climate. 

May 11. — We rose early, and rode five or six miles over 
the fertile vale of Bostora, which we had entered yesterday, 
along a continuous succession of the richest fields of wheat 
and barley, and reached the bank of the river Zab. In one 
or two oif the fields the people were already harvesting 
barley, and we remarked this peculiarity in their method of 
harvesting, that they do not bind the grain into sheaves, 
but deposit it in loose heaps on the ground, where it remains 
several weeks, after whicri it is threshed in the field. Our 
muleteers informed us that this is the method of harvesting 
practised among all the Koords. 

For two days, we had occasionally caught glimpses of the 
river Zab, and were not many miles distant from it, where it 
bursts down upon the plain from the high mountain-range, 
and still nearer to it, at the ferry of Kandeel ; but taking 
the lower route to Mosul, and the Zab bending to the west- 
ward, we did not reach its banks till this morning. Now, 
the venerable river rolled before us. It is still crossed by 
floats or rafts, buoyed up by inflated skins, just as it was in 


ancient times. We crossed it at the Koordish village of 
Girdaniamish. The river here, at this season, is at lesfit 
half as broad as the Connecticut is in Massachusetts, and 
with its powerful current is probably more than half as full. 
In summer and autumn, however, it is sometimes so Jow as 
to be fordable at this place. 

The float at this ferry is eight or nine feet square, consist- 
ing of sticks, two or three inches in diameter, bound to 
each other in the form of a quadrangular frame, with one or 
two sticks of similar size running crosswise, upon which small 
sticks placed closely together, are lashed by means of withes, 
bark, or wild vines. It was buoyed up by twenty-one infla- 
ted sheep or goat skins, arranged compactly under its entire 
bottom. The float thus rigged is very frail in appearance, 
and in fact ; but is nevertheless capable of carrying across 
ten or twelve men at a time. It was borne rapidly down 
the stream more than half a mile, in crossing, and had then 
to be dragged up by the ferrymen, who waded in the river, 
one pushing behind and another pulling before, twice the 
distance of its descent down the stream, that, in recrossing, 
it might strike the point from which it started. 

The ferrymen guide the float by a species of oar, consist- 
ing of sticks four or five feet long, with several split reeds 
bound on one end of the sticks, and thus forming a surfiice 
six or eight inches square. They do not, however, trust 
much to these rude oars for propelling the float, but let it 
sweep down the current, doing little more than keep it from 
running in the wrong direction. Truly venerable is this 
method of crossing, as well as the river itself! Our horses 
swam the river, being floated down the stream, like our- 
selves, more than half a mile. The effort was very great, 
and very reluctantly undertaken on their part, some of them 
returning repeatedly to the shore, and being as often forced 
back again into the stream. 

The Koords here and in some other places, seeing me 
take notes, remarked, "This country onginally belonged 
to the Franks, and it is theirs now, and he is writing it 
down." Our Nestorians, also, tell us that the impression 
is common among the Koords, that all their country once 
belonged to Europeans, who will ere long again become 
its possessors. The Koords here, however, were so little 
troubled by such apprehensions that they wished me to 


immortalize them by recording their names, and I must at 
least comply with the request of the chief speaker among 
them, named Bakhir, who was the proprietor of the float 
on which we crossed, and who, according to his statement, 
bad himself been a great traveller, having seen Bagdad, 
Bushire, and Muscat. 

We were detained several hours at the ferry, and by the 
time our effects and those of the caravan were over, the 
weather had become so intensely hot that we feared to ride 
in the suo, and pitching our tents on the north-western bank 
of the Zab, wMted for the cool of evening. Not a tree was 
any longer to be seen, and the atmosphere felt truly like 
that of a desert. 

In crossing the Zab, we passed from the Koordish prov- 
ince of Ravandooz into that of Amadiah. The former is 
called by the natives Sooran, and the latter, Badeena. The 
same river here also separates between the pashaliks of 
Bagdad and Mosul, Ravandooz lying in the former, and 
Amadiah in the latter. 

It would be interesting to know just where Xenophon 
and his companions crossed the Zabatus, when pursued 
by Mithridates, with his horse, archers and slingers ; but 
we have no record by which that point can be fixed with 
certainty. It was probably below us, as the Tigris is men- 
lioned as near them on the left, a little before they reached 
the Zab. The river is stated by Xenophon to be four hun- 
dred feet wide.* It must have been low at that time, judg- 
ing from the width of the stream where we crossed it, whicn 
we thought to be seven hundred feet. No bridges now 
exist on the Zab, aft^r it leaves the mountains ; nor could 
they be supported, so powerful is the current when swollen, 
and so easily, on these alluvial plains, are its shores washed 

Our thoughts naturally dwelt on sacred as well as classic 
themes, in this venerable region ; and as we sat down under 
our tents, on the banks of the Zab, toward evening, we 
remembered the plaintive strain of the xiaptive Jews sitting 
by the rivers oi Babylon. Deacon Tamo read the one 
hundred and thirty -seventh Psalm, and artlessly remarked, 
" The Koords of this region now often say to the Jews and 

1 3«« Anabam, Book il Clbapters 4, 6 ; and R ill Chap. 8. 


CluTstians, * sing us one of your songs, that we may see how 
they are/ and then they laugh at them." How vivid an 
illustration of that touching elegy ! 

Before quitting the Zab, I should state that the Koords 
call it Zay, the Isfestorians, Zava, and the Arabs, Zab. 

The Koords of this district are dressed like the Arabs, 
in thin, loose, white cotton garments, well adapted to the 
climate, and strongly contrasting with the thick, heavy 
cloaks, and corresponding under-garments, combining many 
gaudy colors, which are worn by the Koords in the higher 

Leaving the banks of the Zab at sun-set, we immediately 
rose from the vale through which it flows, upon an undu- 
lating sandstone plain, extremely fertile, the wheat and 
barley fields being very thrifty, and the grass on the inter- 
vening sections, oi the rankest growth, — as we could discern 
on the way -side, in the shades of evening. We rode three 
and a half hours, but our party soon became so oppressed 
with drowsiness that our norses took their own pace, and 
went very slowly. We did not probably advance ten miles 
in that time. At last Mar Yohannan peremptorily ordered 
the muleteers to stop, which they did!, though with reluc- 
tance. We were on a fine grassy plat, affording excellent 
feed for the horses. We did not pitch our tents, but spread 
our beds upon the ground, and were all soon fast asleep. 
The last sounds that I heard were the howlings of a wolf 
within a short distance. 

May 12. — We rose at day-break, hastily put our effects in 
order, and went on our way, charmed with the verdant 
appearance of the grassy plain on which we had encamped 
in the dark. We soon came to almost boundless fields of 
very thrifty wheat and barley, a village appearing here and 
there. Proceeding over this great undulating plain, waving 
around us imder the heaviest growth of vegetation, about 
twelve miles, nearly toward the West, we reached the river 
Hasser, which comes down from the Koordish mountains, 
then crosses the plain of Noker, and flowing on unites with 
tiie Zab several miles below the place where we crossed it. 
This river is here about one hundred and fifty feet broad, 
and was easily fordable. 

We were still on classic ground. The river Hazer is the 
andent Bumadus, near which Alexander and Darius fought 


the great battle that decided the former to be the world's 
immortal conqueror. The precise site of that battle it is 
impossible to determine. It was probably a few miles to 
the left of our route, and some thirty -five miles North- West 
of Arbeela. The historian Arrian tells us, that as Gauga- 
mela in Assyria, the spot where the two armies engaged, was 
a small place, of very little note, this was called the battle 
of Arbela, that city being nearest to the field of battle.* 
And again, that before the battle, Darius had pitched his 
camp near a village called Gaugamela, at the river Bumadus, 
on a plain at a considerable distance from Arbela.f 

Rising fi-om the banks of the Hazer, our road being still 
skirted by rich wheat-fields as before, we rode on two miles, 
and then halted on a grassy hill-side, to bait our horses and 
take breakfast. Just before we stopped, we fell in with a 
company of Jacobite Christians, from the village of Bertilla, 
which is within twelve or fifteen miles of Mosul, and about 
four miles to the left of our road. Thei5e Jacobites speak 
the modern Syriac in a manner quite intelligible to us, and 
differing but little from the dialect of Oroomiah. In their 
party was an Arab from their village, who also spoke the 
Syriac, and I have since learned that the few Arab families 
in Bertilla all speak that language as well as their own, and 
stand somewhat in the relation of serfs to the Christians. 
From this point onward to Mosul, now perhaps thirty miles 
distant, Arabs are as common as Koords, and the latter 
repeatedly warned us against the plundering propensities of 
the former. 

Two miles North of our stoi)ping-place was a low moun- 
tain, on th(^ north-western side of whicn are several Yezeedee 
villages ; and a few miles South of us was the small moun- 
tain, already mentioned, which had for several days marked 
out to us the position of Mosul. The mountains of Jeloo, 
the highest in Koordistan, were distinctly visible on our 
road this morning. 

We proceeded at 1 o'clock, P. M. first crossing a gentle 
swell of grassy hills, on which the Arabs from the desert 
are accustomed to pasture their flocks in summer. From 
the top of this swell we obtained our first distinct view of 
the plain of Mosul, or ancient Nineveh, in all its vastness. 

• Arriaa Anab. Book vi Chap. 11, 10. f ^^l B. iii Chap. 8, 11. 


It stretched away to tlie North, West and South, fieuther 
than the eye could reach, being bounded only by the sky, 
and gave me a stronger impression of immensity than I ever 
received before, even on tl^e ocean. 

As we descended the swell, and entered upon the plain, 
the fields of grain grew larger and more thnfty, till they 
surpassed any that we had seen in the East. Our course 
was now South* West. We were strongly impressed, in 
crossing this plain, with the favorable situation of ancient 
Nineveh, for a great city, in the midst of a plain capable of 
sustaining millions of people. 

Night overtook us while we were still ten miles distant 
fix)m Mosul, and not yet in sight of the city, which lies low, 
on the western bank of the river Tigris, while the mounds 
near the opposite bank, supposed to be the ruins of Nineveh, 
rear a barrier of considerable height, which obstructs the 
view of the modern town from the East. 

At length we rose upon a gentle swell, and finally came 
to broken ground which we readily recognized as the site 
of the celebrated ruins. How peculiar were our emotions 
as we wound our way over this site, in the sombreness of 
evening! As we entered upon the broken ground, we 
observed regular ridges, which we could not mistake as the 
remains of the old walls, succeeded by a parallel hollow, 
which obviously marked the place oi the ancient fosse* 
Still proceeding, we at length came to a village among the 
ruins, called in Turkish, Yoonus Pegamber, and in Arabic^ 
Nebbee Yoonus, meaning in both, the prophet Jonah. This 
village contains a large mosk, situated on a mound in an 
ancient cemetery, and supposed by the inhabitants to en^ 
shrine the ashes of the revered prophet. 

We proceeded a mile, and came' to the eastern bank of 
the Tigris, the waters of which we could dimly discern^ and 
distinctly hear, and there we encamped on the ground^ for 
the night 

May 13. — We slept refreshingly on the margin of the 
Tigris, till after day-break; and the morning-light then 
revealed to us the noble river, Mosul on its opposite bank, 
having the common appearance of a sombre Turkish town, 
with its great mosks, and towering minarets, and the ruins 
of ancient Nineveh, which we haa passed over in the dark, 
near us on the East 


Mfvj 16. — Crossing the Tigris from Mosul, we visited the 
Fup}K)se(l ruins of Nineveh. The river is crossed by huge, 
rude, llat*bottoraed boats, with very high prows running 
up to a sliarp point.* The boat, on leaving tne shore, floata 
down more than half a mile, and is dragged up along the 
opjx)site shore bv six or eight men in a file. Rafts or floats, 
buoyeil up bv inflated skins, like those used on the Zab, but 
larger, are also used on the Tigris, for travellers and mer* 
ehandize going to Bagdad, three hundred miles down the 
river, and to other places. Colonel Williams, of the English 
Commission aj>i>ointed to determine the boundary, went 
down to Bagda<l a short time since, on a float of one hundred 
skins, in six days, stopping on the shore at night. The 
natives who use raits, travel both night and day. Col. 
Williams had three or four small cabins erected on the floats, 
which he and his large party cwcupied. There is a bridge 
of boats for crossing the Tigris, at Mosul, which is used 
when the river is not liigh, but it was now hauled around 
parallel to the shore, and anchored there. The Tigris is by 
no means so rapid a stream as the Zab, though its name sig- 
nities arrow, inuieating its swiflness; but it is much broader. 

The ruins of Nineveh are just oj^positc Mosul, about 
three-fourths of a mile distant from the river, the interven- 
ing space being low alluvial, but little higher than the 
stream. This alluvial ground may probably have been 
formed since the pericnl of Nineveh, so that the Tigris may 
have ]>assed very near the ancient city, as it now washes the 
walls of Mosul. 

Tlie ruins consist of ridges, like old walls, enclosing an 
area porliaiKS lour miles long and about two miles broad. 
The eneioseil area is mostly a level, cultivated space. On 
the we.-^tern border ot' this area, and about in the middle, 
longitudinally, is a regularly shapet.l mound, of quadrangular 
form, jK'rliaps tilty leet high ana as many rods square, and 
nearly lovel on the t<^p. This mound has a bold, regular 
appearance on the outside, naturally suggesting the idea of 
a castle and enclosed jxilaces. From the top of the mound, 
excavations are now prosecuted for ancient remains, and with 
most interesting results. Only a lew men work there at pres- 

* See tlie niimen>us repn'sentaiions of similar boats, and of the andent 
style of river-navigation in Mesopotamia, copied from Assyrian sculptures, in 
the works of Layard and Botta. Ck>MM. or Pcbl. 


ent, who are employed by Mr. and Mrs. Bassam, Mr. Layard, 
the leader in tnis enterprize, being absent on a visit to 
^England. We examined the excavations with astonish- 
ment and rare entertainment. Descending by an earthy 
staircase, formed by the excavators, twenty or thirty feet, 
and then passing horizontally under ground, we were sud- 
denly ushered into ancient marble palaces, the walls all 
beautifully sculptured. "We were filled with inexpressible 
wonder and delight, by what our eyes so unexpectedly 
beheld. Rod after rod, in the same great halls, we passed 
along by slabs of marble nicely fitted together, each slab 
about SIX feet high, eight feet long, and seven or eight 
inches thick, all exquisitely carved with spirited representa* 
tions of various scenes, of scenes of the chase, and of battle 
scenes, — the warriors being armed with spears, bows and 
arrows, slings, and swords, and the victors ofl;en holding two 
heads in one hand, one by the beard and the other by the 
tuft on the skidl, and brandishing a weapon in the other 
hand. There were castles besieged. There were trains of 
camels, horses and mules. In many cases, there were rivers 
flowing near the base of the castles, beneath the combat- 
ants, filled with sporting fish. There were also rural scenes, 
Eeasants on the road carrying sacks of provisions on their 
acks, etc. The palm-tree, richly clothed with foliage, 
was also a common object represented. Several slabs were 
inscribed with the cuneiform character. This character I 
observed oftener on the statues of huge bulls than else- 
where. The cuneiform inscriptions are much fewer here 
than at Nimrood. But these excavations are only recently 
conmienced, though we passed some halls more than one 
hundred feet long, and of corresponding breadth. Some 
of the marble was blackened, as if these palaces had been 
burnt down ; and there were pieces of coal, which would 
indicate the same. It is very aifficult to remove the stones, 
in all these excavationa They easily break in pieces, prob- 
ably from their having been exposed to the action of fire. 
At Nimrood, we found the stones much nearer the surface. 

Jet perfectly sound, and not easily broken. ITie sculptures, 
owever, on the walls here^ while standing undisturbed, are 
very jpeifect, clear and striking. The groups succeed each 
odier m very tasteful order, and no bla^k spaces remain on 
the vast marble ranges. 

▼OL. n. 16 


It is worthy of remark that these halls, or rooms, have 
no windows. They must have been lighted from the roo£ 

The female figures which we noticed, wore a high, conical 
cap or head-dress. 

Two large bulls were, not long since, excavated at Khor- 
sabad, by the French consul, who sold them to Major Eaw- 
linson. These statues were cut from blocks of marble at 
least fifteen feet square and two and a half feet thick. They 
were each sawn into four parts, for transportation down the 
Tigris to Bagdad, and thence to Englana. 

Leaving the excavations on the mound of the castle of 
palaces, we followed down the eastern wall nearly half a 
mile, and came to another mound of similar size, but of a 
less regular form, around the base of which is a cemetery, 
and on its summit and brow, a village. On the northern 
side of this mound is the great mosk already mentioned as 
supposed to contain the tomb of the prophet Jonah. Yoo- 
nus Pegamber, or Nebbee Yoonus, in the Arabic, is the 
name applied both to the raosk and the village. We visited 
the tomb. It is a small, dark apartment of the mosk. 
A large arched box, ten feet long and five- feet wide, and 
three or four feet high, is said to contain the ashes of the 
prophet. This box is overlaid with successive coverings 
of silk and broadcloth ; and the four comer-posts, risinc 
a little above the box, are tipped with large balls of gold. 
The walls of the room are superbly covered with mosaic, 
and its floor, like that of the whole mosk, is richly carpeted. 
This tomb is regarded as so sacred that few even of the 
Mussulmans are allowed to enter it. We obtained the favor 
through the kindness of Mr. Rassam. This mosk is sup- 
posed by some to be built on the foundations of a Christian 
church. Mr. Rassam thinks that the Muhammedans took 
the place from the Jews, and that the mosk occupies the site 
of an ancient synagogue. 

We do not of course place much confidence in the preva- 
lent belief here, that Jonah's bones are in the great box I 
have mentioned ; but we do not doubt that Nineveh was 
here, and think that the prophet's final resting-place may 
also have been in this vicinity. The marble slabs which we 
had seen, all covered with such perfect and striking sculp- 
tures, the eloquent chroniclers of so ancient a period, were, 
to us at least, a much more satisfactory proof that we stood 
on the ruins of Nineveh. 


Khorsabad, tlie site where M. Botta prosecuted Us re- 
searches, is about sixteen miles North-East of MosuL It is 
a single mound, of quite limited dimensions. Eighteen 
miles down the Tigris, on the eastern side of the river, and 
two miles distant from it, is Nimrood, the scene of Mr. Lay- 
ard's labors. Mr. Rassam supposes that these three places 
may be the sites of as many different cities, yet all bearing 
the general name of Nineveh, just as London, m the progress 
of ages, has swallowed up several of its former suburbs. 
Nineveh having been " an exceeding great city, of three 
days' journey," it must have extended, in fact or in name, 
at least the distance of these three local cities from each 
other. The four cities of Nimrod, mentioned in the tenth 
chapter of Genesis, Mr. Rassam regards as thus relatively 
situated, namely: Nineveh^ marked by the ruins opposite 
Mosul ; ReseUy marked by the ruins oi Nimrood ; Cahhy at 
Shirgat, about sixty or seventy miles down the Tigris, below 
Mosul, where are ruins occupying three times the space 
covered by those of Nineveh, on the western side of the 
river, which has worn into the ancient city, parts of the walls 
of which now rise in their solitude like minarets; and 
Behobothy the Rahaba now on the Euphrates. 

Mr. Rich found some very interesting relics on the mound 
of Yoonus Pegamber, opposite Mosul, with inscriptions. 
And if it were lawful to dig there, the place might probably 
be found rich in antiquities ; but this mound is deemed too 
sacred to be excavated. 

May 18. — We visited the ruins of Nimrood. Hiring five 
post-horses, we started early, intending to return to-day. 

Nimrood, as already mentioned, is eighteen miles fi'om 
Mosul, directly do^vn the eastern bank of the Tigris. On 
the way, we passed but three villages, which are small and 
very indifferent in appearance. They are inhabited by 
Arabs, and we passed several large encampments of nomaa 
Arabs on the road. The great plain below Mosul is but 
sparsely inhabited, and the population is said to be decreas- 
ing, l^he country is level, ana was now extensively clothed 
with rich fields of wheat, at this season alive with the joy- 
ous harvesters, many of whom were the nomad Arabs. 
There are, however, a few limestone swells on the last half 
of the way, consisting, to no small extent, of most beautiful 
alabaster. A small stream which crossed our road, was 


lined with as beautiful specimens as I have ever seen, the 
water having cut a channel two feet deep in the lasers of 
the milk-white stone. The hills around us, also, glistened 
with fragments of the same, under the bright rays of the 
sun. There are sulphur-springs in the vicinity of these 
ledges of alabaster, which may have had some agency in 
their formation, 

A mile this side of the village of Selameah, and about 
three miles from thS ruins, Nimrood burst suddenly on our 
view. The most conspicuous object was a lofty, conical 
mound, at least seventy feet high, which overlooks the other 
shapeless masses, and is a very striking object at a distance. 
The Tigris runs at least two miles from the ruins ; but the 
interval is low, alluvial soil, having every appearance of com- 
paratively recent formation, and there is hardly a doubt that 
the river flowed close under the walk of the ancient city, as 
I have supposed in the case of Nineveh, opposite Mosul. 

We ascended the ruins by a foot-path, a few rods South of 
the high cone I have mentioned, being attracted to that spot 
by the appearance of excavations ; and what was our aston- 
ishment to be suddenly introduced to ancient halls, the walls 
lined with magnificent marble slabs, most skillfully carved, 
and as fresh, bright and perfect as if they had but yesterday 
felt the chisel of the artist. 

We first came to marble walls closely inscribed with the 
cuneiform character ; advancing a little, we next saw per- 
fect forms of men, of gigantic stature ; and then came to two 
bulls as large as elephants, having wings and human heads, 
guarding a spacious gateway. These inscriptions and stat- 
ues are of most perfect workmanship, and the roundness 
and fresh appearance of the marble, and the clearness of the 
sculptures, are most astonishing. Advancing still, we came 
to various groups and scenes, such as royal audiences, the 
storming and defending of castles, colossal men with heads 
and wings of eagles, etc. Men holding pine-flowers in their 
hands was a common representation. Thus -we wandered 
over acres that had been excavated. Almost every trial of 
the excavator seems to have yielded wonders and treasures 
far beyond all anticipation. 

The mounds supposed to mark the site of the ancient 
castle, embracing the higher portions of the ruins, are nearly 
a mile broad. The high cone yields no remains, so fer as it 
has yet been excavated. 


The first discovered specimens of sculpture and inscrip- 
tions had been transported to England, or covered up again, 
to protect them from the action of the weather, the work 
of excavation at Nimrood being now suspended, in the 
absence of Mr. Layard ; and still there were enough before 
our eyes to occupy us many days in gazing on them, with 
engrossing astonishment ana admiration. 

In the southern jportion of the mounds excavated, the 
marble is injured, showing evidently the action of fire, and 
being thus made liable to crumble. There are also ashes 
and coals scattered among the slabs thus injured. 

Feeling my incompetence to record my impressions, as I 
took up my pen, after my return at evening, and my eye 
&lling at the moment on a scrap from an English traveller 
who had surveyed the same scenes, I inserted that scrap 
among my notes, and will quote it here as a more truthful 
picture than I can sketch. The traveller reached Nimrood at 
twilight. "I descended," he says, "to the disturbed palace 
in the evening, and passed through a labyrinth of halls, 
chambers and galleries, with bas-reliefe, painted flowers and 
inscriptions covering the walls. I saw these walls covered 
with gorgeous phantoms of the past, depicted still in the 
original pomp of their richly embroidered robes, still at their 
audiences, battles, sieges and lion-hunts, as when they were 
mighty hunters, warriors and statesmen, before the Lord. 
I saw the portly forms of kings and viziers, so life-like, and 
carved in such fine relief, that I could almost imagine them 
stepping from the walls, to question the rash intruder on 
their privacy. Mingled with them, also, were other mon- 
strous shapes, the Assyrian deities of old, with human 
bodies, long drooping wings, and the heads and beaks of 
eagles ; and I saw still faithfully guarding the portals of 
halls deserted and empty, for more than three thousand 
years, the colossal forms of winged lions and bulls, with 
gigantic human faces. All these figures, the idols of a relig- 
ion long since dead and buried like themselves, seemed 
actually, in the twilight, to be raising their deserted heads 
from the sleep of centuries." 

The mounds at Nimrood are not more imposing, in the 
exterior, than those opposite Mosul. They are much more 
extensive, at least those which seem to have been the castles 
of palaces ; but they are lower, with the exception of the 

118 • 

higli cone ; and the outline of the city is &t less distinct. 
But the marble blocks and slabs are much the largest at Nim- 
rood, as also the statues and sculptures. Most of the sculp- 
tures at Mosul are small, much smaller than life ; while at 
Nimrood, the men are giants, though in perfect proportion, 
and the bulls and lions are as large as elephants. The 
remains at Nimrood are much nearer the surmce than those 
of the site opposite Mosul, some of them having scarcely 
three feet of earth over them. There are also much more 
numerous and extensive cuneiform inscriptions on the 
former than on the latter site. O could those vast marble 
pages speak, or rather could we read them, what volumes of 
mystery would they unfold I But in all their mysterious 
silence, they do still afford us most important recoil of the 
long, long past. I wanted the shoulders of a Hercules, as I 
stood over them, to take each massive tablet, and bear it 
away, to make it my companion and study. But^ alas, they 
are all colossal ; and a few small fragments, lying about on 
the mounds, were all that my great distance m>m home 
would allow me to transport on horseback. 

The marble walls of the palaces at Nimrood have walls 
of brick, both burnt «and unburnt, behind them. The 
unburnt bricks have cuneiform writing on their faces, prob- 
ably impressed by the mould in which they were formed. 
These bricks are about fifteen inches square and two and a 
half inches thick. The marble floors are also laid on a brick 
pavement, the slabs being inscribed on their under as well 
as their upper surface, and the brick pavement beneath 
being laid in pitch or bitumen. The same kind of bitumen 
now issues from hot sulphur-springs in the vicinity of Nim- 
rood, and there are vast quarries oi' marble and alabaster in 
all that rep^on. The materials for these ancient cities must 
therefore have been easilv commanded. But who were the 
men to accomplish the work ? There must have been per- 
fect artists, in those early times, and they must have nad 
ample machinery. " There is nothing new under the sun." 
We have boasted of the modern invention of glass, but 
even this is found in the ruins of Nineveh. 

About twelve mile^ South-East of Nimrood is the mouth 
of an ancient aqueduct cut through the rock, leading from 
the river Zab, wuich was probably used to convey water to 
the city that occupied the site of these ruins. 


The reference in the Book of Ezekiel to " the images of the 
Chaldeans" naturally occurred to us, as we stood among the 
sculptured palaces of Nimrood, and especially because some 
of the scenes are painted. " For when she saw men por- 
trayed upon the walls, the images of the Chaldeans, por- 
trayed with vermilion, girded with girdles upon their loins, 
exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all of them prin- 
ces to look to, after the manner of the Babylonians of Chal- 
dea, the land of their nativity, and as soon as she saw them 
with her eyes, she doted upon them, and sent messengers 
unto them, into Chaldea."* 

Before dismissing the subject of these antiquities, I may 
state that about fifty or fifty -five miles South-East of Mosul 
is the site of the ancient town of Ul Khadre, the ruins of 
which are on the surface of the ground. These ruins were 
recently visited by Col. Williams and Mr. Eassam. 

To all who may feel an interest in becoming farther 
acquainted with the ruins of Nineveh, I would recommend 
the recently published work of Mr. Layard, on that subject. 
I have not myself seen the work ; but from my knowledge 
of the man, and the nature and ampleness of his materials, 
I have no doubt that it will surpass in interest the highest 

♦ Ezekiel^ xxiii. 14, 16, 16. — These words of Ezekiel have been happily 
employed by Layard as a motto for his Nineveh and its Remains, The 
prophet is describinff, in symbolical language, the corrupt tendency of the 
nouse of Judah to ioolatry, and their disposition to admire what was unna- 
tional and forei^, and attributes it to the sight of Chaldeans, gorgeously 
arrayed, painted on the wall Ezekiel has evidently drawn his illustration 
from sculptures similar to those at Khorsabad and Nimrdd, described by 
Botta and Layard. The general coincidence between these sculptures and 
the language of Ezekiel strikes every one at fir^t sight, as noticed by Dr. 
Perkins when standing among the palaces of Nimrtid, and confirms the truth- 
fnlness of the sacred volume. 

Still there is a discrepancy. The figures seen in the time of Ezekiel were 
Chaldeans, those described by Layard were Assyrians. The paintings alluded 
to by Ezekiel were human beings ; those found by Layard are mostly com- 
posite animals, fictions of the imagination. Perhaps the ruins of Babylon, 
which we have reason to believe tdao contain paintings, may when opened 
exhibit something more exactly in accordance with the statement of EiekieL 
A few years will probably decide. Comm. of Pubu 







In the tliird volume of the Zeitschrift fur die Kunds dea 
Morgenlandes, Goettingen, 1840, there is aii axticle of sixty- 
three pages, by Professors Roediger and Pott of Halle, enti-. 
tied Kurdish Studies. Some of the facts of more general 
interest contained in this article are here presented. 

The principal sources of information, in regard to the 
Kurds and their language, are the following: 

1. Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, by the late 
Claudius James llich, edited by his widow, in two volumes, 
London, 1836. 2. The communications of the missionanr 
Hoemle in the Baseler Afissions-ma^azin, for 1836 and 1837. 
8. Orammatica e Vbcaholario delta lingua Kurda, composti dal 
P. Maurizio Oarzoni de* Predicatori Ex'Missionario Apostolico^ 
Rome, 1787. Mr. Rich, during his residence in Sulimaniaj 
and in his travels in various parts of the coxmtry, collected 
much valuable information. The missionary Hoemle resi- 
ded a long time in the city Shiisha, and aiming especially 
at the conversion of the Kftrds, gave much attention to 
their language. The Grammar of Garzoni is the main 
source of our knowledge of the Kiirdish language. It is 
a small octavo of two hundred and eighty-eight pages, and 
contains a granmtiar, reading-lessons, a glossary, etc. The 


author confines himself mainly to the dialect spoken in the 
territory of Amadia. He lived eighteen years among the 
K^ds. What is found on this subject in Adelung^s Midi" 
ridates is merely a recapitulation from Garzoni. The Be*^ 
searches of Smith and Ihmght, in two volumes, Boston, 1833, 
contain some information in regard to the Ktirds* We may 
add that the volimies of the Missionary Herald, from 1835 
to 1851, communicate a variety of important fiicts in respect 
to Kurdistan. 

The Kiirdish language prevails over the entire coimtry 
from Armenia on the North to the region of Baghdad on 
the South, and from the Tigris on the West to Azerbiian 
on the East. In the winter, the nomad Kurds descend to 
the plains with their flocks. Single clans and families some^ 
times wander as &r as the Persian Gulf^ Damascus, Asia 
Minor, etc. The Zagros, the highest mountain-ridge in 
KCbrdistan, divides the country into two unequal parts. 
The western embraces a great part of ancient Assjrria, 
between the Tigris and the Zagros; the eastern includes 
a part of ancient Media. The whole population is sup* 
posed to be between two and three nnluons. The Kiiras 
fidl into two divisions, namely, the clans or tribes, Assireta, 
and the settled peasants, Quran, They are of very differ* 
ent races. The Guran, especially on the Persian side, are 
much the most numerous, being in the proportion of four 
or five to one of the Assireta. The latter are the invading 
victors ; the Ghiran are in the position of serfs. 

The Kiirdish language belongs, radically, to the Persian 
&mily. This is shown, incontrovertibly, by the grammati* 
eal germ, and by the main lexical contents. It nas a still 
nearer relation to the modem Persian ; but it has degenera* 
ted &rther than that, by the corruption of its sounds, by 
the disappearance of inflections and derivation*sufl5xes, the 
substitution of periphrastic forms with auxiliaries for simple 
verbs, etc. The modem Persian, by its cultivation as a 
written language, has attained a firmer position, and a sort 
of security against a rapid decline; while the Kftrdish, 
as a popular idiom, wholly abandoned to the arbitrary 
c^>rice of general intercourse, has sunk down, without 
hindrance, to a lower stage of corruption. It seems to 
have stood somewhat nearer to the Parst, though dialect- 
ioally different, up to the time when the latter became a 

Toi^ n. 16 


written dialect, but then to have gone on its peculiar path, 
at a more rapid rate. Both these related dialects are about 
eaually removed from the Zend, and they stand to each 
other rather in the relation of cousins german than in that 
of sisters. To mark the relation more precisely, the Kiird- 
ish stands to the modem written Persian somewhat as the 
Milanese popular idiom stands to the more cultivated Tus- 
can written language. In one respect, the Kiirdish and 
the Persian have fared alike, namely, that since the irrup- 
tion of Islam into their abodes, they have received a mul- 
titude of Arabic words, which exercise a wide control, 
especially in combination with native auxiliary verbs, e. g. 
to make, to give, to be. At a later period, there was a new, 
but much sflaaller addition, of Turkish words, particularly 
in the western and north-western parts of Kurdistan. But 
neither the Turkish, nor the Arabic addition has exerted 
any essential influence on the internal grammatical form. 
The addition remains isolated ; it is only borrowed, and it 
can be pealed off without difficulty from the genuine Kiird- 
ish kernel. Some Greek words, used by the Kurds, were 
introduced by the Arabs and Turks, as their form for the 
most part clearly shows ; or they have had a firm hold in 
Central Asia from ancient times, and hence are not alien 
to the Persian. The Aramean words, forming a small part 
of the borrowed stock, were in the first instance received, 
for the most part, from the Syrian and Chaldee Christians, 
so that the talk of there being an original Chaldaic element 
in the Kftrdish, if thereby Aramean is meant, is wholly 

The Kiirdish has a great multitude of dialects, more or 
less separate from each other. Different writers enumerate, 
some a greater number, some a less. Hoemle remarks that 
the northern dialects are mostly so related, mutually, that 
the Kflrds of different provinces could understand each 
other without much difficulty. Three principal dialects are 
in use among the northern tribes, beside that of the Yezidis. 
These four have various branches, used by the Ktirds who 
live on the mountains West, South- West, and North-West 
of Oriimiah, and thence extending to Sinna, Sulimania, 
Diarbekr and Vfin. In respect to the southern K^dish 
stock, Hoemle could not ^am information equally satisfac- 
tory. He mentions five dialects as belonging to it. The 


tribes wliicli use them, dwell in tlie valleys of the Zagros, 
South of Sinna and Kermansliah, down to Loristan. It 
will be easily seen that our notices of these dialects are too 
fragmentary to enable us to give any good classification. 

Most of the Kiirds, partipularly the principal men, speak, 
in addition to their vernacular, either the JPersian, or the 
Turkish, the first in the East and South-East, the last in the 
West, where individuals here and there understand Arabic. 
The Kurds commonly use the Persian, or the Turkish, in 
their written communications. In the schools which they 
have here and there, a little Persian and Arabic is taught, 
but not the smallest portion of their vernacular tongue ; by 
fiar the most of the Kurds know not how to read or write 
any language. There is, consequently, no proper Kffrdish 
literature ; the language has scarcely raised itself to a writ- 
ten form. It is very seldom that the Kiirds commit to 
writing letters, or songs, in their native language. That 
they have their popular songs, which they sing in their 
monotonous and melancholy strains, is weu known. Hich 
often listened to their melodies and responsive songs. The 
most complete Kurdish text which we have, was commu- 
nicated by the missionary Hoemle. It is in two MSS., one 
quarto, the other octavo, and consists of Kiirdish poems in 
tne Guran dialect, as spoken in the vicinity of Kermanshah. 
The quarto MS. contains, in about three thousand eight 
hundred and seventy rhymed double lines, the history of 
Khosru and Shirin, translated, as it would seem, from the 
Persian, and written at the close of 1825-6. The octavo 
MS. by a different hand, contains four poems, in four hun- 
dred and fifty, seven hundred, four hundred, and six hundred 
and twenty double lines, respectively. 

In a second part of this article. Prof Pott goes at some 
length into the nature of the sounds of the language. The 
general subject is pursued in the fourth, fifth ana seventh 
volumes of the 2ieitschrifty under the title. Natural- Historical 
NoteSy from tJie Kdrdish and other ktngiuujes of Western Asia, 
It is hoped that, by the labors of American and other 
missionaries, this interesting field will soon be thoroughly 









X^^**^ —^ * **^ *. -^^.^^^^^^^s^v- V»^%i^ 







The Peshito Syriac version of the New Testament is a 
very important ana interesting document in sacred literature : 

1. On account of its great antiquity, being referred by 
many learned men to tlie second century ; 

2. On account of the language, which is almost identical 
with the vernacular language of Christ and his apostles ; 

3. On account of its faithfulness and intrinsic worth, 
being free and unconstrained without being loose or para- 
phrastic; and 

4. Because the manuscripts of it are derived to us without 
essential variations from Maronites, Jacobites, and Nestori- 
ans, who thus become vouchers for its faithful preservation. 

Hence it has been highly and justly esteemed by the 
learned, and may be consulted with advantage on some con- 
troverted points of theology. 

The following are some of the characteristics of this 

1. It exhibits a text not conformed to any one recension, 
as these recensions probably originated at a later period. 
See Fosdick's Hug, pp. 96, 208, 209. 

2. Certain religious terms from the Hebrew or Aramean. 
which, being consecrated in the affections of the pious, had 
been adopted in the original Greek, are naturally retained 

in the Peshito Sjrriac version ; as, U^l ahhx) or ablia for ahba ; 
^UA amin for amen; \l\ ^c^ rrvoran-eilw ioT maran-atha ; 
2o|o. tsebhaiith for sabaoth; M-IuaoI ushano for hosanna. 


3. Hebrew or Aramean terms incorporated into the orig* 
inal Greek, are naturally retained in this version; as, ]iQD 

euro for cor, (see Luke 16: 7.) ]l\iD satho for aeah, (see Mat 

13 : 33. Luke 13 : 21.) M^^ pertsho (ot Pharisee^ (see Luke 11 : 

87. etc.) (xDO^I zadhukoyo for stuiduoee, (see Mat 16 : 1. etc*) 

» «^ » 9 P 

pdop kenthho for cherub, (see Heb. 9 : 6.) ]i fj>iP wtano for 

9 V 

ecUan, (see Mat. 4: 10. etc.) ]skM shabo for eabbath, (see Mat 

9 9^ 

12 : 2. etc.) Vs<'kv^ gthano for gehenna, (see Mat 6 : 22. eta) 

But bath, Luke 16 : 6. it has not retained. 

4. The explanations or interpretatidhs of Shemitish terms 
given in the original Ghreek, are often omitted in the Peshito 
version^ as being superfluous. See Mat 27 : 46. Mark 5 : 41« 
7 : 11, 34. John 1 : 89, 42. The exceptions, however, are 
numerous. See Mat 1: 23. 27: 83. Mark 14: 86. 15: 28| 
84. John 19: 17. 20: 16. Actsl: 19. KonuB: 16. GaL 
4:6. It may be remarked here, that the Shemitish terms 
quoted in the Greek often have a Chaldaic rather than a 
Syriac form. 

5. This version often transfers Ghreek or Latin words of 
the original text, instead of translating them, the introduo- 
tion of such terms being usual in the Syriac of that age. 

See Hug, p. 201. So ]i>t^h diyathiki uniformly for the Greek 

^Mx^fixj^, whether in the sense of a covenant or of a testa* 

mcnt. Also V*Q>^^ megvsho for M^yog, probably a Persian 

word, Mat 2 : 1, 7, 16. 

6. This version sometimes errs by reading the Greek text 
wrong. See Hug, p. 201. 

7. In some leading terms, the Peshito often substitutes a 
Syriac word easily recognized by the student of Hebrew; 

as, )aC^ AhJu), (comp. Heb. Ebhim,) for 'God;* tdl!Lo 
malakho, (comp. Heb. malakh,) for * angel ;' Uoa^^&o mal' 
kuthoy (comp. Heb. vidlkuih,) for ' kingdom ;' ]»i(iaV> meskiho, 
(comp. Heb. mashiah,) for 'Christ;' p^^o melo, (comp. Heb« 
milbi,) for *word;' ^&a2* sheyul, (comp. Heb. sheol,) tofr 


•hades;' shidhoy 1?U (comp. Heb. sliedli, Deut. 82: 17. Ps. 
106 : 37.) for * demon.' It sometimes brings back proper 
names nearer to the Shemitish form, as ^j-j^Ot YvhaTum, 

(comp. Heb. Yohanan, 1 Chr. 8 : 15,) for * Joannes.' 

8. In some leading terms, the Peshito often substitutes a 
Syriac word which does not so easily accord with the He- 
brew; as, \Qai daiivo, for * demon;' ^lai^ emadh and its 

deriyatives uniformly for the Greek panri^ot and its deriva- 
tives, whether in the sense of * cleansing' or of ' overwhelm- 
ing;' ]if^ idhto for * church;' V^Lula kashisho for both 
'presbyter' and * bishop,' (comp. kashisha and kasha, *a 
priest,' among the modem Nestorians;) 1Aaqj-s kenushto 

for 'synagogue;' |i*^Nvo malpono for * teacher,' (comp. 

malpana, * a teacher,' among the modem Nestorians ;) |^ 
moro for * Lord,' (comp. Mar, the title of a bishop among 
the modem Nestorians;) Kjiiiiksl oiA^Z-Jfcarteo for the Greek 

dt6fioXog ; ^xiiaS^ sheliho for ' apostle.' 

9. This version is distinguished for its simplicity. Thus 
Mat. 9:1, * And entering into the boat he passed over,' it 
renders thus : * And he entered into the boat, and passed 
over,' as in our common English version. The same is done 
almost constantly. 

10. This version in many passages makes the meaning 
dear and explicit by a short addition to the text, or by a 
slight change in the language or construction. 

Mark 2 : 26, ' When Abiathar ivas high priesC So also in 
the Modem Syriac version of the gospels published by the 
American missionaries. In the common English version, 
* in the days of Abiathar the high priest J — Both very correctly 
as to the sense. 

Luke 9 : 84, * And they feared, when they saw Moses and 
Elias entering into the cloud.' So also in the Modem Syriac 
version. — ^This rendering gives the force of the Greek pro- 
noun ixa/»'ouff, in contradistinction to airto()g^ which is entirely 
neglected in the common English version. 

Luke 16 : 8, * And our Lord commended the unjust stew- 
ard, because he had done wisely.' So also in the Modem 

TOL. TL 17 


Syriao version.— This must be regarded as an oversiffht in 
the Sy riac translator, for * the lord' intended is eviaently 
the hrdofthe steward, who was forced to commend what was 
injurious to himself and not our Lord, that is, Christ. 

Acts 1 : 19, * So that that field is called in the language of 
the region Ilekal'demo.' — This is evidently a fidr explanation 
of the phrase ^in their own proper tongue/ 

Acts 2 : 14, * But ajler Oiat Simon Peter stood up with the 
eleven apostles, and lifted up his voice.' — The reason for 
adding this mark of time does not appear. Peter's speech 
refers to what had preceded. Of course it came after. 

Acts 5 : 4, ^Before it was sold, was it not thine own? and 
after it was sold, was not its price in thine own power?' — A 
free but correct rendering. 

Acts 10 : 88, * Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, whom God 
anointed with the Holy Ghost and with power.' — ^This is 
evidently an attempt to simplify the intricate structure of 
the Greek. 

Acts 12 : 15, * And they said unto her, Thou art terrified.* 
' — "This is intended for an explanation, but is less correct 

Rom. 12 : 16, 'And whatever ye thiiik concerning yourselves, 
that think also concerning your brethren.* — A beautiful expla* 

Eph. 3:1, * For this cause I Paul am the prisoner of 
Jesus Christ for you Gentiles.' — The construction is filled 
out, but not happily. 

Heb. 4:8,' For if Jesus, the sort of Xun, had given them 
rest, then he would not afterward have spoken of another 
day.' — The addition, 'the son of Nun,' nelps the sense; 
but this addition is not made in the analogous passage, 
Acts 7 : 45. 

Ilcb. 10 : 29, ' And hath counted his blood of the cov- 
enant as of any common man.* In the common English 
version, ^ an unholy thing.* — Both are fair explanations of 
the oridnal term. 

1 John 1:1,' We declare unto you him who was from 
the beginning, whom we have heard and seen with our eyes, 
we liavc seen and handled with our hands, who is the word 
of life.' — This is an important explanation, considering its 
great antiquity. 

11. In the l^eshito are some important omissions: 

(1.) The phrase 'raise the dead,' Mat 10: 8, is wanting 
in the editio princeps of the Peshito, 1555, and probably in 


all the Syriac manuscripts. It has found its way, howerer, 
into the edition of Tremellius, 1569, and into subsequent 
editions, e. g» Gutbier, 1664. The Modem Syriac version 
of the gospels, published by the American missionaries at 
Oroomiah in 1845, has the words in a parenthesis, as in the 
Bible Society edition, 1816. — The words in the Greek text 
are j^tly suspected by critics. 

(2.) Trie omission of * Jeremiah,' Mat 27: 9. So also in 
Mod. Syr. version. — A very important omission, which 
greatly relieves the difficulty of the passage. But it has 
not sufficient other vouchers. 

(3.) * That it might be fiilfilled which was spoken by the 
propnet, They parted my garments among them, and upon 
my vesture they cast lots. Mat. 27 : 35. These words are 
wanting in the editio princepSy and probably in all the Syriac 
manuscripts. They were placed m the margin, however, 
by TremeUius, and have crept into subsequent editions, 
a g. Hutter, 1599 ; Gutbier, 1664 ; Schaaf, 1717. They are 
wanting in Bib. Soc. Ed. 1816. The Modern Syriac version 
has them. — These words are rejected from the Greek text 
by critics. They have without doubt been interpolated by 
copyists from John 19 : 24. The reference is to Ps. 22 : 18. 

(4.) * And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said. 
Take this, and divide it among yourselves. For I say unto 
you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the king- 
dom of God shall come.' Luke 22 : 17, 18. These words 
are wanting in the editio prtnccps^ and probably in all the 
Syriac manuscripts. They have found their way, however, 
into the edition of Tremellius, and into subsequent editions, 
e.g. Gutbier, 1664; Schaaf, 1717. In Bib. Soc. Ed. 1816, 
they are inserted in a parenthesis. The Modern Syriac ver- 
sion has them without any intimation of doubt. — There is 
no sufficient reason to doubt the genuineness of these words 
in the Greek text. 

(5.) The story of the adulteress, John 7 : 53—8 : 11. It 
is wanting in the editio princeps, and probably in all the 
manuscripts. It is found, however, in the London Polyglot, 
copied from a manuscript of the Philoxenian Syriac version, 
and in some subsequent editions, e. g. Gutbier, 1664 ; Schaaf, 
1717. In'the Bible Society edition, it is said not to belong 
to the Peshito. The Modern Syriac version inserts the 
passage as doubtfiil.— Critics are divided as to the genuine- 
ness of this passage in the Greek. 


(6.) 'And Philip said, If thou beUeyest witb aU thy 
heart, thou mayest And he answered and said, I believe 
that Jesns Chnst is the son of God.' Acts 8: 87. These 
words are probably wanting in all the mannsGripts; but 
they are found in some editions, as Hutter, 1699 ; Gutbiery 
1664 ; Schaaf, 1717 ; also in lower margin of Bib. Soa Ed. 
1816. — They are rejected by critics from the Greek text 

(7.) ' But it j)leased Silas to abide there stilL' Acts 16 : 
84. The insertion of these words is ascribable to Tremd- 
lius. They are found in Gutbier, 1664 ; SchUa^ 1717 ; and 
in lower margin of Bib. Soc. Ed. 1816. — These words are 

(8.) * Your blood be upon your own heads.' Acts 18: 6- 
These words are found m margin of Bib. Soc^ Ed. 1816, as 
from the Greek. — There is no other Toucher for the omis- 
sion of these words from the Qreek text 

(9.) ' And when he had said these words, the Jews de- 
parted, and had great reasoning among themsdyes.' Acts 
28 : 29. These words are found in Gutbier^ 1664 ; also in 
the margin of Bib. Soc. Ed. 1816. — ^The evidence in &TGr 
of these words in the Greek text greatiy preponderates. 

(10.) The famous passage 1 Jo. 6 : 7. This passage is 
wanting in the editio princeps, and probably in all the manu- 
scripts. It is found m Gutbier, 1664 ; ScWf; 1717. It is 
wanting in Bib. Soc. Ed. 1816. — ^This passage is rejected 
from the Greek text by all critics. 

12. The Peshito version interchanges certain terms of the 
original Greek, as being synonymous in the view of the 

(1.) This version employs Syr. {juuiuD kashisho, L e. elder, 

not only for Gr. 7i^a/?^T£^g, i. e. elder, (see passimj) but also 
for Gr. intaxonog^ i. e. bishop, (see Phil. 1 : 1. 1 "^m. 8 : 2. 
Tit. 1 : 7. also 1 Tim. 3:1.) thus showing that Gr. irgBofi^tegog 
or elder and Gr. iniaxonog or hishop were regarded by tiie 
translator as sj^nonymous terms. — Our common English 
version distinguishes the two Greek words in the translation. 

(2.) This version employs Syr. ^q^m sheyvl, * hades,' not 

only for Gr. (?<JvJ, * hades,' (see Acts 2 : 27, 81. ^ Cor. 16 : 
55. Rev. 1 : 18. et passim,) but sometimes also for Ghr. 
MyoTOf, * death,' (see Acts 2 : 24 bis,^ and for Ghr, ^ia«ij, 
'prison,' (see 1 Pet. 8: 19.) also adds it to Gr. lifiwnog^ 


'deep,' (see Rom. 10: 7.) thus showing that these latter 
terms in these passages, in the view of the translator, deno- 
ted hades, — Our common English version distinguishes these 
terms from hades in the translation. 

9 9 9 

(8.) This version employs Syr. p-ftox) sotono, i. e. satan, 

not only for Gr. (raxayaff, * satan,' (see Mat. 4 : 10. 12 : 26 bis. 
Mark 1 : 13. 3 : 23 bis. 8 : 33. Kev. 20 : 2, 7. et passim,) 
but sometimes also for Gr. d^^olog^ L e. * devil,' (see Mat. 13 : 
89.) and for Gr. BsUaX or JJa/o^, (see 2 Cor. 6 : 15.) thus 

showing that Gr. (rarayaj, Gr. did^olog^ and Gr. BeXlaX or BeXlag^ 

were regarded as synonymous terms. — Our common English 
version keeps these Greek words distinct in the translation. 
18. The reshito version interchanges the signification of 
certain Syriac terms, as if synonymous. 

Thus it employs Syr. 1£\aqj-3 kenmhtOy which usually 

refers to a synagogtue or Jewish assembly, (see passim,) once 
in reference to a church or Christian assembly, (see James 

2 : 2.) and also Syr. \L^ idhto, which usually refers to a 

church or Christian assembly, (see passim,) once in refer- 
ence to a synagogue or Jewish assembly, (see Heb. 2 : 12. 
not Acts 7 : 38.) thus showing, as do also the original Greek 
terms, a tendency in these words to be used as synonyms. — 
Our common English version shows the same tendency in 
the use of the words synagogue and church, (see Acts 7 : 38. 
Heb. 2 : 12. not James 2 : 2.) 

14. The Peshito version sometimes accurately distin- 
guishes words which are not synonymous in the original. 

(1.) It employs Syr. ]ja}^^gihano for Gr. yisyya imiformly, 

(except James 8 : 6.) and Syr. ^Oaa sJiej/ul for Gr. qdtjg uni- 
formly, thus clearly distinguishing the two words. — Our 
common English version confounds them very improperly. 

(2.) It employs Syr. ]'>\m shidho, (Mat. 7 : 22.) and loi? 

daiiuo (Mat. 12 : 24.) for Gr. datfidytov and daifjwy^ and thus 
distinguishes them from duk^olog or aaTuvag^ for which it 
never uses shidho, — Our common English version very im- 
properly confounds these terms. 

15. Certain leading terms, which, owing to the genius of 
the English language, require to be differently translated in 
different places in our common English version, are left 


undistingoished in the Syriac Peshito, as in the original 
Greek. This is what we should enect 

(1.) The Peshito employs Sjr. UisVoa kursyo, denoting 

both * a throne' and * a common seat,' for Gr, ^^Q&vog. — Our 
common English version yadUates between Arone and secU^ 
supposing Gr. ^^^rog in some passages (Bey. 4: 4. 11 : 16.) 
to denote a common seat 

(2.) It transfers Syr. ioA^? dCycUhiki for Gr. Sta^u^^ nni« 

formly, and that, as we should expect, whether it signifioB 
* a covenant,' as passim, or ' a testament,' as Heb. 9 : 16, 17« 
— Our common English version vacillates between covenant 
and testament; and that without discrimination. 

(8.) It employs Syr. U>11^ malakho for Gr. ^ffslog^ and 

that whether the Ghreek word denotes a common messenger, 
as Luke 9 : 62. or a celestial messenger, i e. an angel, as 
Mat 1 : 20. — Our common English version properly distin' 
guishes these two senses, and that, (except 1 Uor. 11 : 10. 
Kev. 1 : 20 ff. where the meaning is contested,) to the satis^ 
&ction of all. 

(4.) It employs Syr. |-'>^^ sheliho^ for Gr. fc^aioXof, 

imiformly, and that whether the Greek word denotes a com- 
mon messenger, as John 18 : 16. or a messenger of God or 
Christ, L e. an apostle, as Mat. 10 : 2. Luke 11 : 49. — Our 
common English version properly distinguishes the two teig* 
nifications, and that to the satisfaction of all, except that a 
disposition is sometimes shown to exalt Epaphroditus to the 
character of an apostle, see Phil. 2 : 25. 

(5.) It employs Syr. ^lo^ emadh and its derivatives for 

Gr. ^aTtxiCfii and its derivatives, and that imiformly, whether 
it denotes religious washings or not — Our common English 
version vacillates between transferring and transJaJting tiie 
word ; and that not consistently.* 

16. The Peshito renders Gr. tA ad^paia, when used in a 
singular signification by a singular noim, as Mat 12 : 1, 10, 
11, 12. elsewhere in the plural, as Acts 17 : 2. Col. 2 : 16. — 
Our translation vacillates between the singular ^nd the plural 
without consistency. 

* See a verr able mcnograpli on tfais me of the Syffaw trord tm w t B k hf 
James Murdo^ DJ). in Bm. Smerm, toL Til pp. 7S8 ft 







Rev. henry R. HOISINGTON, 


(Read October 17, 1860.) 


OF tHt 


In Southern India there are three claases of books recog- 
nized as of chief authority in religiona matters. Thev are 
the four.V^ias, the twenty-eight Agamas, and the eignteen 
Pura];Las. Numerous other works are extant ; but they are 
not esteemed as of so high and undoubted authority. 

The Y6dBs are imknown to the people generally, except 
by name ; and also even to the learned, except so &r as they 
may be understood through the Uphanishads. And even 
these abridged and imperfect views of the VMas, excepting 
perhaps the V^dant, receive but little attention, and are of 
out little repute. The Vaish^avas refer to them as some- 
what authoritative. 

All classes claim an interest in the Pura^as, and refer, 
each to their own peculiar books, with some degree of rev- 
erence. The Vaish];Lavas seem to hold them in higher 
esteem than the Saivas. The great Pura^as are in common 
use in the temples, as directories. 

But the works of the highest practical authority, among 
the Saivas, are the A^amas, and the commentaries on them« 
The Agamas were originally written in Sanskrit, and with 
one exception, if they exist at all, they are to be found in 
that language. It is stated by the learned, that only one of 
the twenty-eight has ever appeared in Tami} ; and of that 
one, only a part, the doctrinal portion of it, has been trans- 
lated. Of the others, liUle or nothing is known at the pres- 
ent time* 

fOL n. 18 


^ The ^gama known to exist in TamiJ, is the Bavurava- 
Agarruif and is contained in a work (»lled Siva-Ondna- 
PStham. It is written in the most concise and difficult 
style of ancient Tamil poetry. ^ The translator has accom- 
panied his translation of the Agama with a commentary, 
which, like the original work, is very brie^ and also very 

Tnis work, the Siva-Gnana-P6tham, is considered too 
sacred even to be touched by any common man, and in 
style and matter quite above the apprehension of any but 
the most enlightened. Hence, no one but a divine Chiru is 
regarded as allowed, or able, to teach it. The whole is 
highly metaphysical and argimientative, possessing nothing 
of the simple, declarative style of our sacred Scriptures. 

There are several commentaries or treatises on this Agama, 
which are, perhaps, more frequently consulted than the Siva- 
Gbiana-P6tham embracing the Agama, and with scarcely less 
regard, as to their authority. I have a translation of one 
of these commentaries entire, and of parts of others. 

The translator, or rather the author of the Siva-Gnana- 
Potham, has prefixed to the work a system of logic, wherein 
he explains the principles on which his commentary is 
based. This is in itself worthy of attention, and ought to 
be collated with similar works of the ancient philosophers 
of the West. It is very brie^ dwelling only on what the 
author considers valuable in logic. The author, however, 
enumerates other points than those which he explains ; but 
seems to regard them as fanciful distinctions, and does 
littie more than to name them. He lays down three prin- 
ciples or sources of knowledge, namely, Perception, Iiifer- 
ence, and Eevelation. 

The Siva-Gnana-Potham treats, in twelve sections, of 
three eternal existences, namely, Pathi, Pasu, and Pdsam, or 
Deity, Soul, and Matter, with reference to their origin, 
natures, relations, and destiny. 

Pathi, or Deity, is a being who exists entirely void of 
emotion, and holding his two operative energies, male and 
female, in a dormant state. These energies, in order to 
co-operate, or to produce any results, must be developed, 
and receive an organism adapted to the service requireo. 

Pasu, or Soul, is a term aesignating a class of beings, or 
souls, shrouded in the darkness of Pasam, and helpless in 


themselves. It is necessary that they be developed and 
embodied, in order that they may escape from the entangle- 
ments of Pasam, and be brought into the light and liberty 
of Siva. 

Pasam, commonly rendered Matter, has a three-fold 
nature or existence, each part of which is called Malam. 
Hence "the three Malams," — an expression of frequent 
occurrence. These Malams are distinguished by attributes 
appropriate to each, as: Mdyd-Malain, sometimes simply 
Mayeiy elementary or archetypal matter, the source of ^1 
material existences, which, m the soul's organism, causes 
the soul "to mistake the false for the true in all things, 
from the first element, earth, to the highest existences;" 
Anava-McUam, that eternal obscuring power or existence, 
which, ever clinging to the soul's organism, "causes the 
floul to be satisfiea with its mistaken good, with those things 
which the enlightened regard as fidse;" and Kanma-Malam, 
sometimes simply Kanmaviy the evil or foulness of action, 
which is represented as " existing in the form of merit and 
demerit," and ever accompanies tne soul through its almost 
endless course of transmigrations, and causes it " to eat the 
fruit of its own doings," till justice is satisfied. 

Kanmain, or action, has a three-fold distinction, com- 
monly illustrated by the processes of sowing, gathering, and 
eating. Every act of the man, imtil the soul is illumined 
and liberated by divine wisdom, is to be regarded in this 
three-fold aspect While eating the fruit of former doings, 
we are also sowing and gathering for the future. 

I now proceed to give a syllabus of the Siva-Grnana- 

The First Section declares an eternal, self-existent Deity, 
the efficient cause of all things. This doctrine is consider^ 
as proved by six considerations, stated as follows hj the 
autnor : " It is here argued, that Siva produces all tlungs, 
because (1.) The world exists in the three states designated 
by he, she, it, and is subject to the three divine operations, 

iL e. birth or development, preservation and destruction ;] 
12.) The world is produced from [Maya-] Malam in the way 
in which it is resolved into Majam ; (3.) Souls, in the same 
way as the worm becomes a wasp, and the caterpillar a 
beetle, appear in bodies which unaergo successive changes 


by births and deaths, being subject to Kanmam ;* (4.) Mayei 
is mere inert matter, and cannot take forms spontaneous j; 
(5.) Souls, on account of their connection with [^i;iava-] 
Malam, have not the intelligence to take each its own proper 
body; (6.) Yet souls do exist in their respective oodies, 
and perform actions in accordance with Kanmam." This 
result, it is asserted, no one but Deity could order and pro- 
duce. Therefore there must be a Deity, the efficient cause 
of things. 

The author variously expands, explains, and illustrates 
this topic. He comes, at length, to these conclusions : that 
Mayei is the material cause of the world ; that Saktif or the 
Deity's female energy, is the instrumental cause ; and that 
the Deity is its efficient cause; and farther, that ^'the world 
is resolved into Mayei in the order [reversed] in which it is 
developed and preserved," and that the Deity effects this 
througn the medium, or by the co-operation, of his Sakti. 

The Second Section shows how tne Deity stands related 
to the world, and to souls in their transmigrations. This is 
briefly stated as follows : ** God is the whole world, and yet 
he is other than the world. He is closely united with it, 
and fills every pore, and yet is not, in the least, entangled 
in it While souls, by means of the divine Sakti, experi- 
ence births and deaths, in accordance with their previous 
KanuMim, the Deity remains eternally pure ; he is one upon 
whom the nature of souls cannot come, [i. e. he is never the 
subject of joy, sorrow, etc., the consequences of Kanmam.'*] 

The author, in his explanation of this, shows that "the 
Deity exists in intimate union with souls, and yet is 
other than souls; that the soul has no power of action 
except in this close union with Deity ; that the Deity, flx)m 
eternity, stands in the same intimate union with the world, 
fills all space, and actuates all things, so that, in a sense, he 
may be callea the world, and yet is different from it ; that he 
carries on all these operations without any emotion, such as 
desire, hatred, etc. ; and that it is under the direction of Deity, 
that souls are made to eat the fruit of their doings, or that 
they are made to appear, [in bodies,] and move on, in 

* This limguage seems not sufficiently precise. The author may allude 
to the transformation of a grub into a beetle, or of a caterpillar into a 


accordance with the three Malams with which they have 
been, from eternity, entangled." 

He then shows how the soul is made to hold connection 
with three different bodies, one adapted to this world, one 
to an existence in hell, and one to an abode in the world of 
the gods, the lower heaven. 

The Third Section establishes the doctrine of the soul's 
eternal existence as an individual bein^. This is argued 
from the common assertions: ^*this and that are not the 
Boul," "this is my body," etc. ; and from the feet, that "the 
floul imderstands the five senses, [i. e. knows how to use 
4xem,] and its own way through the Avatteis;** and that it 
"imderstands when a thing is made known ;" and that "when 
sleeping^ there is neither eating nor acting, [i. e. on the part 
of tne body, and yet the soul acts, as in dreams."] 

The author's exposi of this sulgect is ingenious and inter- 
esting. But I will not dwell on it. 

The Fourth Section speaks of the soul in its connection 
with the AntakdranaSf or mental feculties. These are four, 
namely, Manama the power, or organism, of thinking, 
observing, etc. ; Putti, tne power of investigating, examin- 
ing, etc. ; Sittam, the faculty of reflection, inference, decis- 
ion, etc. ; and Angkdram, the organism in which the soul 
says, "I," "mine," " none like me," etc. 

The Siitra, or stanza from the Agama, asserts that " the 
soul is not one of the Antakara];Las, but is that which stands 
inseparably united with them. Originally, and of itself, it 
is destitute of understanding, because it is eternally con- 
nected with A^ava-Malam, just as copper is naturally 

obscured by rust." " When an earthly king," it is 

said, "having made an excursion, returns, and with his 
prime minister and other attendants, enters his palace, he, 
appointing suitable persons at all the outer gates, and sta- 
tioning a guard at the- entrance of the inner court, enters 
into his private apartments. So the soul [having made its 
excursions through the senses] in the body, enters into the 
five Avatteis, while PrdTva- Y&yu stands as a guard, and thus 
it carries on its intellectual operations." 

Pr&Tui'Vayu and Avattei, terms of fi:^quent occurrence, 
denote those parts of the human organism which are essential 
to the soul's complete consciousness and action. The Avattei 
is a five-fold organism, located in the seats of the five ope« 


rativc deities dwelling in every human being. These terms, 
with many others, are explained in those works which treat 
of the anthropology of the Hindus, wherein man is regarded 
as a miniature universe. The two principal works, extant 
in Southern India and Ceylon, whicn embrace this subject, 
are those which treat of the Tatwas, or ninety-six Powers. 
They are the Tatwa-Kattalei) and the Tatwa-Prakdsam. 
These, especially the former, ought to be published. 

The author adds extensive illustrations of the subject of 
this section, in the way of elucidating the conscious and 
active state of the soul in its proper organisms, and in its 
union with the indwelling deities of the human microcosoL 
He shows that, as the soul must occupy the senses in order 
to perception, so it must occupy the Antakara^ias in order 
to put forth intellectual exercises. 

The Fifth Section speaks of the soul as illuminated by the 
indwelling Deity. The author says, " The manner in which 
souls, without any knowledge oi the Deity, come, by the 
grace [Arul-Sakti] of the Deity, to their proper understand- 
ing of things, is like that of the senses in their respective 
functions, which perceive the objects presented by means of 
the soul, and yet nave no knowledge of the soul. This [L e. 
the way of the soul's receiving understanding by means of 
Arul-Sakti,~\ is as iron before the magnet." . . . ** When the 
magnet attracts iron, there is in the magnet neither change 
nor absolute want of change ; so, when the Deity actuates* 
souls, he has neither change nor want of change, [L e. is 
absolutely void of emotion."] 

The author, who presents several curious particulars 
under this section, closes with the idea, that "when his 
grace [Arul-Sakti] shines, then Siva shows himself to souls, 
just as the sun reveals himself by his own light." 

The Sixth Section draws the line of demarcation between 
the Deity and the world, thus : " All visible forms, or things 
known, are untrue; and that which is imknown has no 
existence. Therefore, that which is not included in these 
two, [the known and the unknown,] is SiVA, who is Truth. 
The continuous, or fixed world declares this." 

The author explains : " How is it that all which can be 
known by the understanding is a lie? It is so, on the 
ground that it is developed, exists [awhile,] and is then 
resolved or destroyed. How is it, that what is not known 


is said to have no existence? It is as [if one should speak 
of] a rope of tortoise-hair, the flower of the air, or a hare's 

I will give one paragraph from the author's very inge- 
nious exposition of this subject. He says, " What is the 
import 01 the assertion, that the Deity is neither the truth, 
wmch may be known by the soul, nor the untruth ? If 
you mean [by this question] to ask, whether that Being 
IS, or is not, he who has seen the truth, will on reflection 
say, 'He exists.' But if you mean to ask, whether he can 
be known by the imderstanding of the soul, [I answer,] 
He being tnus apprehended, would become a he, being 
[appearing] diflferent from himself, [i. e. he would be mis- 
apprehended.] Therefore, as Siva is beyond the reach of 
speech and understanding, the Truth [Deity] is that truth 
which, [or such a truth as,] cannot be known by the under- 
standing, but is to be understood by the aid of Arul-Sakti. 
K it be asked, what that AruJ is, it is the beautiful foot of 
Siva, [i. e. it is the grace given by his Sakti to those who 
worfikhip the foot of Siva. ] Hence the author concludes 
that " the soul has its power of understanding Deity through 
AruJ-Sakti, and that Siva, standing as life to souls, through 
his Sakti, causes them to understand without his being dis- 
sociated from them, just as the soul stands as life to the eye 
in perception ;"* ana again, " As there is one who sees, and 
one who shows [things in common life,] so there is a soul 
which knows, and a Deity which makes known." 

The Seventh Section points out farther distinctions between 
the Deity and other existences, and particularly defines the 
human soul. "In the presence of SattUy [or Truth, L e. 
Deity,] all things are as nothing. Because the world perishes, 
and passes away as a lie, therefore Truth [Sattu] Imows or 
regards it not. Because AsattUy [or Untruth, i. e. the world,] 
is material and ephemeral, it knows nothing. That which 
has a knowledge of both Sattu, which is eternal, and Asattu, 
which is temporal, is the soul, which is neither of the two." 

* The seme of this clause is, that the soul is made to understand sacred 
thinffs, especially the Deity, by the aid of his Anil-Sakti, without the Deity's 
manifefting himself as a oeing distinct from the' souL The soul is endued 
with this spiritual perception, while unconscious of the agency of the indwell- 
ing Deity, just as the eye is unoooicious of the agency of the soul in per- 


The author explains : ^^ Hence the soul is SattdscUtu, [both 
Truth and Untruth]. The manner in which the Deitj man- 
ages the world is [in a sense] like juggling, which is not for 
the exhibitor, but for the spectators. Because the Deity 
has no profit in the world, therefore it is said that he knows 
it not." 

The author, among other things in this section, adds, 
"That which understands Sattu, which .is spiritual, and 
Asattu, which is material, is the soul. The feet is, the soul 
is neither the Sattu, which is spiritual, nor the Asattu, 
which is material ; nor is it the union of the spiritual and 
the material. It cannot exist invisible, like the spiritual, 
nor visible, like the material. But it exists united with both. 
If it be asked, how the soul is manifest, it is manifest by 
its union with the Deity and the body ; just as firagrance is 
manifest in the flower. The soul stands as Sattu bv its 
union with the former ; and as Asattu, by its union witn the 
latter. Therefore the soul is styled Sattasattu." 

The author illustrates this union thus: "As long as 
the sea has existed, its water has existed ; and as long as 
the water has existed, its salt has existed. Just so, as long 
as the Deity has existed, so long has the soul existed ; and as 
long as the soul has existed, so long has Pasam existed. 
Here the sea represents the Deity ; the water, the soul ; and 
the salt, Pasam. Therefore Deity has no connection with 
matter, except through its connection with the soul," 

The Eighth Section shows, more specifically, how the 
soul attains its spiritual imderstanding. The transcendental 
power of the soul is defined, in the logical part of this work, 
as follows : " It is that understanding, caDed Y6ga-Kddski, 
which one possesses who has checked the influence of the 
senses, by means of the prescribed ascetic observances, and 
who understands instantaneously the nature and circum* 
stances of the time and place in which he exists, and also 
all the things of this wide world. This Yoga-K&dshi is the 
property of those who perform the eight iSittiSj [mpdes of 
ascetic observance,] and who have examined into the proper 
nature of Vintu and Ndtkam, [the male and female energies 
of Deity."] Thus far the logic. 

The Sutra states, " When the Deity, who becomes life to 
the soul, and standing within enables it to operate, manifests 
himself as a Gxiru, saying to the soul, ' Thou forgettest thy 


real nature, having been nourished and trained up with the 
hunters, the five senses,' and when he, having caused the 
soul, in previous births, to pass on through penance, [i. e. 
through the first three stages, namely the Par&nay the Idngaj 
and the Y6ga,'\ now brings it into Ondnarrif and in this good 
state instructs it, then the soul, having left the state of dark- 
ness in which it before existed, will, as a Ondni, [wise man] 
Sass firom Tirotham, [its previous state of darkness,] to the 
ivine AruJ, firom which it will never be dissociated." 

This is the final stage of the soul's embodied existence. 
The soul is now in the light ; and when the man drops this 
his last body, he becomes a Sivam, a being very like Siva 
himself and will be closely united with him forever. The 
author says, " The soul, which has stood like waters con- 
fined within their embankments, now coming to understand, 
in a proper wav, the senses which have bound it, ana 
escaping firom tneir control, will not be bom again ; but, 
like the river that has left its bed and passed into the ocean, 
will be fixed at the sacred foot of Siva, [i. e. in a state of 
grace and glory."] 

The author has much to' say, under this head, on mat- 
ters connected with this method of final salvation, the soul's 
deliverance from the darkness and entanglements of Pasam. 

The Ninth Section gives a farther view of the enlightened 
Boul, and of the method of its ultimate triumph, particularly 
of the use of the five-charactered Mantra, called Pantshdtsha' 
raan, " Since neither Post^ Ondnam nor Pdsa- Gndnam, [i. e. 
neither the soul's proper understanding, nor its understand- 
ing possessed through its organisms,] can apprehend the 
Deity, therefore do thou by the eye of wisdom examine the 
way in which he stands in thee ; for, to stand and see the 
Deity by't he help of the divine Arul, is the desired posi- 
tion. When one, thus searching for Deity, leaves Pasam, 
[L e. renounces the world,] saying, * It is like the devil-car, 
[mirage,] which moves so swiftly that one cannot ascend it,' 
and wnen he pronounces, according to the prescribed rules, 
the celebrated Pantshatsharam, then the Deity will be a cool 
shade to him who has wandered in the heat of the sim, 
[i. e. who has been oppressed with the cares, vexations, etc. 
of the worid."] 

This intricate and important subject is largely explained 
by the author, and by otner commentators on tms Agama* 

WWm XL 19 


The ninth section includes directions for the last and 
highest stage of rebgious service, or internal, spiritual Pujd. 
In this service, the soul will eventually discover Siva "in 
the form of Gnanam, [wisdom,] standing firmly in his Ftnfti- 
fHikti" "Do thou," says the author, "meditate on him as 

so situated, and [thus] become united with him." 

" When the Deity thus stands manifest to the soul, the soul 
will be [to the Deity] like iron in the fire. When iron is sub- 
jected to the influence of fire, its own ordinary appearance 
gives place to that of fire ; so it is in the case of the soul with 

the Deity, in its Siva-Kupam, [or form of Siva."] 

" If thou pronoimcest the Pantshdtsharam, thou wilt come 
into this imion with Siva. Therefore, unceasingly ppo- 
no\mce the five characters." 

A knowledge of the Tatwas is essential to a full under- 
standing of this subject The Pantshatsharam, however, is 
not fiiUy explained in either of the works on the Tatwas 
above mentioned. Its characters pronoimced are na-ma'si" 
vd-ya. They have a very extensive connection with the 
mystic philosophy of the Hindus; in their compass and 
influence they embrace the universe. To employ them 
intelligently, and according to rule, is a most acceptable 
service to Siva. The initiated employ these characters in 
two words, to express their act of worsnip or praise to Siva, 
thus : Sivdya nama, praise, or worship, oe to Siva. Some 
years since, I prepared a paper on the Pantshatsharam for 
this Society, but found no opportunity of presenting it 
On my return to India in 1844, the article was published 
by request, in two parts, in the Madras Christian Instructor 
for November and December of that year. I present the 
subject in a new form in a note to this paper. 

It is stated, in the section before us, that the soul is 
never freed fi-om the control of its Malams, without the vis- 
ion of Siva here described; and that this vision can be 
obtained onl v as here directed. 

The Tentn Section treats of the removal of the three 
Malams through the agency of AruJ-Sakti, and also of the 
condition and actings of the soul when thus liberated fix>m 
its sore thraldom. The author says, " The divine AruJ is 
the foundation on which the soul becomes one with Siva, 
walks in his ways, and ceases to say, */ have done it,' 
' Others have done it to me/ " etc. 



The meaning is, that the soul, bj the aid of AruJ-Sakti, 
comes to understand its close union with Siva, which is 
like the imion of soul and body ; and that it is by means of 
Siva that its proper imderstanding has been illuminated ; 
and that it is bv his aid, also, that all those actions which 
the soul had called its own, have been performed. Hence 
the soul now *^ sees that all those actions which appeared its 
own, were really Siva's." The soul, in this state, is declared 
to be '^firee from the three Malams, A];;Lavam, Mayei and the 
irresistible Kanmam." 

Though the soul be thus freed from its original entangle- 
ments, yet it still bears some taint of Malam, which needs to 
be wiped off. This is done by AmJ-Sakti, otherwise called 
the grace of Siva. The taint is attached to the soul's organ- 
ism, which is compared to a dish in which asafoetida has 
been kept The removing of the accumulated Kanma- 
Malam is compared to the removal of the asafoetida from 
the dish. The offensive smell which unavoidably remains 
in the dish, represents the remains of Klanmam in the body. 
"Though," says the author, " the soul's former actions do 
thus adhere to the Gnani, yet his present Kanmam will not 
adhere to his body, so as to require to be eaten, as before. 
For the Gnarii, because he is now in the likeness of Siva, 
comprehends whatever he knows, as one possessing the 
attrioutes of Siva. This results from his being so united 

with Siva as to be one with him." " Such persons, 

[still in the body,] take notice of the objects of sense ; yet 
they are not infatuated by those objects, nor are they dis- 

turoed in their spiritual neroism They are like 

the divine Rishis, who, while sitting in fire, have the power 
of resisting its influence, so as not to be burned by it." 

"As darkness cannot stand before the sim, so 

Kanma-Malam can no longer rise upon [withstand] the 
Gnani ; and as the lamp shines not in the presence of the 
sun, so Maya-Malam [body] can no longer have life [power] 
with him." 

The Eleventh Section sBows how the soul comes to see 
Siva, and to enter into a cordial and perpetual imion 
with him. 

In the previous section, we have seen the soul freed from 
its entanglements, and made to understand itself, and its 
relation to Siva of entire dependance. But as yet the man 


has not seen his Lord. This is the next step. Our author 
says, " When the soul has escaped- from the influence of the 
body, and become pure, Siva will look upon it, and show 
himself to it, [i. e. will enable the soul to see him,] just as 
the soul acts as the cause or power of vision to the eye. 
Therefore Siva, by thus revealing himseL^ will give his 
sacred foot to the soul, [which it will embrace] with a love 
which it never forgets to exercise." 

Here the manifested Deity is represented as an attractive 
object, drawing out the heart, or affections of the soul, and 
binding to himself forever by cords of love. 

The author says, among other things, "Though the 
gun rise and stand before the blind, yet it will be to them 
like the darkness of night; they cannot see. So Siva 
cannot be seen by those who are entangled in Pasam, though 
he fills every place. But to those who are worthy, and who 
love him, he will give the eye of Gnanam, and will remove 
from them the snares of Pasam, just as the sun opens the 
lotus-flower, when it is in the state to be thus affected." 

He argues the eternal identity and individuali^ of the 
soul, as follows : " If the soul perishes as an [individual] 
soul, in uniting with the Deity, then there is no eternal being 
to imite with the Deity. But if, on the contrary, it does not 
lose its individuality, which it had when in union with the 
Malams, then it must be something different from the Deity, 
and cannot come into final and absolute union, or oneness, 
with Deity. When the Malams perish, [i. e. when they cease 
to control the soul,] then the soul, with spiritual habili- 
ments, will unite with the Deity as his servant, just as 
salt unites with water, and forever exist at his feet as one 
with him." 

The Twelfi;h and last Section points out and enjoins the 
modes in which Siva may be acceptably worshipped. . . . 
'* Remove ye the three Malams which prevent your union 
with the strong foot that is like the red lotus, and unite ye 
with those who have obtained liberation, while living, oy 
removing their three Malams ; aUd regarding both the sacred 
bodies of those who abound in love to Siva, and are free 
from worldly delusion, and also his temples, as Siva him- 
self, worship ye." 

The author directs attention to the following particulars, 
as embraced in this statement : 



1. " While the three Malams remain, Gnanam cannot be 
obtained. Therefore the Malams must be removed. 

2. " The soul will partake of the character of that with 
which it is associated, just as any thing dipped in saffi*on 
will take its color. Hence the disciple must avoid the con- 
tact of those who are entangled in Pasam, and associate 
with the pious. Upon those who thus walk, the Malams 
will not accumulate. 

8. " Because Siva shines in those who possess the sacred 
form, [L e. who properly adorn their persons with the marks 
and emblems of Siva,] therefore such persons should be 
worshipped as Siva. 

4. "Worship may be performed in temples, because Siva- 
Linga, [the visible object of worship for the enlightened,] 
is composed of Mantras, and is therefore to be regarded as 
the booj of Siva, the form in which he manifests himself to 
the Gnani. 

5. "Siva, "who is neither soul nor body, is so closely 
united with both as to impart to them all their power of 
action, etc. ; in the same way he exists in Siva-Iin^a, as one 
with it. Therefore love and worship him in that form, 
— ^perform Linga'PujA. 

6. " The Kanmams will not leave one, except he worship 
Siva. Therefore be thou possessed of love and worship, 
regarding the devotees of Siva, and Siva-Lingas, in the same 
lignt, [i. e. as equally the forms of Siva.] 

7. " Hence the disciple must worship, regarding Siva, his 
Ghiru, and the Sastras, as one." That is, in the diflferent 
stages of this divine course, Siva, under the diflferent forms 
referred to, is to be regarded as the object of worship ; else 
there will be no advancement towards the light, no liber- 

The author closes the whole work with the following 
remark : " From the Ondna-Nul, or sacred Scripture, which 
Nandi [Siva's chief attendant] graciously formed for our 
lord Sanatkumaran, [the author of the Agama,] because he 
praised and worshipped him, from that Niil, Meykandan 
[our author] has translated twelve of the Sanskrit Sldkas 
or Sutras into Tamil, having first embraced them in his 
mind. In order that the inhabitants of the earth may 
understand these doctrines, they are here presented in the 
logical form of Proposition, Data and Prooil" 



Many points of interest are brought out in this work, 
which have not been alluded to in UiQ foregoing 8yllabu& 
Among the more important of these, to mj mind, are expla- 
nations of mystic observances in the populfur worship, and the 
reasons why so great and general attention is given to some 
of the popular deities. Of the latter, we have an example 
in the case of PMidr, or Ganesa, the god with an elephant's 
head, and of monstrous dimensions. This deity is, perhaps, 
more extensively worshipped than any other of tne idol- 
forms which fill the land. The reason of this is obscurely 
E resented in the work before us. It is found in the sym- 
olio meaning of lus proboscis, which is the same as that 
of Siva-Linga, which presents to view the two natures or 
energies of Deity in co-operation. He is, therefore, the 
od of action, the active or inunediate author of all results. 
e is, in a sense, an agent in all the five divine operations^ 
which are usually ascribed -to five different gods. In the 
order of nature, he may be placed before any effect or 
existence. Hence we may perceive the meamng of the 
popular paradox, " He is the son who was bom before his 

A knowledge of the argumentative and doctrinal works 
of the Hindus, in the forms in which they are familiar to 
them, is of great practical importance to the missionary in 
India ; and all in any way engaged in the missionary work, 
have an interest in the suoject. It is on the ffround of what 
is contained in these works that the learned Hindu takes 
his stand, and meets the charges often urged upon him, with 
the declaration, " I am not an idolater; I worship the one 
great (jod." It is not necessary that the missionary preacher, 
or teacher, should be always dwelling on these matters. But 
he should, if possible, be always able to adapt his instruc- 
tions to the state of mind of those to whom he sj>eaks. 
Not unfrecjuentlv, when the young missionary is preaching, 
and niakinor, as lie supposes, his triumphant assaults on the 
system of the people, is the native scholar seen to throw 
out his significant glances, indicating, what he will some- 
times express in words, ** The young man is ignorant, he 
knows nothing about us." At other times, scholars are seen 
chuckling and laughing amongst themselves, obviously 
strengthened in their position by the evidence which the 
missionary himself gives, that ne imderstands not their 


wisdom, their divine Gnanam. A correct knowledge of the 
living, practical system of Hinduism is, in my opinion, 
more important to the missionary on his first entering that 
field, than even a knowledge of the language of the people. 
A conmiencement in both would be an invaluable qualifi- 
cation to any young missionary. 

This last remark leads me to another. The statement 
often made, that " the learning of the Ilindus is locked up 
in the Sanskrit language," is true only of Northern India, 
or rather of those parts of India the languages of which 
are directly derived from the Sanskrit. The Tamil and its 
branches, including the Telegu, the Canarese, etc., are orig- 
inally independent of the Sanskrit, and are the languages 
of about fifty or sixty millions of people. In the Tamil, 
and to some extent in the Telegu, is to be found whatever is 
valuable in Hindu learning, certainly so far as there have 
been developments made fi-om the Sanskrit. And it is 
manifest, that any work in Tamil, though it be in the high 
dialect, is of more worth to the missionary in Southern 
India, than the same work in Sanskrit. It being in the 
living language of the people, not only may its fuQ mean- 
ing be the better comprehended, but the terms required, 
and which are so important in such studies, are there ready 
for use, shaped to the structure of the language. 

Again, the bearing of such works as the one brought to 
view in this paper, on ethnological researches, to sav nothing 
of the transcendental speculations of German philosophers, 
will probably suggest itself to other minds. I leave this 
suggestion to be carried out by others whose more fully 
developed organisms enable them to soar into regions which 
I have not attempted. 






The following is a brief view of the mystic formula men- 
tioned in the preceding paper. I have drawn the materiak 
of it chiefly from a Hindu author, who is claimed by both 
the Saiva and Vaish^iava schools. 

This Mantra, or formula of praver, is one of the highest 
meaning and power in the Hindu system. It is regaraed 
as an incarnation of Deity, and as including in itself all the 
powers of the universe. It is employed by both gods and 
men, in their respective works. 

By its instrumentality, the operative deities develop and 
control the universe of beings, and again resolve the whole 
into its primeval state. By it, all the laws of nature, physi- 
cal, intellectual, and even moral, are made to operate. 

It is by this marvellous power, also, that the hierophant 
is enabled to control, in certain ways, all existences ; and is 
thus empowered to bring into the previously formed image 
** the real presence" of the five great gods, with their Saktis 
and accompaniments, and to make it their permanent abode ; 
all which is essential to constitute it an idol, or a proper 
object of worship. 

The characters of this Mantra have also an extensive 
emblematic meaning, thus embracing the universe in classes 
of fives. Among these classes we have the five operative 
deities ; their five Saktis ; the five divine operations ; the 


five divine weapons ; the five colors ; the five elements ; and 
their developed classes of fives ; etc. 

Such are the things brought into view by " continually 
repeating the five characters. The repetition is not, there- 
fore, to the Hindu an unmeaning ceremony. Each rehearsal 
is to be made understandingly, and is thus a step in the 
prescribed course that leads regularly through the dominions 
of the five indwelling deities of the human Microcosm. 

This Mantra, like the universe, exists in three successive 
stages of development, which may be styled the Ethereal, 
the Spiritual, and the Corporeal. 

1. The Ethereal Pantshatsharam can be neither written 
nor spoken. It is a " divine light, which can be perceived 
and enjoyed only by the enlightened soul." Irom this 
emanate the pure forms or organisms of souls ; also the 
forms of the gods in their higher stage of development, and 
" of thirty-two millions of beings, [i. e. classes oi beings."] 

2. The Spiritual Pantshatsharam is a development fi-om 
the Ethereal, and exists in visible characters, or such as may 
be written, but not spoken aloud. They may be whispered 
in the ear of the disciple. These are : a-u-m- YvnJba-Nomam. 
The first three of them constitute the mystic <$m, {aum^ 
"through the help of which," as the V^da declares, "you 
contemplate the Supreme Spirit." Eespecting this monosyl- 
lable, Manu says, " All rites ordained in the V^da, such as 
oblations to fire and solemn ofierings, pass away ; but the 
monosyllable 6m is considered to be that which passes not 
away, since it is a symbol of the Most High, the Lord of 
created beings." The sense in which 6m is a " symbol of 
the Lord of created beings," is manifest, the three letters of 
which it is composed being the symbols, respectively, of 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, or of tne Generator, Preserver, 
and Transformer of " created beings." 

By this five-fold power is effected the second stage in the 
development of the universe of gods, men, and things, which 
are unfolded in classes of fives, as in their ethereal stage. 
Hence the five operative deities, Satha-Sivam, May&uran, 
Siva, Vishnu and Brahma ; their Saktis ; the intellectual or- 
ganisms, and all the other powers of man ; and other beini 

These characters also stand as the indices, or symbol 
of all the various classes of fives in the second stage of 

TOL. n. 20 


8. The Corporeal Pantsliatsliaram is the more earthly 
form of the same wondrous powers, being developed from 
the Spiritual. The characters in which it exists, are : nxi- 
ma-si-vd-ya. These may be written and spoken by proper 
persons. Their functions with respect to the corporeal stage 
of development, correspond to those of the previous forms 
with respect to the ethereal and spiritual stage. 

These characters constitute the formula employed in con- 
secrating temples, in constituting idols, etc. 

The same powers are considered as incarnate, or em- 
bodied, in many things natural and artificial. As in the cow, 
from which are obtained the five sacred articles, namely, 
milk, curd, ghee, and the two evacuations; in the sacred 
lamp, where we have the vessel, the ghee, (which is burnt,) 
the fire, the wick, and the light ; in the peacock, which car- 
ries in its plumage the five radical colors, yellow, black, red, 
green, and white ; in man, monkies, rats, and the sacred 
tortoise, which present the five symbols in their fingers and 
toes. Hence, tne five things from the cow, and also the 
lamp, are essential articles in all important ceremonies. For 
the same reason, the rat, as well as the peacock, is regarded 
as a vehicle of Deity. 

These characters, like the preceding, are symbols of the 
individuals belonging to the classes of fives, in their mimdane 
state of existence. These are the letters which are to be 
constantly repeated by the devotee in his devotions. 

Thus, as stated in one of the sacred books, "you may 
here understand the existence and diversified nature of the 
five letters, how they diversify words and things, and govern 
the imiverse, and how they at length remove, [L e. are 
resolved into their primeval elements or states."] 

This brief sketch will suffice to show, why it is that the 
Hindu attaches so much importance to this formula ; and 
wherein consists the merit of its frequent repetition. 











The Nagas inhabit the extensive mountain-ranges lying 
on the eastern boundary of Asam, and separating it irom 
the northern parts of Burmah. They have evidently sprung 
from a common stock, but are at present divided into a great 
number of independent tribes, often hostile to each other, 
and speaking a variety of dialects ; which we can account 
for only by supposing them to have remained in their pres- 
ent scattered and disconnected state for many centuries. 
There is every ground for believing that, in origin and lan- 
guage, they are intimately connected with some of the mpst 
ancient and extensive tribes of Central Asia. Their lan- 
guage has a close afl&nity to the Burmese ; to the Bhutan ; 
to me Tibetian; and especially to that of the Miris and 
Abors, who inhabit the mountains between Asam and Tibet 
The d[ifference between this language and several of the 
Tartar dialects is scarcely greater than that existing between 
different dialects of the Nagas themselves. 

The following specimens exhibit the most important varie- 
ties in the language of this people; extending from the 
Namsang Nagas near Jaipur on the North, to the Angamis 
at the farthest limit on the South. The first column is from 
a vocabulary taken by Bev. Mr. Bronson, during his resi- 
dence on the Namsanff hills ; for the second and fourth col- 
umns, I am indebted to J. Thornton, Esq., Sub-assistant 
Commissioner for the district of Sibpur; and for the first 
colimin of Angami Naga, to a vocabulary prepared by an 
intelligent native, imder the direction of Capt. J. Butler, of 
Nowgong ; the others have been collected by me with con- 
siderable care^ and will, I trusty be found free from any 
serious erron. 


Leaving out of view, for the present, the Angamis of the 
extreme ^Duth, whose language has only a remote connec- 
tion with that of the other Nagas, it will be seen, £rom an 
inspection of the table, that the langua^ of the central 
tribes is divided into three distinct mnihes of dialects ; of 
which the Namsang, Muthim and Joboka, constitute the 
first; the Mulung and Tablim^, the second; the Tengsa, 
Nogaung and ELhari, the thircL The tribes which speak 
these directs may be arranged imder the following divisions: 

1. (1.) The Namsang, Sor-Diuyr, and Pani-Dwor, rCT)re- 
sented m our first column; (2.) the B&r-MvJthun, Htyru- 
Muthun, and Khulung-MiUhun; (3.) the Joboka, Ban/era, and 
Giangrwi, The last mentioned six tribes descend upon the 
plains near Sibsagor. 

2. In this division we have, (1.) the Mulung and Sima; 
(2.) the Tablung, Jaktung, Kongon, Gele/d-Duor, and south- 
em Namsang, These tribes inhabit Tablung mountain and 
other hills in the neighborhood of Jorhat and Sibsagor. 
The Tablung Baja is considered the most powerM of all 
the Naga chicfi. 

8. Our sixth and two subsequent columns represent a 
class of Nagas speaking a dialect considerably different fix>m 
either of the former, (1.) the Ibngsa and Dopdor; (2.) the 
Nogaung, Hatigor, Haimong, and Asuring; (3.) the Khari, a 
large and interesting tribe, whose dress and general appear- 
ance are more respectable than I have elsewhere seen among 
the Nagas. 

Large companies fi'om each of these tribes are found every 
cold season at Jorhat, which is their principal market The 
Nagas connected with the Jorhat district have been roughly 
estimated at two hundred thousand ; their real numbers are 

Li the following table, the vowels are used in accordance 
with their classical pronunciation : a as in Amertca, and with 
a long accent, as in far; e as in met and jorey; t as in pin 
and police; o as in not, and with a long' accent, as in robe; 
u like oo; ii like the French u. Italicized n resembles the 
French nasal n ; and Italicized ih, the English ^, as in ikink* 

* We are happy to refer the reader to two yaluable articles by Mr. Brown, 
on the Tai langiiage, and on the Indo-Chinese languages generally, m the 
Jowmal of the Asiatie Society of Bengal^ vol vi. ; fuid to im<»iDatiOQ on the 
Abor ana Khamti dialects denyed from him, in the same Joanial, roL zfiiL 

OOIIIL 09 Fmftb 




nil lll|-i^llfj'^:df jJlli 




1^9 a 







^S^'^ f i 9 i 

=2 :3 

3 a a ►>:: 

^^ g ^ -M 


>« .! 


Wa g 

r ._ «ii 













I in I 

^^•§•3 g-a g 



'5 I" 







P E? 








«8 « 










eS 08 e« eS 9^ d 3 


® 3 3 






•r^ OD 9 

:a « 

Il1l:3 3lil^li 




o ® S ^ 

i lilt ' IM v^rf >a 



^ :3 ■a ^ « ?>._ .a rS 4 te O 







? ^ 3 3 3 
>^0 fl8 et P^ 


d.a ^ a a ND 

J4 ►»►> 


'3 I •§§ 


Id 'd S -ti 
d'3 3 3 d >, 

>^ea 08 08 &«d 

d d <M o*^ z ►) 

g>g>g>g ^rg ^ 




d ^Jd'*< 

3 33-1^1- 

'g^^g'g a^ 





^S^ dfa >->d d -^o -o 'O Cn d 

>* fJS »J< t 



© ^.?. 

fcL m 

lal-tlJIgtetltlfl illll-gll-gJil 











S.'S *pM S 08 2 ■<« c S aa S 3 




O 9 

-2 :3 



















a ^^ 

w 8 'w 







-S -SB t^ 

S J'gJ a 3 _ 

















•fl _C -3 

5 fcO 



1 = 

'^ C^ ^ O 04 






3 -C 

1 1 if •&fti.-9 

"6 tc 


Q) 3 S 4) 

■S o 

O - 

F- *» S 
§a I 

o 2 



•5 3 &<'ol 



I Ok 





c^ H 3 § "C^ 3 »<* ^ 9 



03 . »<8 



3 > 

^ O 






^ 3 


¥<ML A 




u 6 




. 3 g „ ^ 

O .£! JC '^ ,i3 


•sl = 




.5 jj J g 




Jri Jbtf ^ 

o ^ o 

e^ $ s 

55 J^ 










flj -^ 

5^ J y 





8> p. 


33 al 

E S 












^ •?! 'a .3 









S S 2 C^ 
g g pg eg 


53 85 


eS pS Ci ..^ ^ 





'^ «« w^ • ^^ 

-..mS Jd«'a> ^ Jl Xi ^ 



1 § g ^ 

<M «4 XT >4 

tS as X o 







2 s aa 


§ S.£ a-a g. 



j-i c-S-s ff 3 OS 9 »o*a*p^ 



a f 


< < < 

§3 a 

g^.s.s a q 





3 «!Pe^-!S^ 




'S3 ^ <4.| 








o lit 







•a J 3 "2 S-^ a Jj 9 • 

a pifl'iS^ 


fMAib oT 




g>^ :::::: : f g 

US fl «a^ K^ 




a S 



a n 






3 a S 3 S -.g -a 3 

•■ '■• t^ 

iri liiisi^iiiiiiiiiiij 


'C ^|P 
















•5^:3 5 

«rf B M l- I 

i . 14 


i I 



® I 

i 1^ I- 

15 5-5-5 « S 3 2 2 Ji 3^^^-S, 

g] es 9 >J4 s) » 3 








C : 

1 ^ 




§g q "S -j ^y ^ 3 


a^ ja 

^ o a 
c a 9 






T? .a o 

..^ •«« 

.a es a> 
>^>>t»^ s a.5 -3 






d 08 « 



J be 

O K « 



r>vS a g>3 
^ e^ >>o8 a a_x:j^_ 

•^ — •§ 3 S,^ 

■g^ OB o ca c >^3m 











-, I. - , S^p g^j-w g a.a o-J sJ-a d-S-^*- 








31.1 glliJa 


Of 9f 













^ 9 


|i| Hill 




5 2x2 

J fl8 g c8 


s^ s ^ 

^ P 9 ce 

•g aa-s 


o 2 

a is 









■~ s 








jtf.M.1: s 













(Read October 17, 1860.) 



We are in the habit of calling the present an age of move- 
ment and progress. True, it is so, but with some important 
limitations. One half of the world, we may say, is astir in 
every new enterprise ; but the other, slightly jostled by its 
commotion, is just beginning to awake from the slumber of 
ages. If we take the mean of the various estimates of the 
population of our globe, we shall find it to be not far from 
eight hundred millions. It is certainly remarkable that the 
half of this aggregate is now and has long been under one 
political organization, and that four hundred millions of 
men have the same literature, laws and institutions. We 
refer to the Chinese nation. 

Hitherto, little has been known of this great portion of 
the human family. They have as it were been walled out 
from the common intercourse of man; and there in the 
remote East has been solved an unique problem in human 
history. Little^ very little, has been done for ages to dis- 
turb tne operation of those causes which have combined to 
make China what she is. Antipodal to us in her position 
on the globe, she is scarcely less so in many other particu- 
lars. She has taken no note of human progress elsewhere. 

But we have fallen upon a new era in her history. The 

{)eriod has arrived when, as the earthquake darts a tremor 
rom pole to pole, the advancing movements of the Occi- 
dental world begin to send their vibrations to the farthest 
East. God, it has been well said, often works by delays in 
the great scheme of his providence. It is but two centuries 
and a half since it was said in the chronicles of the times, 
that " Eussia was discovered." Eleven years later, a divine 
hand planted the first colony of white men on these shores. 
Now again, after having suffered China to maintain an anom- 
alous existence for thousands of years, the same power has 

▼OL. IL 22 


unlocked her gates, and opened her coast to the world. The 
old exclusive system of Tartar policy has not been broken 
up ; but the beginning of a change has been made, and therein 
is contained the pledge of its completion at no yeiy distant 
day. That selfish and unsocial political creed has received 
a shock from which it never can recover. The nation may 
fall in with the common movement of mankind towards a 
better state, but never can retrace its stepfi, so as to take its 
former lonely and stationary position. The Chinesepeople 
must come fully into the conmiunity of nations. The age 
of change has overtaken them, and they cannot wholly 
withstand it. Their language, their reli^on, and their social 
and political state, must hereafter be sin)jected to Hxe in&Or 
encJthat have s^ powerfully operated to modify or nno- 
vate those of other nations. To the Christian, the scholaTi 
and the philanthropist, then, a new and vast sphere has been 
thrown open, wherein to exercise their kindly offices. 

Our purpose at the present time is to notice some of the 
most efficient causes that have been long at work thereL 
moulding and fashioning more especially the Chinese mind 
into its present shape and dimensions, and giving to every 
thing that belongs to it, good or bad, its present character. 
Pursuing this course, we may first take note of the ^eograph* 
ical position of the Chinese empire. This has had much to 
do with the formation of the character of its inhabitants. 

It is by no means an insignificant question in reference to 
any people, whether the bounds of their habitation are 
formed ty a surroundinff ocean, in whole or in part, or 
are altogether inland ; whether they are heated by a trop' 
ical sun, or stiffened by polar colcJ, or subjected to sudi 
varieties of climate as are found in the teniperate zone. 
When the Euler of the universe assigned Eastern Asia 
to the Chinese, casting up mountain-barriers on the North, 
the West, and the South, with the ocean on the East^ 
to form its natural boundaries, he had a purpose in it. 
Within that vast enclosure he was to develop a chapter 
in himian history which owes its leading features in no 
small degree to its situation on the map of the globe. Its 
very remoteness from Europe and America has tended to 
leave that country ^unaffected by influences from abroad. 
Rome studied in the school of Greece, and the other Euro- 


pean nations took lessons from Eome; but the Chinese 
nave educated themselves at home. But the geographical 
boundaries of their country seem, still more than their 
remoteness, to have excluaed them from the rest of the 
nations. They could hardly have been more isolated, if 
China had been girded on all sides by broad seas. The 
natural consequence of this seclusion was, that they main- 
tained a separate existence, and had an independent growth, 
and a self made character. No nation from beyond the 
present boundaries of the empire ever, till lately, invaded 
their territory. They felt no foreign power, and hence 
learned to fear and respect none. They depended upon 
none but themselves, ana so learned to rely upon their own 
resources. While the nations of Western Asia and Europe 
were impinging upon each other, in hostile collisions, or m 
the peaceful interchange of the products of the earth and 
the mind, or more than aU perhaps through the working 
of the potent leaven of Christianity diffused among them, 
the subjects of the Chinese monarchy scarcely heeded their 
existence, much less the changes through which they passed. 
Political revolutions abroad produced no effect upon them, 
as they scarcely had dealings with their nearest neighbors. 
This was the effect of their geographical position. In addi- 
tion to this, the generally favorable climate, the general 
fertility of the soil, the various and abundant national 
resources, and the facility of intercommunication between 
the most distant parts of the country, afforded by means of 
rivers, (a &cility which has been greatly increased by art,) 
are physical causes that have always tended to mate the 
Chinese contented in their own land, and to check emigra- 
tion. Industry is not discouraged there, as it is in the 
Arctic regions ; nor is indolence begotten by extreme fer- 
tility, as in tropical climes ; but there has always been at 
once necessity to provoke labor, and production to reward 
it. This may also, in some measure, accoimt for the early 
advancement of China in civilization. It was a region 
peculiarly favorable to the development of industry, and 
men were left alone there, so far as foreign war is concerned, 
to try in peace their physical, moral and intellectual powers ; 
and that with a strong impulse, from their national seclu- 
gion, to exercise their mventive faculties. Hence, when the 
rest of the world was comparatively in a state of barbarism, 



China was perhaps in advance of all other countries in 
respect to the arts and comforts of civilized life. 

Such in general has been her position in reference to the 
other great families of man, for many centuries. It matters 
little that the existence of this people was known to the 
Western nations, at an early period. Until recently, every 
attempt to promote a more intimate and frequent inter- 
course with China has failed. Of all the foreign powers 
that made the experiment, during centuries, none but Kussia, 
whose Siberian dominions are adjacent to the Chinese em- 
pire, could ever effect a treaty with the great monarch of 
the East, or cause him to regard an envoy in any other 
light than that of a tribute-bearer. On the other hand, 
China never sent a poUtical ambassador to any foreign court 
or government whatever, if we except that to the Khan 
of the Tunguse Tartars. There has she stood among the 
kingdoms of the earthy almost as regardless of the rest as 
if she were the only power in the world. Without taking 
into view the facts which have been referred to, it would 
be difficult, not to say impossible, to account for such an 
anomaly in the history of the world. It is manifest that 
distance and seclusion from other nations have contributed 
to give the Chinlese the unique character which they retain 
to this day. Whatever that character might be, it was 
necessarily after its own kind, it was sui generis. 

Another important clue to the right apprehension of a 
nation's character, is its language. The Chinese language 
is so singular, in the phenomena of its structure, as to 
entitle it to the attention of intelligent persons as a part of 
the history of the human mind. But it has higher claims to 
notice, because it is the medium through which four hun- 
dred millions of mankind, occupying a territory more exten- 
sive than all Europe, communicate their ideas. Its high 
antiquity is unquestionable- There are reasons independent 
of Chinese testimony, or Chinese chronology, for believing 
it to be one of the oldest languages of the Oonftision. The 
human mind is essentially the same in all countries. Hence 
we look for some resemolances in those creations of the 
mind which are intended for the same, or similar purposes. 
Accordingly we find, in the arts, substantially the same kind 
of tools used by men of the same craft, in France and India, 
ia China and America. But langu$^ is the instrument 


wliicli the mind universally employs as the mediimi of 
intercourse between man and man, and we might expect to 
find, if not an universal language, at least as many analo- 
gies and resemblances between the vehicles of thought in 
use among different nations, as we do between their imple- 
ments of art. This natural expectation is in a good degree 
realized in the languages of Europe. The alphabets of 
many of them, and to a considerable extent their words, are 
identical, or at least traceable to a common origin. But 
when one lands upon the shores of China, he feels that 
he is, emphatically, among a people of a strange tongue. 
Every word he perceives to be a monosyllable, a peculiarity 
not K)und in any other tongue except the Cochin-Chinese, 
which is evidently kindred to the Chinese. In order to be 
inteUigible to one another, the Chinese throw synonymous 
words together, and thus form compound words ; but yet, 
strictly speaking, all their words are monosyllabic. The 
stranger observes also a peculiar indistinctness of articula- 
tion, as if consonants were of little account, and an imusu- 
ally frequent repetition of the same sound, apparently of 
the same word, which is not altogether attributable to his 
iterance of the language. He hears a strongly marked 
rising inflection of voice at the end of a sentence, and 
supposes that it indicates a question. But he is told that 
this is no sign of an interrogation; it is a tone that be- 
longs to the word, and is always given to it, whenever 
and in whatever connection it is uttered. He thinks again 
that he hears an assertion ; but his interpreter informs nim 
that the supposed afltenative tone was an expression of 
doubt. The modulations of voice which he takes to be 
indicative of emotion in the speaker, have not the remotest 
association with it. On the contrary, he must dispossess 
himself of one of the very instincts of his nature, and when 
he listens to a Chinese, must dissociate his tones of voice 
from any and every state of feeling in the speaker, because 
his intonations have not the ofl&ce of expression, as in other 
languages. They are only an expedient to increase the 
number of distinct words in the language. Everj word has 
cue of these tones belonging to it, which is as inseparable 
from it as the other vocal elements of which it is composed. 
The paucity of words distinguishable from one another by 
the ear, is such that it has been found necessary to vary 


tliem by means of four tones, in order to increase the 

In Morrison's Dictionary, we find twelve thousand six 
hundred and seventy-four characters, having forms and 
meanings distinct from each other. But in representing 
them all by Roman letters, the author produced only four 
hundred and eleven different syllables. These, if accentu- 
ated by four tones, would give a little more than one thou- 
sand six hundred distinguishable enunciations for all the 
words in the court-dialect, that is, for all the twelve thou- 
sand six hundred and seventy -four contained in the Diction- 
ary to which reference has been made. Thus we have an 
average of eight words, spelt and pronounced exactly alike, 
for every sound in the one thousand six hundred. 

But the Chinese do not avail themselves of all the advan- 
tage afforded by their tonic system, and in fact there are 
only about one thousand different sounds in use. Yet what 
are one thousand words to the wants of man ? How great 
must be the difficulty of commimicatinff any but the most 
common ideas, by means of speech, aSd h"bw much room 
must there be for mistake and confusion in the use of such 
a language! There are of course many words perfectly 
homophonous, but unlike in signification. For example, 
there are in Morrison's Dictionary two himdred and twelve 
characters each of which is pronounced die; one hundred 
and thirteen pronounced ching; one himdred and thirty-eight 
pronounced foo ; one hundred and sixty-five pronounced 
chih ; and no less than one thousand one nundrea and sixty- 
five which are all read e. Now when the written represent- 
atives of these words are before the eye, they are readily 
distinguished by their forms, for there are no two alike. 
But when one hears the word che spoken, the question 
arises: Whicn of the two himdred and twelve ches is it? 
If it is e that he hears, how shall he identify it among the 
one thousand one hundred and sixty-five characters so pro- 
nounced? The difficulty is partially obviated by joining 
two synonyms that differ in sound, so that the hearer, u 
uncertain as to the meaning of one, may possibly recognize 
that of the other. At other times, the Chinese form a set 
phrase out of two or three words which become associated 
by usage, much like the parts of a compound word in Eng- 
lish, so that one suggests the other, and at the same time 
explains it 


t ■ 

But after all there is a defect in the language, and none 
of the expedients devised for its remedy have been success- 
ful. The defect is a radical one, and lies in its monosyllabic 
basis. The stock of monosyllables was exhausted long 
before the demands of the language had been met. As 
more words were required, they were first supplied by ap- 
plying tones to those already in use ; and when this source 
of increase failed, there remained to the Chines^ mind no 
other expedient but to repeat the words already in exist- 
ence for the remaining purposes of speech. It is this fea- 
ture of the languj^e, more than any other, that renders it 
flo difficult to be acquired by an adult foreigner. Men who 
have resided in China fifteen or twenty years, for the pur- 
poses of trade, generally leave the country as unable to 
speak it as they were on the day they landed there. 

The peculiarities above-mentionea do not exist, to the 
writer's Knowledge, any where else, except in the Anamitic, 
or Cochin-Chinese language, where all the words are mono- 
syllables, for writing which the Chinese character is used, 
and where a system of tones is also employed. The Ana- 
mitic is however a cognate dialect, bearing much the same 
relation to the Chinese, as the Chaldee does to the Hebrew. 
The monosyllabic and tonic character of the words in both 
is a more certain index of their common origin than the 
identity of their mode of representing them to the eye. This 
character of its words marks the Chinese language as having 
had a growth, if not an origin, separate from others. It 
would seem as if the Chinese nation had in the remotest 
antiquity sequestered itself from the rest of mankind, and 
adopted a system of speech purposely fitted, or at least cer- 
tain, to confine their own ideas within a narrow compass, 
and to prevent their expansion by intercourse with others. 
Such have been the results of the system, whatever the 
design may have been. What else but a cramped and 
stunted growth and development of mind, like that of their 
own much admired dwarf-trees in flower-pots, could result 
from the use of such a medium of intercourse among them? 
Starting with and tenaciously adhering to a monosyllabic 
structure of words, they found it impossible to multiply' 
them beyond one or two thousand ; and when the restless 
mind sought to go beyond the length of this short tether, 
in giving expression to its conceptions and emotions, it was 


compelled to resign itself to its fate, and sink back into 
listlessness and inactivity, or to move round and round in 
the same circle, with that chain as its constant radius. No 
wonder that, in such circumstances, the minds of men have 
become tame and inane, that thought has lost its freshness, 
vigor and originality, and that China presents to us that 
which, in intellectual respects, more resembles a catacomb 
of mimimies than a nation of living men. 

The Chinese language is not only peculiar in these re- 
spects, but unsocial in its very genius. The tones of the 
human voice, that elsewhere perform the high office of 
expression, coilveying from mind to mind most intelligible 
signs of the emotions of the speaker, are in China strangely 
forbidden to subserve this purpose, and limited to the mere 
multiplication of words. It follows, then, that there are 
slender means of indicating by the voice, either the tender 
or the severe, the joyous or the sad, — that there is little 
room, in short, for pathos in the language. Hence oratory 
is unknown in China. 

Every one who is at all femiliar with the Chinese mind, 
is aware that one of its most prominent characteristics is, 
not indolence, but a sort of stoicism or insensibility. Tell 
a Chinese a joke, and he will smile ; teU him a tale of suffer- 
ing, and there are ten chances to one that he will do the 
same. Let him see a fellow creature in peril of his life, and 
it is by no means certain that he will rush to his rescue. 
The good Samaritan is seldom represented by a Chinese. 
One of the suite attached to Lord Macartney's embassy to 
Pekin, relates that while they were on the Grand Canju, a 
boat's crew were by some accident precipitated into the 
water, and in imminent danger of drowning ; but no effort 
was made by the bystanders to rescue them from their peril- 
ous situation, though one individual was noticed in the act 
of trying to save a hat that was floating upon the water. 
The writer once saw a vessel capsized in the harbor of 
Hongkong, in full view of hundreds of boatmen, and had 
occasion to observe that it was a painfully long time before 
any of them pulled off from the snore to rescue their coun- 
trymen from drowning. 

There are few subjects on which the Chinese appear to 
be as readily excitable, or capable of as strong emotion, as 
the people of the West, or even those of Central or South- 



• > 

em Asia. Now this national characteristic is not to be 
attributed to any one cause alone ; but is it not reasonable 
to suppose that the peculiarity of their language, to which 
we have j ust adverted, has had some influence in producing 
it ? If a muscle or limb be long restrained from free exer- 
cise, it loses its power. Will not the mind also, if not per- 
mitted to express its emotions in the natural way, gradually 
become torpid and insensible ? The feelings bemg cramped 
and confined, for want of a medium of utterance, diminish 
in intensity, in proportion as this law of restraint is imposed 
upon them. If they be denied the use of the tones of the 
human voice, they have no instruments of expression left, 
but the countenance, gesticulation, and attitude. They are 
deprived of that which is the best of all, because it was 
designed for this end, and hence relapse into habitual stupor. 
There is much reason to believe that this is one part of the 
process by which the Chinese mind has become so diflBcult 
to be ralhed into a glow of strong excitement. If the peo- 
ple made their language, it is not the less true that the lan- 
guage has made the people. 

What has been said thus far, relates to the language as it 
is spoken. It remains to give some account of the written 
character. The invention of letters is ascribed, by Chinese 
historians, to Tsang Kee, who lived four thousand five hun- 
dred and ten years ago. This is doubtless an extravagant 
assumption. Still, their origin must have been very ancient. 
There are odes now extant, which were composed, it is said, 
by two individuals of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
before Christ. Several instances also occur in the previous 
history of the country, in which written messages were sent^ 
and events recorded. The posthumous titles of emperors 
were en^aven on stone tablets, and placed in temples, as 
early as B. C. 1122. It may perhaps be safely inferred that 
the art of writing was known in the country as early as 
the thirteenth century before our era. 

The Chinese seem to have begun to write by making 
pictures of familiar objects, such as the sun, moon, man, 
etc. to represent to the eye, » or rather to recall to the mind, 
through the eye, the names by which those objects were 
already known. Thus a circle with a dot stood for the word 
yih, or the sun; a crescent, for the word yue, or the moon; 
and so on. It is manifest from the inspection of these sym* 

VOL. n. 28 

•I * 

- > 178 

bols, that they furnish no means by which a person unac- 
quainted with the Chinese names to be attached to them, 
could ascertain theij* proper reading. They would rarely 
suggest to a stranger the names by which he had been taught 
to designate the objects which tney represent. None but a 
Chinese would call the one yih, and the other yve. In other 
words, there is no spelling by which the name of the sym- 
bol can be ascertained. 

This pictorial system of writing could not, in the nature 
of things, be earned to any great extent. It was too com- 
plicated and cumbersome, beside being poorly adapted to 
express abstract ideas. It would be dimeult to depict the 
idea of softness, or hardness, justice, or mercy, and numerous 
other things that have no visible forms, so as to make the 
representations available for the purposes of writing. The 
consequence was, that this mode of writing was early super- 
seded by another. A Chinese writer on this subject says 
that the whole number of these pictorial symbols amounted 
to two thousand four hundred and twenty-five. The next 
step was to combine these primitive symbols in such a way 
as to represent sounds. The mode of doing this appears to 
have been, to select some one of the existing characters, of 
precisely the same sound as the word or name for the ol]3ect 
about to be represented in writing, and to join it to another 
character expressive of the most prominent feature of that 
object. For example, the wora ho is composed of two 
characters, ho and shwuy ; the first is an auxiliary particle 
denoting may, might, can, could, and the secona repre- 
sents water. That is, the name for a river having the sound 
hOy the character ho was taken as indicative of the pronun- 
ciation, and the character shwiiy to give a clue to the mean- 
ing, and both together formed the new character hoj which 
is the written word for a river. 

This is the nearest approach which the Chinese have 
made to a phonetic system of writing. By committing to 
memory some two thousand of the primitive symbols, a 
person might have a tolerably safe guide to the pronimcia- 
tion of three-fourths of the words in the language. But as 
to the remainder, there is no means of deciding what their 
pronunciation may be. For example, the word ming sig- 
nifies bright, or brightness, or is equivalent to the Latin 
xUustrare. The left part of the character is yihf or the sun, 


and the right is ytie, or the moon. But the two together 
are neither pronounced yih, nor yue, but ming. The word 
Ao, written differently from ho a river, is compounded of 
two others, of which one is neu, a woman, and the other, 
t8z\ a child, and both together form ?io, an adjective signi- 
fying good. The word e is compounded of yana, a sheep, 
and ngo, the personal pronoun I, and the combination of 
the two means justice, which is pronounced e. These ex- 
amples will suffice to illustrate the point Practically, the 
whole body of written words in the language are, to the 
Chinese, like these last mentioned, for they neither learn 
nor teach the art of reading by means oi the phonetics. 
Indeed it is probably true, that few of the educated Chinese 
know any thing about them. In the course of eight years' 
residence among them, and while employing various native 
teachers to assist him in the study of the Chinese, the writer 
never met with one who was aware that this feature existed 
in the written character. The phonetic method of writing 
was apparently introduced so late, and in so peculiar a way, 
that nearly all the benefit of it is lost It would have been 
almost as well, had people proceeded as they began, and 
invented a separate arbitrary symbol for every word in the 
language. In all other parts of the world, men seem to 
have been impelled as by a common instinct, or necessity, 
to adopt either an alphabetic or syllabic mode of writing. 
In this way, the process of learning to read has been ren- 
dered simple ana easy. It is only necessary to learn the 
powers and forms of a few letters, or a short list of sylla- 
bles, (as in the case of the Japanese, or the Corean,) and one 
is furnished with a key to the pronunciation of every word 
in the language. 

The Chinese, on the contrary, have neither alphabet nor 
syllabary, or, if we may so express it, they have as many 
letters in their alphabet as they have words in their lan- 
guage. There are few things in which this people have not 
Qie merit of being original, and in the matter now under 
discussion none will be disposed to call in question their 
originality. Suppose that the English language had at first 
consisted of only twenty -six words, and that these words 
had been represented in writing by the letters of our alpha- 
bet, a standing for one word, and b for another, and so on. 
We should then have a miniature representation of the 



Qiinese system of writing. But suppose, again, that our 
language had increased its stock of words to the number of 
fifty thousand, or eighty thousand, and that as words were 
multiplied, new letters were added to the original twenty- 
six, (a letter for each word, as at first,) until the number of 
letters also became fifty thousand, or eighty thousand. To 
leam to read such a language would have been a very 
different thing from what it now is to read English. Now, 
although the analogy between this and the Chinese mode of 
writing does not hold good in all respects, as has been 
shown in the foregoing remarks on phonetics, still, so far 
as the practical effect upon the increase, acquisition and 
communication of knowledge is concerned, it does* Long 
as the Chinese have insisted upon the importance of educa- 
tion to the well-being of a people, they have never availed 
themselves of even the partial aid in simplifpng the pro- 
cess of learning to read, which the phonetic characters hold 
out to them. The scholar in their schools has always been 
obliged to go through the laborious drudgery of learning 
the form, pronunciation, and meaning of each chsiracter by 
itselfj as really as if there had been no affinities whatever 
between their written elements, just as a child among us 
learns the letters of the alphabet. 

Was there ever a more ingenious contrivance for making 
the process of learning difficult ? Who could devise a fitter 
scheme to make the road to knowledge long and tiresome ? 
With us, the child is but a few weeks, or months, in learn- 
ing to use the " wings of thought," while the son of Han 
spends a life time in learning to fly. He is, he is compelled 
to be, an abecedarian as long as he lives. Thus again is the 
Chinese mind hampered. How can it be otherwise, with 
such a task to perform ? It is occupied, through the best 
part of life, with the effort to retam the mere names of 
arbitrary symbols. The memory is the only faculty that is 
exercised, and even that is very much limited in its action, 
being doomed to be the mere repository of words. 

The written language has undergone some changes in the 
lapse of ages. Words have increased in number. Some 
have become obsolete, and others have changed their signi- 
fication. The ancient and modem forms of characters also 
differ from each other. But by reason of the small number 
of distinct soimds in the language, and for want of an alpha- 


bet, it has a singular inaptness to multiply words. In the 
Imperial Dictionary of Kanghi, there are forty-four thou- 
sand four hundred and forty-nine words. To learn all these 
were surely enough for any man. He would be a clever 
child who should master the half of them in the time usu- 
ally allotted to learning to read. Here then is a strong 
objection to increasing the number of characters. There 
are enough already to occupy years of study. Again, it is 
as difficult to introduce foreign words into the language as 
it is to smuggle a foreigner into the interior of the empire. 
Whether the word to be introduced be spoken or written, 
it becomes so miserably disfigured by the operation, that its 
most familiar acquaintances can hardly recognize it, or 
divine its meaning. Take a foreign name, for instance. 
There are ten chances to one that the Chinese are unable 
to imitate its pronunciation. If it be a word of more than 
one syllable, the Chinese cannot pronounce it, unless among 
the one thousand monosyllables which they use, there be an 
enunciation corresponding to each of the syllables in the 
foreign word. In multitudes of cases there is no such 
homophony of Chinese words with the syllables of words 
firom other languages. In order to write the foreign word 
d la Chinaisey the writer selects as many Chinese characters as 
the word has syllables, and writes ^them one after the other, 
like the other words in a sentence, but without any mark to 
indicate to the reader that they are to be connected so as to 
form a foreign word. They appear, on the contrary, to be 
distinct words in the sentence, like all the rest, while in 
fiwst they are used merely for their sound, without any refer- 
ence to their signification. If the imitation were, or could 
be, generally good in respect to sound, there would be less 
to complain of in this mode of introducing foreign words. 
But a few examples of proper names, taken at random, 
will show how wretchedly tney become travestied by the 
transfer. America, in the dialect of Canton, becomes Mi hi 
ho; France is Fat Idn sai; England is Ying kat li kwok; and 
Bussia is metamorphosed into Ngo 16 sz' kwok. These will 
suffice for our purpose. It is evident that the Chinese lan- 
guage has the least possible affinity for any other. A thorn- 
Dush will receive a scion from the pear, but this language 
is a tree that almost wholly refuses to be grafted. It is 
strange, indeed, that a great nation should have adopted 


a system of speech and ^vriting so hostile to every other ; 
that so large a })art of the human family should have hit 
upon such an expedient to resist all attempts at the increase 
of knowledge from abroad. But so it is. The Chinese 
orthography is fit only for an exclusive people. 

Nor d(j the Chinese seem much more mclined to coin 
words, than they are to admit other innovations. Author* 
izcd new words rarely come into use. Now and then, some 
ollicial dignitary, or literary man, devises a new combina- 
tion of existing elements, or of pencil-strokes; but such 
cases are rare. While numberless spoken words spring up 
in the dialects of the country, more especially in those parts 
where foreign intercourse has rendered them necessary, still 
the dictionaries seldom contain them. A late Lieutenant 
Governor of Canton once issued an edict respecting the 
locui?ts that were ravjiging the rice-fields ; and having occa- 
sion to speak of the insect in its chrysalis state, he found no 
written tenn for it, and therefore invented one. Frequent 
inquiries have been made for words of recent origin in that 
language, and so far as the writer's observation extends, not 
more tlian half a dozen have been discovered. It is almost 
needless to add, that the system of writing of which we 
have been 'speaking, has greatly trammelled the ndnd of 
that people. Together with the other causes that have been 
mentioned, this has confined thought to a very Umited 
range, und discouraged progression beyond certain fixed 

it is true that Cliinese literature is ample in quantity, and 
variety. It C(jmprises works on language, statistics, topogra- 
phy, biograpJiy, poetry, natural history, ethics, astronomy, 
arts, manners and customs; also antiquarian researches, 
goveruniental edicts, or state-documents; and works on 
jnrLsprudenee, rites and ceremonies, medicine, geography, 
Buddhism, and other religious systems, works of fiction, and 
books for j u venile readers. Such are the headings taken from 
the catalogue of a Chinese library. But this enumeration 
gives one no correct idea of the character of these works. 
The liistory is chiefly that of China, with some references to 
Arabia, 1 rulia, and liusvsia. The biography is that of eminent 
men and women of that country, and of geniL The ethics 
are those of the ancient sages, of whom Confiicius is the 
chief. The natural liistory consists of the popular names of 


plants and animals, with tlie habits and uses of the same, and 
all arranged without any scientific system. The geography, 
tmtil 1840,* was that of China and its dependencies. The 
works on medicine tell us of the wonderful facility with 
which the Chinese faculty come to the diagnosis of a dis- 
ease by solemnly feeling tne pulse at the wrist, in six difier- 
ent places, or at the upper, lower, or middle joint of this or 
that finger, upon the right or left hand ; and prescribe, it 
may be, dog's flesh for this, or cat's flesh for that ailment ; 
l«commend tiger's bones for the weakly, or describe the 
amazing curative properties of the slightly tonic weed called 
ginseng. The works of fiction are fiiu of such details as we 
might expect from the corrupt state of society in all pagan 

" The stubborn belief of the Chinese in the authenticity 
of the records of antiquity^" says Mr. Thom, late Britisn 
Consul at Ningpo, "has given a peculiar character to the 
whole literature of the country, it has taught all modem 
writers to quote the assertions of their predecessors as axi- 
oms, and to avoid the trouble either of thinking upon a 
subject, or of reasoning about the j ustness of a remark* The 
ancient authors, in imitation of Confucius, boldly assumed 
the high ground of dictation, and seem to have written 
whatever came into their minds. If any one will take the 
trouble to look into the celebrated writings of their Shih 
Tsz\ or ten philosophers, (Greece had only seven,) he will 
soon convince himself that these men put sound sense and 
logic at defiance, mix fiible and truth, take direct nonsense 
and practical wisdom in the same breath, and leave the 
leader to doubt, whether, when writing, they had been sober 
or not. Even Confucius, much admired as he is, and justly 
too, is not altogether fi^e from this fault." To these remarks 
it may be added, that the views of Chinese authors, like 
their personal observation, have scarcely extended beyond 

♦ In 1840, the celebrated Commissioner Lin procured a copy of Murray's 
Cydopedia from the writer, and empl(wed his private secretary, a Chinese 
youth who had learnt English from an American missionair, to translate por- 
tnoi of it into Chinese. After Lin's banishment to £le, he published these 
tnoaUtions in two volimies octavo. 

Since then, and within a year past, a Lieutenant (Governor of Fokien prov- 
ince has published an original work on the geography of foreign, particularly 
Suropean and American countries. See Mianonmy Herald^ voL xlvi. p. 217. 


the bounds of their own country ; and whatever may be 
the theme on which they discourse, their opinions and rea- 
sonings are circumscribed by the same limits, as well as 
still more contracted from the nature of the language in 
which they write. Beside certain books published by some 
of the early Jesuit missionaries, and a few by Protestant 
missionaries, it may be questioned whether the Chinese have 
any book^ that would be considered scientific in the West, 
or that treat of subjects in a philosophical way. 

The Chinese being shut up within their own borders, and 
having been furnished with, or having invented for them- 
selves, a most awkward and impracticable system of writing, 
the consequence is that the spirit of inquiry has been 
repressed, thought confined to a prescribed course, and the 
people, like their language, have Jong ago reached the high- 
est point of improvement to which the elements of their 
civilization could cairy them. In some of the arts, they 
have long excelled. Their porcelain and silks, their lack- 
ered and carved work, together with other articles of their 
cultivation or manufacture, still find a ready market in 
Christendom. Allusions to the polarity of the needle are 
met with in accounts of the traditionary period of their 
history, B. C. 2600. A more credible account of the dis- 
covery refers it to the year B. C. 1114. There is sufficient 
evidence that they possessed this knowledge earlier than 
the people of Europe. Mention is made of gunpowder in 
a work written in the fourth century, and the art of print- 
ing was known nine hundred years ago. All these facts 
are so many proofs of the natural superiority of the Chinese 
to the other Eastern Asiatics. They argue a higher degree 
of mental activity, industry and sKill. Indeed, when we 
consider the difficulties with which they have had to con- 
tend, these facts show that the nation is not destitute of 
those intellectual qualities which, under proper direction, 
would render them truly great and powerml. When a 
people under these circumstances, so fitted to prevent their 
progress, has notwithstanding advanced so much farther 
than its neighbors in civilization, wealth, and power, we 
may be sure that it possesses the material of excellence 
in no small measure. China therefore presents a sphere 
for philanthropic labor that is fall of hope as well as of 


But the very errors of the human mind form an impor- 
tant part of its history. We must not fail, therefore, to 
notice the different religious or philosophical persuasions 
between which the vast population of China has been 

It has been a very ceneral opinion, at least in mpdem 
times, that the whole numan race was once in a state of 
savage rudeness ; and that the progress of every nation has 
been from a beginning in primeval barbarism. But if we 
may place any reliance upon traditionary and monumental 
evidence, it was not so with the Egyptians, the Hindus, the 
Toltecs, the Peruvians, and the Chinese. Of the last it may 
be said, that according to their own tradition, far back in 
unexplored antiquity, their princes were almost divine, and 
the social and moral character of the people proportionally 
elevated. But long ages of decline have roUed away since 
that period, and the progress of corruption and degeneracy 
has kept pace with tnem. Following the same guide, we 
maj safely affirm that the nation in its infancy was in a better 
rehgious condition than at present. The notion of a Su- 
preme Being glimmers dimly through the doctrines of their 
ancient sages ; an appeal to Shdng-ti, or the Supreme Euler, 
was ofken made by individuals in distress ; and the word 
ften, or heaven, is frequently used to express more than the 
azure firmament. From tfiese and similar allusions to an 
intelligent overruling power, we may regard it as certain, 
that in the earliest times there was some Knowledge of the 
true God among them. And why may they not have 
received it from their post-diluvian ancestors, among whom ' 
God was known by the catastrophe with which he had vis- 
ited the earth ? But whatever hght they may have had, it 
was soon obscured and lost, amidst the growing superstitions 
of the people. It was not long before an indigenous idola- 
try sprang up and flourished there, which prevailed without 
any admixture from abroad till a&er the Christian ertu 
Previous to that, however, Confiicius, Lau-tsz', and Mencius 
had lived and died, bequeathing their legacies of philosophy 
and religion to posterity. 

It was not till about thirty-three years after our Lord's 
crucifixion, that the Chinese engrafted any foreign religious 
system upon their native superstitions, or received any into 
competition with them. In the year of our Lord 65, or 66, 

yoL. II. 24 


Buddhism first entered the ocrantr^. The emperor Mme-tf 
is said to have been admonished m a dream, that "a Bobf 
One was to be found in the West," or, as the Chinese words 
might perhaps be better rendered, " they of the West have 
sages," or "the Occidentals have a sage." This dream 
is reported to have so much interested uie monarch, that 
he sent a deputation westward, to search fixr the extra- 
ordinary personase thus denoted. The imperial envoys 
met the priests of Buddha in Hindustan, or Ceylon, who 
announced an incarnate god, put an end to the search fixr 
die Holy One of the West, ana returned with the ambassa- 
dors to China. If this account be correct, the event took 
Elace so soon after the foundation of Christianity was laid 
y the death of Christ, that it naturally suggests the inquiry, 
whether some rumor of the Messiah's advent had not trav^ 
elled eastward fix>m Judea, across Central Asia, until it 
reached the ears of the Chinese monarch. We have no 
means of deciding the question. But whatever may have 
been the occasion of this extraordinary mission, the r^nilt of 
it was that Buddhism sent its missionaries, under an impe- 
rial escort, into the country ; which was destined to become 
the hi^h place of its power and prevalence. Although it 
met with opposition, at first, from the Oonfiicianists, who 
had already oecome the leading sect in the country, yet it 
maintained its ground to some extent ; and in A. D. SIO, an 
Indian priest who travelled into China, and gained the fiivor 
of one of the petty princes there, succeeded in propagating 
his religion, by means of pretended signs and mirades, 
beyond all precedent. Buddhism has been strongly opposed 
from time to time, by the adherents of other systems, but 
has never been expelled fix)m the country. On tne contrary, 
it has taken deep root, until at the present day, the empire 
is full of its temples, and swarms with its priests. 

We shall not attempt any thing more than the merest 
summary of the leading dogmas and practices inculcated by 
the Buddhists. Any tning farther jwould be foreign to our 
present purpose. 

Their pnests profess to renounce all fianily connections, 
take a vow of celibacy, abstain from animal food, (at least 
in public,) and subsist on the voluntary contributions of the 
people, whether occasional, or in the form of endowments 
given to their temples, much in the manner of Bomish finara» 


As to the gods they worship, time would fail us to enu- 
merate them, even if we knew them all. Accommodating 
their system to every existing superstition, they open the 
door to all sorts of converts, who may retain as many of 
their old persuasions as thOT please, provided they sacrifice 
to the gods, and bring onerings to the priests. On this 
account, and because reason, and not imagination, is the 
predominant mental characteristic of the Chinese, Buddhism 
has probably undergone extensive modifications, in conse- 
quence of being transported from India into China. It has 
not only received into its Pantheon new objects of worship, 
and left behind some of its original ones, but as to its rites 
and ceremonies it is a more decent reUgion than in the land 
of its birth. Chinese good sense has lopped off some of its 
most disgusting absurdities. A Singalese procession would 
put to the blush the Chinese sense of propriety. 

It is not probable that the priests of Buddha imderstand 
their own religious faith much more than they do their 
prayers, for they are generally ignorant, and some of them 
are outlaws who have fled to the priesthood for fear lest 
justice should overtake them, and all of them pray in the 
Pali language. Their liturgy is written in the same un- 
known language, though not in the Pali character, but in 
the Chinese. Great merit is attached to the repetition of 
the name of Buddha. The Indian n^e Amita Buddha, 
as pronounced by them, is O-mi-to-fut; this repeated over 
ana over again, constitutes a large part of their devotional 
exercises, while they keep a tally with their heads. Their 
most important canon oi worship is, " Let not the rosary 
leave your hands, nor 0-mi-to-fut depart from your lips." 

In short, Buddha is a mysterious notJiing, Hence the 
standard of perfection is a sublimation of existence above 
all qualities. Creation was a casualty, not designed by the 
Deity. Matter happened to emanate from nothing, and 
after passing through cycle after cycle of successive chanffesj 
will finally happen bacK again into nonentity. The soul of 
man, likewise, which originated from nothing by a mere 
accident, will transmigrate from one body to another, more 
or less elevated in the scale of being, according to its merits, 
and will ultimately be absorbed into the great Buddha. 
The highest heaven of the Buddhist's expectation is, not 
annihilation, but something so very like it, that it is scarcely 


distinguishable from it. Perhaps it ought to be added, that 
according to the same creed, a woman can never enter 
heaven. She is taught that she is a woman because of sins 
in some former state of existence, and that she is now pay- 
ing the penalty of that wickedness. She must, thereiore, 
abandon all hope of heaven, until she shall have laid up in 
store merit sufficient to entitle her to another probation, in 
a different body from that which is now the tenement of 
her souL It will be perceived that there is in all this no 
bond of obligation between man and his Maker, for he has 
no Creator. 

Such is Buddhism, which, having in China engrafted 
upon itself many features of the indigenous idolatry, has 
together with Confucianism and Tauism pervaded the mass 
of the people. Mohanmiedanism exists in the country, but 
to so limited an extent, that it need not be more than 

The Burmese and Singalese assert that Buddha died in 
the year B. C. 543, and accordingly commence their era at 
that date. If the feict is so, the iiilh and sixth centuries 
before Christ were remarkable for the leading minds to 
which they gave birth. Pythagoras, Plato, Buddha, and 
Confucius, all appeared on the stage of the world at nearly 
the same time. Greece, India, and China, each had its mas- 
ter spirit, who was to exercise a paramount influence over 
his own country, and to some extent over the world. 

Confucius, or Kung-fii-tsz', as he is called by the Chinese, 
was born B. C. 550, in the Lii country, or what is now the 

Erovince of Shantung. From a child, he is said to have 
een remarkably grave and sedate, mingling little in the 
sports of youth. His father being the chief minister of his 
native state, the son devoted himself exclusively to the study 
of moral and political science. He neither investigated 
the subjects of natural science, nor troubled himself about 
the superstitions of his countrymen. His doctrines there- 
fore constitute rather a system of ethics and politics, blended 
together as mutual supports, than any particular religious 
creed. It was his chief aim to correct the vices that had 
crept into the state, and to restore the influence of those 
maxims that had been handed down from the early mon- 
archs celebrated in Chinese history. He seems to have been 
an honest reformer, anxious only to propagate his princi- 


pies of social order and virtue, without any ambitious views 
whatever. He had been promoted to a post in the govern- 
ment ; but when he found that his counsels were not heeded, 
he abandoned it, and travelled through the country, devoting 
himself to the instruction of all who would receive him. 
Owing to the degeneracy of the princes of the times, he 
was far more successful among the people than in his labors 
at court. In process of time, he is said to have numbered 
three thousana disciples,fOf whom seventy-two became par- 
ticularlv distinguished. He was again called to fill high 
offices m the state, but finally retired to the company of his 
pupils, to study, and to compose, or compile, those celebra- 
ted works which have given him fame among posterity, and 
have become the sacred books of China. 

The followers of Confiicius have always been a numerous 
body, and have exerted a commanding influence in the state, 
though at times they have been strongly opposed by the 
Tauists or sectaries of Tau, Tau being the name by which 
the doctrines of Lau-tsz^ are designated. Buddhism like- 
wise has been the fi^equent antagonist of Confiicianism. 
The disciples of Lau-tsz and Buddha have been repeatedly 
admitted to an eq^ual footing with the Confiicianists at court, 
and in the functions of the government. But a review of 
the history of China shows plainly that, on the whole, Con- 
fucius has commanded the leading influence in the state, 
and that if we would discover the secret of the unique 
character of that people, we must look for it mainly in his 

Some of the moral doctrines of this eastern sage have 
obtained the universal assent of mankind, and as rules of 
oonduct of merely human origin, are unsurpassed in excel- 
lence. He taught almost the golden rule of our Saviour. 
We say almost, for Confiicius goes no farther than to teach 
men not to do to others what they would not have others do 
to them. He also bade men ^uard their secret thoughts, as 
the springs of action. There is, however, much to condemn 
in his scheme of morals, as in every other which is merely 
human. He overstrains the duty of filial piety to such an 
absurd and mischievous extent as to enjoin it upon a son 
not to live under the same heavens with the slayer of his 
&ther. He also binds the son to his father, not only while 
the latter lives, but afiier he is dead, by making it the most 


sacred duty of the son to worship annually, at the tombs of 
his ancestors, the spirits of the dead. This pushing to an 
extreme the paternal claim has been the favorite device of 
Chinese statesmen and rulers, ever since the time of Confii- 
cius, for the purpose of strengthening the authority of the 
emperor, whom the people have been taught to regard as 
their common father. The teachings of Confucius on this 
point have for ages formed the basis of their political system ; 
and herein lies one great secret of the preservation of the 
Chinese empire. The sage gives to the &ther almost unlim- 
ited power and authority over the child, making unq^ualified 
obedience to all his commands the first duty to be mculca- 
ted upon the vouthful mind, and limiting this subjection 
only by the lire-time of the parent. So long as the father 
survives, a man cannot become of age in China. This is 
the theory, and so far as circumstances will allow, the aspect 
of things corresponds to it. But family government is the 
type of the imperial, and as thus maintained is well calcu- 
lated to strengthen despotism. By thus granting to fathers 
absolute power over their children, the sagacious monarchs 
of China keep up in every family of the empire, at once 
an illustration and a sanction of their despotic claims. The 
ritual and penal codes maintain a constant parallel between 
the duties one owes to his parents and those he owes to the 
emperor. For hke oflfenses against either, he suffers like 
penalties ; at the death of either, he mourns and goes un- 
shaven the same length of time ; and both have nearly the 
same powers over his person. These things, it is true, do 
not indicate much personal liberty in the subject; but if 
obedience and order be the objects in view, tJie rulers of 
China have shown some knowledge of human nature, and 
proved that they know how to adapt means to an end. 

It is not surprising that the empire should have under- 
gone^ numerous revolutions ; but it is singular that, through 
tiiem aU, the form of government has never been changed. 
Tyrants have been dethroned, but monarchy has never 
been discarded. It was never more true of any nation, 
that the condition of the £Gunily is the index of the state of 
society. This is the comer-stone of the system of Confu- 
cius, and by it he has shaped the destinies of the nation 
dowutothiiday. "^ 


There have been twenty-six lines of monarchs in possess- 
ion of the empire, and the whole number of sovereigns has 
been two-hundred and forty-four. In the year 1276, the 
Western or Mongol Tartars, under Koblai Khan, took the 
throne, and held it for eighty-eight years. In 1644, the 
Mantshus, the present rulers, took the reins of government 
into their hands. But though both the Mongols and Man- 
tshus were Buddhists, they did not attempt to displace Con- 
Aidus fix)m his high position as the great teacher of the 
nation. On the contrary, they amalgamated his tenets with 
their own, and thus did homage to the Chinese sage. The 
reason is obvious. The maxims of Confucius are at once 
venerable for their antiquity, and admirably suited to con- 
solidate the power of an autocrat. With them as premises, 
oriental logic, which does not stumfble at an overstrained 
inference, can easily estSiblish any conclusions that will suit 
its purposes. Hence no dynasty has foimd any difficulty in 
showing that the sceptre was placed in its hands by a decree 
of heaven. Proceeaing thence, the sovereigns have called 
the people their children, and depicted their emotions 
towards them in patriarchal colors. The people, likewise, 
deceived by their appeals to the dogmas of Confucius, have 
called each emperor the Son of heaven, and the Ten-Thou- 
sand Years. He pays his adoration to heaven, and the peo- 
ple worship him. 

But the master-stroke of Chinese policy is the system of 
popular education. We propose therefore to give a some- 
what extended sketch of tnis. To omit it would be to leave 
out of view the most important element in the formation 
and perpetuation of the national character. 

Paganism, in organized and powerful governments, is 
every whit as busy as Christianity in training its votaries. 
China could boast the existence of a system of common 
schools, overspreading the country, prior to the Christian 
era. So fiu- was she in advance of all other countries in 
this respect, in that age of the world. In education, too, as 
in almost every thing else that is Chinese, we discover a 
remarkable unuormity and perpetuity of modes and results ; 
for, a^n, it is as a teacher that Confucius is enshrined and 
deifira. Every city, town and village of the empire, has its 
school or schools. There are few, if any, communities so 
poor that the schoolmaster does not find employment in 


them. The reason is that learning, such as it is, is the road 
to officje and preferment Every mther will therefore desire 
that at least one of his sons should be educated. K the 
^roung man is successful in passing the literary examina- 
tions, not only is he personalljr benefited by the honor and 
promotion that he gams, but his father and fiunily share his 
reputation. To all alike, the rich and the poor, this way 
to eminence is open, none but the priest, the slave, and the 
play-actor, being excluded jBx)m the competition for literary 
honors. From the provinces, many a barber goes up, every 
three years, to the literary examinations for degrees, at the 
imperial or provincial capital, whom his poverty compels 
to practice his profession by the way, making tne shears 
and razor defray the expenses of his journey. Nor is he 
the less respected for that. The government offers such a 
bounty on learning that ignorance is a greater disgrace than 
poverty. Education is held in such ni^h esteem among 
the Chinese as might well provoke the unitation of other 
nations. The system works well in this respect ; and were 
the means and results of education equally admirable, it 
need not be disturbed. Names, however, sometimes change 
their significations as they are used in different latitudes 
and longitudes. Let us, then, see what education means 
in China. 

In the first place, the school-books of that country are 
the same throughout the empire. They have not been 
changed for two thousand years. They are the writings of 
Confucius and his disciples, who lived before the Christian 
era. Commentators have labored to elucidate the text of 
these books ; but though men of more modem times than 
their authors, and displaying much ingenuity and learning, 
they have never been able to adapt them to the use of the 
young. Their style is antique, concise, elliptical, and ob- 
scure in the extreme. The subjects of which they treat, 
are the politico-moral principles which Confucius and his 
proselytes made the themes of their discourse to princes and 
statesmen ; and they contain the poetry of times beyond the 
reach of written history. 

The first book put into the hands of a child in China, at 
the age of six or eight years, is the San-taz'-king, or Trime- 
trical Classic, a poetical work in which each verse consists of 
three words, or monosyllables. The very structure of it, 


although it was made for a horn-book, were enough to con- 
demn it, according to our notions. Though it were prose, 
it could not but be unintelligible to a child, every or nearly 
every sentence being composed of but three words. But 
let us observe the tenor of a few verses at the beginning 
of the book, and we may the better judge of its fitness, as 
a means of instruction, to the end proposed. It nms thus : 
" Man's nature at his birth is virtuous. All are alike in this 
respect, but subsequent action makes the differences among 
men ; for if one be not instructed, his original nature be- 
comes corrupted, etc." The author then proceeds to state 
that respect for superiors is the first thing to be inculcated 
in education ; and to illustrate this, he takes examples fi-om 
the annals of olden times; such as that of master Yimg, 
who, when only four years old, had the politeness to wait 
till his seniors m the family had helped themselves out of a 
basket of pears, and then quietly took his own and ate it ; 
and another of a stripling eight years of age, who under- 
stood his filial duty so well, that he was m the habit of 
warming his aged father's bed by first lying in it himself; 
and so on, while all is clothed in the poetic style, every 
verse necessarily consisting of three monosyllables and no 
more. This is the primer of China, the most elementary 
book in the country. Of course the pupil, while commit- 
ting it to memory, never understands it. In fact he is not 
expected to do so, until he has learned by rote a good many 
other equally unintelligible books. All that is required of 
him now is, that he learn to call the written characters by 
the right names. 

When he can repeat this book through and through, 
though he comprehends not a fraction of its meaning, the 
learner passes on to what are called the Sz^u-king, or Four 
Books, wherein are set forth the doctrines of Confiicius and 
Mencius, in terms antiquated and sometimes obsolete, and 
rather harder to be understood than those of the first-men- 
tioned book. These, too, the lad cannot comprehend for 
years after he has taken them in hand. He passes over the 
volumes, gathering up the mere concatenation of sounds 
which his teacher has told him to attach to the signs he is 
reading, and thus he learns the Four Books. 

In the conversations of Mencius, the boy would find some 
really fine specimens of acute reasoning, and strong oom- 

TOL. n. 25 


mon sense, if he could master the style, and grapple with 
the subjects. But the argumentations of Mencius would 
not be fit for a child^s study, even if they were clothed in 
plainer language. This book, therefore, is but little, if at 
all, understood till long after the pupil has learned it all 
by heart. 

Shall he take up what are called the Wu-king, or Five 
Classics ? Give him the Book of Odes, rehearsed or sune 
by the people in the earliest times, and expurgated and 
compilea by Confucius. A more unintelligible set of poema 
could not be found, for they are not only of very ancient 
date, but obscure beyond any thing of the kind. Having, 
however, committed these to memory like the other books, 
he must next proceed to the Shu-king j a book of historical 
annals, also the work of Confucius, relating to earlier times 
than any other book extant, except perhaps the Pentateuch. 
Here he would need all the aid which a critical knowledge 
of the language could give him, and some science besides, 
in order to arrive at the meaning ; but he must skim over 
all this historical lore, chiefly interesting for its antiquity, 
drinking only the firoth of words, without tasting their 

Shall he have the Yih-king, or Book of Changes, next? 
No man, it is presumed, ever yet comprehended the mean- 
ing of it, except the author, which inaeed renders it doubt- 
ful whether this be not conceding too much even to him. 
The Chinese themselves, while they reverentially retain it 
among their standard school-books, generally give it up, 
and pass on to another. So far as we can discover, it is a 
book purporting to unravel all the mysteries of nature and 
the decrees of fate by the simplest means in the world, 
namely, by the arithmetical commutations that can be pro- 
duced with eight diagrams of straight lines. 

After deriving all the benefit he can from this enigmatical 
work, our Chinese scholar may take up the Li-ktf or Eecord 
of Rites, that is, the book or ceremonies to be observed, 
and rules of etiquette to be practiced, in all the relations of 
life, from those of the monarch to those of the peasant, and 
from the day of one's birth to the day of one's burial. He 
will be obliged to treat this volume as he has done all the 


Thus fiimislied, the young student must be favored with 
the Tsh^un-tsau^ or the Spring and Autumn Annals, by Con- 
fucius, said to be so called becausc^he composed it between 
the spring and autumn of the same year. It is a historical 
work relative to his own times and the two hundred years 
preceding. A dryer morsel could not well be set before 
one hungering after knowledge. But the young man may 
console himself with the reflection that this book is the last 
of the authorized series. If he has read and can repeat 
Tn^rmorUer all the books which have been enumerated, he 
is a well schooled man. 

Such is the course of instruction to which the youth of 
China are subjected. These are the means whereby, and 
this is the mode in which they are educated. The only 
advance upon what has been described is, that after from 
four to seven years spent in this way, and in learning to 
form characters with the pencil, the student goes to anotner 
teacher, or to a college, where he is again taken over the 
same ground, to investigate the meaning of the volumes 
which he is supposed to have committed to memory, and is 
taught to write essays and poems upon the themes, and in 
the style, of the authors to whom ne is so much indebted. 
The utmost that is aimed at in Chinese schools of every 
grade, is to learn to read and write well. When one has 
accomplished that, (and it is no slight task,) his education is 
finished. The schools can carry him no farther. 

For the first five or six years, it is a mere parrot-like 
process. The school-room, which contains from twenty to 
thirty scholars under one master, is in a constant uproar, 
except when the pupils are engaged in the practice of pen- 
manship. Each pupil, having read over nis task at the 
dictation of the master, repairs to his own desk, and there 
reads over the lesson, again and again, at the top of his 
voice. As all are studying at the same time in tne same 
way, and apparently vicing with each other in the effort to 
mate the loudest noise, the school-room appears to be a 
scene of profitless confusion. One accustomed to the din 
needs n6t to be informed when he is in the neighborhood of 
a Chinese school-house. 

As each pupil commits his task to memory, he goes 
to the master's desk, and turning his back to him, recites 
his lesson in the same voci&rative manner. Hence, to 


repeat memoriier is in Chinese phraseology "to back the 

There is more sense than absurdity in this mode of study, 
for the character of the school-books is such, that the child 
cannot cope with either. the style or the subjects. He is 
not, therefore, required to undertake more than he is com- 
petent to perform, namely, than to learn the names and 
tones of the written symbols, until his mind has become 
somewhat mature. Even this, however, could not be done 
by reading in silence with the eye, or in a whisper. It 
requires a loud, distinct, and repeated enunciation of the 
woi:ds, to fix them in the memory. So long as the school- 
books remain what they are, it would seem that the Chinese 
have hit upon the only practicable mode of mastering the 
language, tnough that mode is for the most part vox etprat' 
terea nihil. Beyond what is contained in the several books 
before mentioned, there is no art nor science taught in the 
schools of China, if we except the rudiments of arithmetici 
music archeiy, and horsemanship, and other miUtaiy a^^ 
taught in the colleges. Not even geography enters into the 
Chinese curriculum. It is needless to say that the higher 
mathematics and philosophy are not taumt in the schools. 
The greatest statesman in the imperial cabinet, if he knows 
any thing whatever of science properly so called, must have 
obtained his knowledge firom some other source. It may 
be asked, is there not an Astronomical Board at Peking, 
and an Imperial Observatory? W.e answer, there is, but 
the members of that Board are indebted for most of their 
astronomical science to the labors of the Bomish mission- 
aries, who have prepared for them all the scientific works 
they have. Without this aid, their astronomy would relapse 
into what was mainljr astrology, before the Jesuits provided 
them with astronomical booKs. Mathematical works were 
also prepared by the same missionaries in the Chinese Ian- 
re. But none of these have ever been adopted as school- 

)OKS. By the order of emperors in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, the same persons, also, by a net-work 
of triangulations, determined tne latitude and longitude of 
the cities, towns, and other localities of the empire, and 
made charts of the country; and yet neither geography nor 
topography is studied in Chinese schools. The modem 
maps of China are constructed afl;er the models thus fiu> 
nished by the Jesuits. 


The educational system of China has varied in its details 
at different epochs, out in its main features it has ever re- 
mained the same. In the records of the eariiest times we 
find two sorts of colleges mentioned, the one attached to 
the residences of the princes, and the other distributed 
through the districts of the several kingdoms. These institu- 
tions extend back to the times of the Hia, Shang, and Tshau 
dynasties, which commenced respectively in the twenty- 
fourth, the nineteenth, and the twelfth centuries before 
Christ. According to the testimony of Mencius, which is 
supported by the received traditions of all subsequent gen- 
erations, Chma had at that eariy period a complete system 
of instruction for all classes of the people. Each family had 
its hall of study ; each district, a school ; each department, 
a college; and a higher college existed at each capital. 
These institutions seem to have served as models to all who 
have sought to promote public education from that day 
to this. Every dynasty, native or foreign, has aimed to 
confirm and perpetuate the power of the system, by train- 
ing up officers of government in schools where the moral 
and political maxims of the ancients are assiduously and 
exclusively inculcated. 

Without attempting to trace out the various modifications 
which the school-system has undergone,* it will be sufficient 
to mention the principal features of it, as it now exists, and 
has existed for more than two hundred years past. 

The course of instruction in village-schools has already 
been spoken of at some length. When we consider the 
difficulty attending the study of the Chinese language, and 
the extreme multiplicity of primary schools in the country, 
it seems surprising that no more oi them are supported by 
the state. At this day, as it was in ancient times, primary 
instruction is left entirely to the operation of the volimtary 
principle. Any one may open such a school, and his suc- 
cess will depend entirely upon his skill. The terms of 
tuition are exceedingly low. In Canton, the fee paid to the 
master for each pupil would not amount to more than a 

* This has been done with great care and fidelity, by the late M. Edward 
Biot, in his Stsai aur VHiUoire de rinttruction Publique en Chine^ et de la 
Cornoratwn des Lettrks, Paris, 1847, from which I have drawn the material 
of this part of my paper, relating to the institutions of the present dynasty 
in China. 


dollar per annum. In rural districts, it is less. Parents 
usually pay by the year, and not for a quarter, or month, 
as it often happens among more civilized people. There is 
but one primary school maintained by the government, and 
that is at Peking, for the sons of Tartar soldiers. The 
schools are open from 8 o'clock A. M. till noon, and from 
2 till 6 o'clock P. M., every day in the year, except during 
six weeks from the New Year, which is a national holiday. 
After six or ei^ht years of study in the manner before 
described, the children learn to read and write with sufficient 
freedom for the purposes of common life. Under the Sung 
dynasty, from 960 to 1275, arithmetic was taught in schools 
especially designed for that purpose; and even parts of 
mensuration were included in the course of study. 

At 'present, both these are rejected from the course of 
ordinary instruction. The only school in which the study 
of arithmetic or mathematics, if it is proper so to call them, 
is pursued, forms a part of the imperial college at Peking. 
In shops and counting-houses, the su&n-pdn^ or abacus, is 
the instrument by which the Chinese perform their numer- 
ical calculations. In respect to common schools, it is not 
kno\*Ti that the Mantshus have published any general regu- 
lations;' and so fex as this goes, they are inferior to their 
predecessors of the Ming dynasty. 

The civil administration of each province includes a 
director of instruction, who is chosen by the emperor him- 
self from the Hdn-lin^ or counsellors of the BoMxi of rites, p 
He has the inspection of the colleges founded and supported 
by the state, at the chief-places of the departments and dis- 
tricts. The students in these colleges are Sidu-tsdi, or can- 
didates for the second literary degree. The director of pub- 
lic instruction makes the tour of the province once in two 
years, and examines the applicants for admission to the 
colleges ; and if admitted, they receive the baccalaureate. 

They are examined upon ethics, the Chinese language, 
ancient and modern, reading, the kind of writing required 
at the public competitions for degrees, calligraphy, the 
analysis of some extract from the Four Classics, following a 
prescribed commentary, composition in the ancient and 
modern style, and the study of rites and vocal music. The 
Siau-tsai are also bound to present themselves at the same 
examination, and answer the questions propounded by the 


director, to show that they have kept up their studies since 
they received their degree. Neglect of this formality is 
punished with loss of rank, and with having one's name 
erased from the list. The fact is, however, that at the pres- 
ent day, the college-catalogues are filled with the names of 
absentees ; and as every thing depends upon the result of 
the examination before the director, the college-professors 
have little, if any thing to do, and frequently they employ 
substitutes to look after their sinecures. 

The Siau-tsai, who desire to take the second degree, or 
to become Kiu-jin, must first submit to an examination 
before the above-mentioned oflScer, to determine their capa- 
city, and can only present themselves for examination in 
the province where their &mily has resided for three gene- 
rations. This preliminary trial determines how many of 
the Siau-tsai are judged capable of examination for the sec- 
ond degree. The examinations for this degree take place 
at the provincial capital once in three years, though extra- 
ordinary ones are occasionally authorized by the Emperor. 
The candidates for the second degree are examined by two 
commissioners from the court A multitude of precautions 
are adopted at these examinations, to prevent frauds on the 
part of the candidates and examiners. If any one wishes 
to know what they are, he may ascertain by consulting the 
first part of Morrison's Dictionary, imder the word Beo, 
where they are mentioned in detail. Of the six or seven 
thousand candidates at Canton, not more than sixty or sev- 
enty are successful. 

The general examination for the third degree, by which 
scholars become Tstn'Sz\ takes place at Peking once iiv.three 
years. Only those Kiu-jin who have received civil appoint- 
ments, are admitted to it. At the appointed time, they 
betake themselves from all parts of the empire to Peking, 
with an official certificate of their standing and post in the 
government. This certificate is handed to the minister of 
rites ; and if it is satisfactory, they are allowed a certain 
Bum of money towards defraying tneir expenses in coming' 
to the capital. The allowance is, however, altogether too 
small. For instance, to those who go from Canton to Peking 
it is about thirty dollars, for a journey of about twelve hun- 
dred miles, and the other expenses attendant upon so great 
a change of latitude, climate, and style of living. 


The general examination at Peking is conducted on the 
same principles, and attended by the same precautions 
against jfrauos, as those held in the provinces, for the first and 
second degrees. The examiners, however, are of a higher 
order, aud are always some of the Han-lin. The subjects 
proposed to the candidates, though included under the 
same heads, are more difficult to treat than those given out 
at the provincial examinations, and the style of composition 
must be more pure and elegant. Du Halae informs us that, 
in the times of the Ming dynasty, three hundred were 
admitted to the third degree, or doctorate, at each general 
examination at the capital. 

A fourth examination takes place also at Peking, in the 
imperial palace, for the aspirants to the rank of Han-lin. 
The doctors who present themselves on this occasion, devote 
themselves wholly to literary studies, and do not hold any 
office under the government. They are examined bv the 
president or vice-president of the Board of rites, whicn has 
the general direction of public instruction. A final exam- 
ination is undergone for the first or second rank among the 
Han-lin; and higher than this no subject of his Imperial 
Majesty can go. 

Such is the scale of examinations, established by author- 
ity, whereby the Chinese arrive at rank and office. The 
Kiu-jin are eligible to civil posts in the provinces. Those 
who continue their literary career, and oDtain the doctor's 
degree, or become Tsin-sz , are fitted to fill the most impor- 
tant offices in the empire, and if they become Han-lin, they 
may receive the hignest appointments in the gift of the 
emperor. Still it does not follow, as a matter of course, 
that those occupying these grades of literary rank secure 
places in the administration. They are only thereby pro- 
nounced by the minister of rites to be fitted for them. The 
minister oi offices may then exercise his own discretion, or 
caprice, and give them appointments, or pass them by to 
serve his favorites. This is a vice in the organization of 
the court, and has been the cause of much complaint. The 
minister of rites pronounces a man to be competent or 
worthy to hold office, but cannot confer the appointment 
upon him. The minister of offices has the appointmg power 
exclusively in his hands. 


The Mantshu emperors endeavor to maintain the military 
spirit among their subjects ; and to this end they have also 
instituted military examinations corresponding to those for 
literary degrees, and the successful canaidates are admitted 
to equal rank with the Siau-tsai, Kiu-jin and Tsin-sz'. 

The members of the imperial family are also obliged to 
submit to an examination before being admitted to adminis- 
trative charges ; but this is a mere formality. Frequently, 
it is said, the essays are written by some other person than 
the candidate, and the examination is held almost in secret 

Finally, it appears from some state-papers published in 
1829-30, in the JPeking Gazette, that there are also regular 
examinations for the post of translators of the Bussian or 
Mantshu into Chinese, attached to the court. Thus the gov- 
ernment seems to have made every possible application of 
the system of competition and examination. 

It remains to speak of certain institutions established at 
Peking, one of which, the Han-lin, has been frequently 
mentioned by name. The Han-lin, or Forest of Pencils, is 
sometimes called by Europeans the Imperial Academy of 
Peking, because it is composed of the most learned doctors, 
or Tsin-sz'. According to the statute that regulates its 
action and prescribes its duties, its members "are to prepare 
divers official documents, and write the history of their own 
times, as well as other works. Its chie& and its members 
must devote themselves to the promotion of education 
among the various classes of the people, and in fine prepare 
them to hold office, and render them worthy to be presented 
to the choice of the sovereiffn." Probably the fkost impor- 
tant duty devolving upon this body is the superintendence 
of the pubhc exammations, and the preparation of the his- 
tory of the reigning dynasty, which is never published till 
after its close. These official historiographers must have 
accumulated, during the last two centuries, a vast amount 
of material for publication in the Imperial Archives. The 
education of the members of the imperial femOy is also 
incidentally a part of the duty of the Han-lin. * The offices 
of the Han-lin are equally oivided between the Mantshu 
and the Chinese race. 

Inferior to this, is the Imperial College, the Astronomical 
College, and the Medical College, which form three sci- 
entific and literary establishments immediately dependent 
upon the court. 

TOL. IL 26 


The Imperial College has three classes of students, called 
the Kung-sdngy Kien-sdngj and Hto-sdng, of which the first- 
mentioned is the highest. There are various ways of obtain- 
ing admission into this college, which we have not time to 
specify. Some obtain their places by imperial fisivor, some 
by purchase, and others by right oi descent from soldiers 
who distinguished themselves in the Mantshu conquest in 
1644. The Hio-sang study in their respective languages, 
the Mantshu, the Mongol, or the Chinese. The other classes, 
it appears, confine themselves to Chinese literature. The 
course of study in this college occupies ten years. There 
is a sort of mathematical school attached to the Imperial 
College, which the Kung-sang and Kien-sang can enter, 
upon examination. 

The Astronomical College dates from the time of the 
Ming dynasty. Its constitution was materially changed by 
the Koman Catholic missionaries, in the seventeenth ^d 
eighteenth centuries. But its functions, after all, relate as 
much to astrology as to astronomy. It is governed by a 
high officer called a minister. He nas under him two pre- 
fects or directors, the one a Mantshu, and the other a 
Chinese, or even an European ; and four assistants, a Man- 
tshu, a Chinese, and two Europeans. They determine the 
laws of the motion of the stars, and regulate the notation 
of time among men ; and in short, every thing that relates 
to divination, and to the choice of lucky days, forms a part 
of their duty. The astronomical theories of* the Chinese are 
composed ^f the knowledge which they acquired of them- 
selves, mixed up with that which they have received from 
European missionaries. There are astronomers attached to 
the Imperial Observatory, and special professors who instruct 
a certam number of pupils, who are, for the most part, the 
sons of these astronomers. 

The preparation of the Imperial Almanac is considered 
by the Chinese as an affair of the gravest importance ; and 
it seems to have been that which led to the legal introduc- 
tion of Europeans into the Astronomical College, because 
the Mantshus and Chinese very often made mistakes in the 

The Medical College can hardly be called a school, for no 
regular system of study or instruction is attached to the 
institution. Several of its members are constantly employed 


in the service of the emperor and empress, and the imperial 
fiunily; and when the emperor hears of the illness of a 
prince or princess, or of a minister of state, he delegates 
one of his physicians to visit the personage. Medical 
knowledge in Cfhina is ac(juired solely by practice, and some 
considerable attainments m this way snmce to introduce one 
of the profession into the College at the capital. 

We nave thus taken a cursory survey of the reHgion, the 

f)rocesses of instruction, and the educational system, estab- 
ished in China, because it contributes to give an insight 
into the way in which certain remarkable results have been 
brought about in the national mind and manners. 

Confucianism, Buddhism, Tauism and Mohammedanism, 
but chiefly the first two, have long warred with each other 
in that country, imtil the nation, grown weary of strife, has 
at last settled down into a religious apathy, in which the 
Confucianist reposes with a superstitious and haughty athe- 
ism, the Buddnist slumbers with unthinking idolatry, the 
disciple of Lau-tsz' dozes with his lazy abstractions, and 
dreams of the water of immortality, and the follower of 
Mohammed is quite at ease with his devotions to Allah. 
No bloody rites, no human sacrifices are seen, for the con- 
flict of various systems of religion has neutralized the 
strongest points oi all, and kept the nation from any but 
the more decent exhibitions of Pagan devotion. 

Again, the long continued confinement of the Chinese to 
the exclusive study of their old classic books, has taught 
them to regard that which is most ancient as best and most 
venerable. We stand with our faces toward the future, 
looking for a golden age to come. They, on the contrary, 
with their backs turned to ours, are indolently peering away 
into remote antiquity, and congratulating themselves on 
what their fathers were. We think the mind of man is 
destined to achieve greater things than it has hitherto accom- 
plished. They look to the far off past for all their models 
of the great, the heroic, and the good. 

To the same cause may also be ascribed the early matu- 
rity of the civilization of China. The mind of man, there, 
has been so fully occupied with the task assigned it in the 
educational course, that it has been effectually prevented 
from overleaping the boundaries by which it has been for 
ages circumscribed. It has had so much to do in the mere 


study of the standard books, and of the language, that if 
other and new fields of knowledge had been presented to it, 
it could not have found time to explore them. But such a 
diversion was never attempted. Every learner has been shut 
up to the same studies, and to the same method. While, 
therefore, on our side of the world, we have been rushing 
forward in eager haste after new discoveries and inventions, 
and boldly adventuring all manner of exDcriments, in poli- 
tics, religion, science, and the arts, until at length we are 
scarcely surprised at any thing, the Chinese accomplished 
all that they could of this sort, long ago, and then sat down 
at rest within their own domain, content with what they 
were, and doggedly indifferent to every new thing. The 
yerj diversities of natural talent, that might, in other cir- 
cumstances, by the force of genius, have now and then pro- 
duced an innovator, or reformer, to start the nation on a 
new career of improvement, have in China been counter- 
acted, because all minds have been cast in the same mould, 
and it was impossible for any one to be much in advance of 
his age. To this, more than to any thing else, is to be 
attributed the anomalous fixedness of every thing in China. 
Manners, customs, and even opinions, have been almost 
equally unvarying fi-om age to age. Even the cut of a coat 
has not changed for two hundrea years. Thus, while one 
half of mankind is more or less pervaded by the elements 
of change and improvement, the other half is but the 
mummy of its antiquity. The Chinese of to-day is in all 
important respects the Mongol of the Christian era. 

The whole aim and scope of the government is to make 
its subjects peaceable machines ; and though the state has 
taken so much pains to educate the people, it is solely with 
that view. Nor did a government ever succeed more admi- 
rably in its design. It imbues the mind of every child with 
those principles and sentiments which in their development 
shall make the man look up to the monarch as to his great 
and adorable father. In cnildhood, the subject is taught 
nothing that shall conflict with, but every thing that shall 
support and strengthen, the claims of the awe-inspiring 
despot. In manhood, too, he merely learns more fully to 
comprehend the same political dogmas, and by every appeal 
to his self-interest and ambition, is encouraged and stimula- 
ted to uphold them. It is no wonder, then, that the throne 


is firmly supported ; nor is that a misnomer by which the 
highest literary graduates are generally designated, the Dis- 
ciples of the Son of heaven. They have been in the empe- 
ror's school from first to last, ana could but come out nis 
tools and sycophants. Such they are, and sach they will 
be, so long as tne system of instruction remains what it is. 

There is one fruitful source of influences upon a nation's 
character, to which allusion has scarcely been made in this 
paper, namely, the condition of females m China. Aristotle 
never said a truer thing, than when he remarked, that "if 
women are by barbarians reduced to the level of slaves, it 
is because barbarians themselves have never risen to the 
rank of men, that is, of men fit to govern ; and nothing is 
more ruinous to a state than the defective education of 
women, since, wherever the institutions respecting one half 
of the community are faulty, the corruption of that half 
will gradually taint the whole." Women are regarded in 
China as in other Pagan countries; only with more respect, 
in proportion as the Chinese are more civilized than other 
heathen nations. Still there is no provision made for their 
education, as there is for the other sex. In Canton, and 
perhaps in some of the other large cities, there are a few 
schools for girls, taught by women ; and now and then, a 
woman is heard of who is able to read and write. Gen- 
erally, however, females are looked upon as unfit subjects 
of instruction in any thing more than household duties. 
Those who can read and write are therefore the more re- 
marked, while they live ; and the memoirs of learned women 
are found among the biographies of distinguished men. 
Doubtless they are the more respected on account of their 
rarity, for women are generally left to grow up in ignorance. 
From the commencement of her life, woman is compara- 
tively a despised being. When a son is bom, it is a day of 
rejoicing in the family. When a daughter is bom, especially 
if she is not the first, it is an occasion of more lamentation 
than joy. She is not greeted with smiles and caresses, when 
she enters the world. If destined to be brought up as a 
lady, she is subjected to a painful compression of the feet, 
which makes her a cripple for life, in order to suit the 
national taste, and notions of female beauty. The "golden 
water-lilies," as those small feet are called, are essential to 
the perfection of a Chinese belle. She is betrothed, proba- 


bly in infancy, to some unknown partner for life. The 
relation which involves in it most of human happiness or 
misery, is contracted in that country, not by the parties most 
interested, but by their parents, and without consulting the 
wishes of the betrothed. It is deemed improper for them 
to see, much more to speak to, each other before marriage. 
When the bridal day arrives, at the conclusion of the cere- 
monies of the wedding, the bride and groom seat themselves 
at a table, and pledge each other in a cup of wine, and go 
through the formality of tasting the viands set before them, 
and this is the first and the last time that the husband and 
wife eat at the same table. Henceforth, she is to serve her 
lord. In the most respectable families, the women, (for 
there is no legal limit to the number of wives a man may 
have,) are confined to a suite of apartments by themselves* 
Ladies are never seen abroad, but go out in closed sedans, 
whenever they pay visits to their female acquaintances. 
Let the imagination fill up the picture of a woman's life in 
China. It is little, if any, better than the most abject slavery, 
with its accompaniments of ignorance and degradation. 
Such is the condition of the mothers of the land. From 
them each generation derives its first and deepest impres- 
sions. This is the soil in which the " roots of society are 
planted, and what must be expected from their growth? 
W hen old enough to be transplanted from the nursery to 
the school, we have seen what change is given them. The 
subsequent training and instruction which the youth of that 
country receive, produces no other eflect than to make them 
the fac-similes oi their fathers. 




• • 


(Continued from Volume First,) 








(Continued from Volume First*) 

The taking of TAj in Fdrs. 

During the first part of the twenty-third year of the 
Hijrah, news came to the Khalifeh 'Omar Ibn El-Khattllb, 
that the king of Tuj was collecting a large force, and waited 
to meet his army. 'Omar therefore marched twenty thou- 
sand troops to the aid of Fars. Tiij, called in the rersian 
tongue Tuz, is a town of Fars, and is situated towards 
Ahwaz in the kingdom of Fars. 

The armies of Ahwaz and 'Ajem being assembled at 
Ahwaz, the Khalifeh sent the other army to join them, but 
without appointing any one to the command. The leader 
of each army had the command of a city. The Khalifeh 
directed that the whole force of Fars should be collected in 
one place, after which arrangements would be made for 
carrymg on the war. "Go," said he, "to Fars; but go not 
to tlie place where the enemy have set themselves down ; 
for they will disperse, and their arrangements will be broken 
up. Attack every city which you fall in with." 

The Khalifeh now gave the charge of the war to Mujashi' 
Ibn Mes'dd Eth-Thakafy. He also conferred on him the 
government of Nisabiir, and its vicinity. He conferred the 
government of Istakhr on 'Othman Ibn Abu-l-'As Eth-Tha- 
kafy ; and that oip Shiraz on his brother Hakim Ibn Ab(i-1- 
'As, desiring him to reside there. He gave the government 
of Seba and Darabjerd to Sariyeh Ibn Zenim Ed-Dailamy. 

* The Committee of Publication have received valuable assistance, in the 
reviflkm of this article, from Professor William W. Turner of New York. 

TOL. n. 27 


The army with the above-mentioned commanders, started 
toward Fars. They set themselves down at Tflj, with the 
troops of Medineh and of Fars. All the Muslim soldiers 
did not go at once to Tuj ; each commander to whom a city 
was given, went to his city. At length, all the forces of Tiij 
dispersed. MuiSshi', however, marched against that place, 
and took it. Then, leaving a few soldiers there, he made an 
excursion to Nisabur, taking much booty. This man was 
the brother of Abii 'Obeid Ibn Mes'ftd, who, on the acces- 
sion of the Khalifeh 'Omar to the khalifate, and his call 
upon the chosen of the Most High to join in a holy war 
against the infidels, received the command of them, and fell 
a martyr at the battle of El-Jisr, under the feet of a white 
elepliant. At the time when 'Ala El-Ha4hramy took the 
cities of Tuj and Istakhr, he crossed over the sea with his 
own forces, without the authority of the Khalifeh— on whom 
rest the divine complacency ! — ^and the inhabitants of thoBe 
two cities apostatized from the faith of Islim. 

When Mujashi' took Tuj, he divided the riches and booty 
of the place among his followers. He retained, however, a 
fifth part of it, ana sent it with a missive of conquest to ihe 
Prince of the believers. 

On the departure of the army of 'OthmSn Ibn Abii-l-'A? 
for Istakhr, the forces in that place marched out against 
him. He engaged them, and put them to flight ; and ap- 
proaching the gates of that city, besieged it He made 
peace with the city, and took possession of it. He then sent 
a letter, with a fifth part of the booty, to the Khalifeh. 

Hakim Ibn Ab<i-l-'As, the brother of 'Othmfin, went 
toward Shiraz. At the same time, Shahrek left Tuj with 
many troops, all of whom were men encased in iron ; they 
were clothed in armor to such a degree that their eyes were 
scarcely visible. Hakim also had a great many troops, all 
of whom were experienced in warfere and full of courage, 
the chosen troops of the Arabs, as well as their greatest 
champions, such, for instance, as 'Abdallah Ibn Mu ammar 
Et-Temimy, Shibl Ibn Ma'bed El-Bejely, Jfir&d El-'Abd, 
and Ab^ Sighrah the father of Mihbal ; and they all, at 
length, gave battle to the troops of Shahrek. T^hen the 
light of day touched their helmets and their corslets, men^s 
eyes were dazzled with their brightness. This brightness 
fell upon the Muslims, so that their eyes were Uinded. 


They fought so stoutly that by noon the troops of the city 
were defeated ; and they used, their swords with such effect 
that they killed an innumerable number of persons. Hakim, 
with his own hand, killed Shahrek and his son. There was 
a person with Shahrek, from 'Ajem, named Azdinan, who 
came with his own troops to ask quarter of Hakim ; which 
the latter gave him. When their forces were defeated, an 
immense amount of treasure fell into the hands of the Mus- 
lims; which being divided amongst them, Hakim sent the 
news to the Khalifeh by a missive of conquest. 

Now when SSriyeh Ibn Zenim marched toward Seba and 
Darabjerd, his forces entered the fortress of the latter, and 
occupied it for the space of three months. At length, 
assistance was asked from the villages in the neighborhood 
of ShtnLz; and after assembling a large force, the inhabitants 
marched out of the city, and attacked the Muslim army. 
The battle was a severe one, and many Muslims fell. It 
was the time of the prayer of Friday, and the battle took 
place in a plain ; near the Muslims there was a high moun- 
tain. The infidels surrounded the Muslims, and made great 
havoc among them, so that their position was very critical, 
and they were near being defeated. Sariyeh — on whom rest 
the divine complacency I— was fighting with his head bare, 
when suddenly he heard the voice of the Khalifeh, crying 
aloud, " Sanyeh 1 the mountain, the mountain I" meaning, 
O Sariyeh ! turn against the mountain. Thereupon, Sariyen 
cried out to the troops, " O helpers, I have just heard the 
voice of the Khalifeh ; did not you also hear it ?" They 
answered, " We heard it ; but this is not the voice of the 
Khalifeh 'Omar, for there is a great distance between him 
and us." Sariyeh replied, " The Most High has caused us 
to hear it, and pointea out a way for us." Then, on his col- 
lecting his soldiers, they placed their backs to the mountain. 
That evening they found safety ; and on the following day 
they recommenced the battle, and subdued and tooK the 
-city. The Khalifeh 'Omar at Medineh had a vision on Fri- 
day eve ; the troops of Sariyeh were in his heart, and he 
was sorrowful, for it was then three months since they had 
pitched before the gates of the fortress of Darfib^erd, without 
nis having any news of them. 'Omar saw them m his dreams 
that night engaged in battle, and he told the vision to his 
people, at the horxr of the prayer of Friday. At the same 


time, he ascended the pulpit, and read the khotbeh. While 
thus engaged, the Most High removed the veil from his 
eyes, and he beheld Sariyeh and his soldiers. The KhaJifeh 
remained silent, just as a person is silent who beholds an 
object, and regards it attentively ; then reflecting for a mo- 
ment, he saw Sariyeh and his troops surrounded by Persian 
forces, and observed that, had they turned their backs 
toward the mountain, their position would have been an 
easy one. So he cried out aloud, " Sariyeh I the moun- 
tain, the mountain !" and recommenced reciting the khotbeh. 
The Most High caused his voice to reach from Medineh to 
the place where the Muslims were engaged in battle. 

Isow when Sariyeh had ended the fight, he found himself 
possessed of great riches and booty, which he sent to the 
Khalifeh 'Omar. Among these, tnere was a casket filled 
with jewels, which he did not touch, but, confiding it to a 
messenger, sent it with a missive of conquest to the Khalifeh, 
for his own use. On the arrival of the messenger, 'Omar was 
in the mosque, feeding the poor, the strangers, and the trav- 
ellers. He stopped in front of the Khalifeh, who, supposing 
him also to be a stranger in need of food, bade nim be 
seated, and gave him something to eat. The Khalifeh was 
accustomed to eat his own meals at home with his family ; so 
that, when the people had been fed, he returned to his dwell- 
ing, followed by tne bearer of the casket of jewels, whom 
he bade enter, and the man did so. 'Omar then directed 
his own meal to be brought before him. The wife of the 
Khalifeh was named 0mm Kulthiim, the daughter of the 
Prince of the believers 'Aly Ibn Abu Talib — on whom rest 
the divine favor and complacency ! — She laid before the Kha- 
lifeh a little barley-bread, and a little olive-oil, with a small 
quantity of honey and salt. The Khalifeh asked her if she 
had not cooked something; when she answered, **How can 
I cook any thing, when I have nothing to wear?" for 0mm 
Kulthum's clothes were all worn out. The Khalifeh jokingly 
asked her, ** What have you done with your drawers? are 
they not sufficient for you who are the daughter of 'Aly 
Ibn Abii Talib, and the lawful spouse of 'Omar Ibn El- 
Khattab?" Then addressing the messenger, he exclaimed, 
** In God's name ! had 0mm Kulthum been satisfied with us, 
our meal would have been better." So they ate together : 
fljxd the messenger knew the Khaltfeby but the latter did 


not know him. Then addressing him, he said, " Prince 
of the believers, I am a messenger from Sariyeh, and have 
brought you a missive of conquest, with a fifth part of the 
booty." "God be praised!" exclaimed the Khalifeh; and 
tummg his face toward the man, he asked him for his news. 
The messenger took out the casket and showed it to the Kha- 
lifeh. The latter commanded him to return with it to SS- 
riyeh, and to tell him to divide its contents among the Mus- 
lims who fought the battle with him; "because," said he, "to 
them it rightly belongs." The messenger left the Khalifeh ; 
and when the people of Medineh inquired of him about the 
battle, he said to them, " We were engaged with the enemy 
on Friday, when we heard the voice of the Khalifeh crying 
out, *0 Sariyeh! the mountain, the mountain I' " On com- 
paring times, they found that it was the same day and hour 
when the Prince of the believers was in the pulpit; and that 
his words, by the command of the Most High, were con- 
veyed to Sanyeh. 

The conquest of Kermdn. 

In the twenty-second year of the Hijrah, the Muslim 
£>rces marched with 'Abdallah Ibn 'Attab, and Suheil Ibn 
'Ady, against Kerman, and in the twenty-third year made 
war upon it The inhabitants of that country were collected 
together in a numerous body; one tribe residing in the 
mountains, called in the Persian tongue Kofej, and in the 
Arabic Kaufas, also came down to the city ; and the forces 
were very strong in numbers. Notwithstanding the num- 
ber of the people of Kerman, the Most High granted victory 
to the Muslims, and many of the infidels were slain. One 
district of Kerman was called Jireft, against which Abdal- 
lah Ibn ' Attab sent Suheil. The latter went by the summer 
road between the cities, collecting all the beasts of burthen 
which he could find, both horses and mules, until their 
number became so great that none but Allah knows how 
many they were, — all of which were taken as booty. He 
sent a letter to the Khalifeh 'Omar with a fifth part of the 
same, giving him an account of his success. He likewise 
despatched ^Abdallah Ibn Yezid Ibn Naufal El-Khuza'y to 
Tisk&n, who opened the way from the frontiers of K6- 
histfin to those of T^^; ^^ whence he went to the 


Prince of the believers, and told kim, " I hare opened an 
extent of two provinces {sanjdl^ even firom the firontien of 
Kdhistfin nearly to Kermfin; I therefore ask you to giva 
them to me." The Khallfeh was desirous of letting him 
have them ; so he wrote on the subject to 'AbdaUah Ibn 
'Attfib, who replied that they were two large plaoee. and 
were the entrant to Khorfidb. Whereupon t^el^loi&h 
gave them to him. 

The conquest of Sijistdn. 

This vear, (A. H. 28^ the Khalifeh 'Omar sent 'Amr Ibn 
El- 'As Et-Temtmy to Sijistfin, and sent his own son 'Abd* 
allah with hioL He furnished him with a great number 
of troops. The king of Sijistfin also, on his side, asBem* 
bled a large force, and marched out as £sur as the finoaitaeii 
of his country, where he offered battle to the Muslims. Hs 
was, however, defeated. The capital of Sijistfin was oalled 
Zirenk ; and it had a very strong castle, in which he took 
refuge. He closed its ^tes, and fortified its towers very 
formidably. The Mushms captured all the towns in its 
neighborhood, and it was the only place that held out 
agEunst them. Isl&m had now extended to the borders of 
Ulndilstfin, and ^andah&r. When the king found that all 
Sijist&n had &llen under the power of the Muslims, and 
that he could no longer maintain his position, he made pesos 
with them, and surrendered the castle of Zirenk. 

In the days of the Khalifeh 'Omar, 'Abdallah Ibn 'Amr 
and ' Asim resided at Zirenk, and thev were still there in 
the times of the Ehalifehs 'Othmfin and 'Aly. In the dayi 
of Mo'awiyeh, that Elhaltfeh sent Ziyfid into 'Irfik, and his 
son Muslim Ibn Ziyfid into Sijistfin. The latter country 
borders close on the firontiers of Hindfistfin, and the whom 
of it was conquered during the time of Mo'awiyek the 
inhabitants all submitting to the rule of Muslim Ibn Ziyid, 
and adopting the &ith of Lslfim. 

Hie conquest of Mtikrdn. 

Between Kermfin and Sind lies a country called Mukitn. 
In it are many cities, one of which is named Tl^ and an- 
other Elhdsh; and all of them bedong to Mukrftn. 


When 'Abdallah Ibn 'Att&b had conquered KermSn, he 
sent Hakim Ibn 'Omar Eth-Thaleby to Mukran, together 
with Shihab Ibn Muhariby ; and he also despatched after 
them Suheil Ibn ' Ady. These forces all united on the fron- 
tiers of Mukrfin. Now the frontiers of Mukran join those 
of the king of Sind. The king of Mukran therefore sent 
a messenger to the latter, and asked his assistance, saying 
that an Arab army was coming against him. The king of 
Sind forthwith assembled a strong force, and went to his 
aid with many fighting elephants. The Muslims sent word 
of this to Kerman; on tne receipt of which, 'Abdallah 
appointed a lieutenant in his place, and marched towards 
Mukran. The inhabitants of the latter country call their 
king, in the language of Sind, Heibil, which answers to the 
Persian Kesra. 

When 'Abdallah reached the Muslim army, he found 
also the Retbtl with his forces, waiting the arrival of those 
from Sind ; for he had sent persons through all the towns 
of that country, asking for men to join his army, and each 
day troops came to hmi from some of those places. At 
first, the Muslim troops encamped at some distance from 
Makr^ ; but ' AbdaUan Ibn ' Attslb exclaimed against this, 
9 a measure which gave to the enemy time to collect all 
18 people around him. So, at night&ll, he made an attack 
upon tne enemy in the dark, and put a great many to 
the sword. That night, the infidels were routed; the 
Betbtl lost his head, and his army was pursued by the Mus- 
lim forces. The destruction of the infidels continued until 
morning; many prisoners were taken, with a great number 
of elephants. The next day, a distribution of ^ the booty 
was made ; and ' Abdallah despatched Sahar El-'Id with a 
fifth part of the booty, and a missive of conquest, to the 
Khalifeh 'Omar. The letter explained at length the way 
in which the battle had been gained, and with what ease 
the enemy was routed ; and it concluded with asking per- 
mission to send a force beyond Mukran, and to take posses- 
sion of the country. " Give me leave," said 'Abdallah, " to 
march to the territory of the king of Sind." At the same 
time, he asked what he should do with the elephants he had 

When the Khalifeh 'Omar read 'Abdallah's letter, he 
inquired d Sahfir, '^ What sort of a oountry is this Muk* 


rfin?" To which Sahfir made answer, "O Prince of the 
believers, its plains are like mountains, its water is scanty, 
its enemies are brave, and its dates are bad ; if there aie 
many soldiers in it, they will be half starved, and will lose 
their courage ; and the countrv bevond it is still worse." 
The Khalifeh wrote in replv to Aboallah, "Go not beyond 
Mukran ; for you have no business in the country of Sind. 
Do not therefore destroy the Muslims ; but write to Sind 
that, if any of its princes need elephants, they may purchase 
them, and do you divide the proceeds among the Muslims." 
All of which was done as the Khalifeh conmianded. 

An account of the affair of BeirCLt 

Beyond the borders of Basrah, there is a place called 
Beirut. The Khalifeh 'Omar gave to Abii Mflsa El-Ash'ary 
all that country which extends from Basrah to the confines 
of Sind. He addressed a letter to Abu M&sa, in which he 
advised him to keep a good watch over those parts, lest 
enemies should come in upon him from Sind, AnmiSn, and 
Ahwaz, and elsewhere, rfow, whithersoever the Muslims 
carried their arms, the infidels met with defeat. The latter 

S.thered from Ahwaz and Kerman into Beirut ; and Abft 
usa, on being apprized of the fact, sent Muhajir Ibn Ziyfid 
with troops against them. This aflFair occurred in the twen» 
ty-third year of the Hijrah, and in the month of Kama- 
dhan. He ordered that if Muhajir became a martyr, his 
brother Rebi* Ibn Ziyad should be appointed commander in 
his place. Both the brothers went to Beirut together ; and 
it being summer, the weather was extremely warm. Muhajir 
was ordered by Abu Miisa not to require the troops under 
his command to keep the fast in such places as he visited, 
lest, if a battle should take place, they should prove feeble 
when they ought to be strong. As Abu Musa commanded, 
so it was done. Muhajir became a martyr in the conflict 
which ensued ; and his brother Rebi', seizing the standard, 
rushed into the fight, and conquered the infidels. Not 
much booty was taken ; for the troops of the enemy were 
deserters who possessed but few effects of value. Many 
captives, however, were made ; who were all of good fami- 
lies, being the sons of people of rank. Abft Musa com- 
manded that the prisoners should ransom themselves; and 


for that purpose he pennitted them to go to their fathers, and 
bring the price of their redemption, to be divided among 
the troops. "This," said he, "will be better than to keep 
them pnsoners." He selected from among the captives 
sixty for his own service, telling them to send a messenger 
to their fethers, for monev wherewith to redeem themselves. 
The homes of these captives were distant ; some were from 
Ispahan, and others from Kerman and Mukran. When the ' 
prices set upon them were received, they were delivered to 
those who Drought the money. Then taking out a fifth 
part of the same, he wrote a letter to the Khsdifeh, for the 
purpose of sending it to him. The rule on such occasions 
was, that the Khalifeh should present something from the 
public trcasuiy to the messenger who brought the news; and 
this rule had oeen established by the Prophet himself So, 
when Abii Musa desired to send the messenger with the 
news of his success, a person of the tribe of the Ben<i ' Anzeh, 
named Dhubbeh Ibn Muhsin, arose, and addressing him said, 
" prince, I beg you to send me with your messenger, that 
I also may receive something from the Khalifeh. Abfl. 
Miisa granted his request, and sent him with the letter. 
There was also a poet, named Khatiyeh, who, on recitinff 
an adulatory poem before Abii Miisa, received one thousand 
dirhems for it, from the booty. 

When the messenger reached Medineh, Dhubbeh E1-* Anzy 
was with him ; and on entering the presence of the Kha- 
lifeh 'Omar, he complained to him against Abfl. Mftsa El- Ash- 
'ary, saying, " Prince of the believers, it is not right that 
he should be your agent [for the receipt of the pubuc reve- 
nue], since he has retained for himself contrary to the 
rights of the Muslims, no less than sixty handsome young 
slaves from among the captives. Moreover, he gave to the 
poet Khatiyeh a thousand dirhems from the public treas- 
ury, for reciting a poem in his praise. He has also two 
measures with which he measures out provisions, one of 
which is large, and the other small. And he has two seal- 
rings, of which he himself keeps one, and the other is in 
the possession of Ziyad, to whose charge he has confided 
all tne affairs of the believers, and who writes all the com- 
munications ; so that this person does whatever he chooses, 
without Abft Miisa's knowing any thing about it. Abii 
M&sa likewise has a mistress named 'Akileh, of uncom- 

TOL. n. 28 


mon beauty and elegance, who is a great eater. When you 
dismissed Mughairan Ibn Shu'beh in fevor of Abft Musa, 
whom you appointed governor of Basrah, the former sent 
her to him as a bribe. He gives her every morning a dish 
full of stewed meat, and another at evemng ; while there 
are many persons among us who cannot obtain even a piece 
of bread. 

The Khalifeh 'Omar, on hearing this, directed the accuser 
to draw up this statement with his own hand, and give it 
to him, wnich El-'Anzy did. The Khalifeh then wrote to 
Ab& Musa, simply requiring his presence at Medineh. On 
his arrival there, he was confronted with El-'Anzy, into 
whose hands were put the accusations drawn up by himself 
which he was requested to read aloud. 

The first accusation which EI-'Auct read, was to the effect 
that Aba Miisa had selected sixty of the slaves for his own 
service. The Khalifeh demandmg of the accused what he 
had to reply to it, he said that it was true ; that the sixty 
females were all young persons of noble birth; that as they 
had said their lathers would pay a high price for their ran- 
som, he had put them aside ; and that, having received the 
money, he had divided it among the Muslims. TSl-^Anzy 
asked him why he kept them in his own service. Bfe 
replied that he did it in order to let the parents know that 
their children had been reduced to a degrading employment, 
and thus to move them to pay the more for their release 
from it. The Khalifeh 'Omar Ibn El-Khattab commanded 
El-'Anzy to continue, and he read, " You gave to the poet 
Khatiyen a thousand dirhems belonging to the Muslims, for 
a poem which he had composed in your praise." To which 
Abu Musa answered, " I gave it to him to stop his tongue ; 
even as the Prophet — on whom be blessings and peace ! — 
gave offerings to the poets for the same purpose, and on one 
occasion exclaimed to ' Aly Ibn Abii Talib, * O 'Aly, cut off 
their tongues from me.''' "But why did you pay this 
money out of the public treasury ?" aslced E1-' Anzy. Abft 
Miisa replied, " I did it to conciliate the poet in favor of 
Islam : for after the decease of the Prophet, he apostatized 
from it ; but he is now again a believer. I desired to render 
Islam agreeable to him, in the same manner as the Prophet 
gave offerings out of the public treasury to Abii Sufyan, 
and Safwan, and others of his companions." The Khalifeh 



directed El-'Anzy to read on ; and he said, " He has two 
measures, of which one is small and the other large." To 
which Abft Musa replied, " The grain which I take out of 
the public treasury, is measured with the smaller, and that 
which I give to the Muslims and to the poor, with the larger 
one." ^Omar desiring El-'Anzy to continue, the latter read, 
" He has given his own seal to Ziyad, and confided all the 
aflfairs of the Muslims to his charge." Abii Miisa answered, 
" Ziyad is a wise and prudent, and well-bred man, and a 
gooa clerk withal ; and as I have never found a man more 
reliable for the aCGairs of the Muslims than he, I confided 
them to him." Again 'Omar bade the accuser read on ; and 
he said, " He has received a slave named 'Akileh as a bribe 
from Mughairah Ibn Shu'beh." To which Abu Musa replied, 
" I did not receive her as a bribe. He gave her to me sim- 
ply in token of good will ; as he had no reason to be afraid 
of me, nor was he at all in need of my assistance. He gave 
her to me as a present, and thus made friends with me, 
according to the saying of the Prophet, * Give gifts to each 
other, and make friends.' " 

The Khalifeh now said to Abii Miisa, " Go to Basrah, but 
send Ziyad to me." And to El-'Anzy he said, " You have 
not told me lies, for which I should punish you ; neither does 
what you have said render it necessary for me to dismiss 
Abfi Musa. So depart, and be careful that you say nothing 
to any one against him." 

When Abu Musa arrived at Basrah, he sent Ziy&d to the 
BQialifeh 'Omar, who inquired of him, how many dirhems 
he received as his salary from Abii M&sa. To which he 
answered, " Two thousand." " How oflyen has he made you 
TOresents?" continued the Khalifeh; and he replied, "Twice." 
On the Kialifeh inquiringwhat he did witn them, he an- 
swered, " As my mother Hamiyeh was in captivity, I pur- 
chased her freedom with the first. I had also an uncle who 
was a prisoner, named 'Obeireh, who had brought me up ; 
he having thus manv claims upon me, I redeemed him with 
the second gift." 'f he Khalifeh commended what he had 
done, saying that he had only fulfilled the obligations of 
duty and the holy law, and thus obeyed the commands of 
the Prophet. The Khalifeh also gave him back the ring 
which he had in the mean time taken from him, and, after 
approving his entire conduct, sent him again to Ab& Miisa. 


An account of Sdtmeh Ibn Kcds, 

In this year, [A. H. 28,] the Klialifeh 'Omar also sent 
troops against the Kurds. Many warriors had collected 
around him, whom it was desirable to send away some 
where ; but for some time there were no enemies near him. 
News at length came to 'Omar that the Kurds who dwelt 
on the confines of Ahwfiz, between that country and Ffin, 
were committing robberies on the road; that they had not 
become Muslims, and would not muster with the troops of 
tiie Muslims ; and that the soldiers who were in the cities^ 
villages, and country around about^ would not engage against 
them ^ 

So the Khaltfeh called to him Selimeh Ibn Eais El-Ash- 
ja'y, and informed him of what he had heard respecting the 
Kurds, and added, ''There are a great numb^ of brave 
fighting men here from the Arab tribes. Take them, and 
go forth against these Kurds ; compel them to become Mus- 
nms, and thus relieve the believers fix>m the troubles which 
they cause them. When you see the enemy, do not be in 
a hurrv to attack them. First invite them to adopt the 
fidth of Islam ; if they accept it, receive them ; but if they 
revise it, demand the payment of the tribute ; and if thqr 
also revise this, then make war upon them. Should th^ 
now ask quarter of you in the name of the judgment of 
the Most High, do not grant it ; for you do not know what 
is his judgment respecting them. You can, however, grant 
it to them in the name of the judgment of Islfim ; for that 
vou do know. If your arms meet with victory, collect the 
Dooty, and impose a capitation-tax on the vanquished. 
Conceal nothing of the spoils fix)m each other; do not put 
the women and children to death ; and if you kill any, do 
not mutilate them by cutting off their noses, ears, hands^ 
or feet." 

Ailer the Khaltfeh had thus delivered his instructions, he 
sent off Selimeh Ibn Kais with the troops. When Selimeh. 
who was a very brave man, came upon the Kurds, he invited 

* Col Tajlor, the fonner Resident of the East-Indfa Company at BaedML 
has latelj^ taken to England a history of the Kiird% called Vlkrikk-i-jUrSi 
which it is hoped may and a tnulalor. 


them to embrace Islam ; and upon their refusal to do so, he 
demanded the capitation-tax. This they also refused, and so 
he attacked and routed them, taking much booty ; a fifth part 
of which, with news of the victory, he sent to the Khalifeh. 
Among the booty was a casket filled with rubies, which he 
also gave to his messenger, telling him to present it to the 
Kialifeh for himself; "because," added he, " his expenses 
are very great." When this person arrived at Medineh, he 
found the people assembled in the mosque, and the Khalifeh 
'Omar feeding them. In a previous part of this history, it 
was mentioned that the Khalifeh every day had a camel 
killed and boiled with salt, and that from this he fed the 
poor and the strangers. This food he caused to be set out 
with bread, in earthen vessels, in the mosque ; the people 
ate it there ; and afterwards he would return to his own 
house, and tieike his own meal. Now the messenger relates 
that, at the moment of his arrival, a dish of boiled meat was 
served in the mosque ; and that the Khalifeh was engaged 
in distributing the food, followed by his servants, who divi- 
ded the meat and bread. The Khalifeh stood in the midst 
of the people, having in his hand a wand like the crook of 
a shepherd who watches over his sheep. He examined the 
contents of each individual's vessel, directing his servants 
to add more bread, or meat, as the case required. "He 
directed me," adds the messenger, "to be seated; but I did 
not eat of the food which he gave to the others, since there 
was better for me. After the people had eaten, he directed 
his servant to carry away the vessels and tables ; whereupon 
lie left. I remained there until the servant had ^finished, 
and then I went along with him to the Khalifeh's. The 
casket which I had brought for him, was among my bag- 
gage. I entered his dwelling, and found him seated on a 
coarse cloak, on which was a cushion filled with the fibres 
of the date-leaf On observing me, he pushed the cushion 
toward me ; so seating myself upon it, I said, * I am an 
envoy from Selimeh Ibn K!ais.' He now bade me welcome, 
adding his salutations to Selimeh ; and upon his inquiring 
after the latter, and the Muslim forces, I informed him of 
their success, and of the booty they had taken, which gave 
him much pleasure. 

" I now took out," says the messenger, " the casket of 
jewels, and placed it before him. He asked what jewels they 


were ; and I informed him, that Selimeh, having found the 
casket among the booty, did not divide it, but sent it for his 
acceptance, as his provisions were a great expense to him. 
The Khalifeh looked at me fixedly, and then at the jewels ; 
and presently he burst into tears. Placing his hands upon 
his sides, he exclaimed, * May the Most High not satisfy the 
belly and the eyes of 'Omar, if what he has already given 
him of this world's* goods be not enough for him!' Then 
addressing his servant Azfa, who stood near him, he said, 
* Azfa, smite this man on the neck.' " 

The messenger adds, " As I was tying up the casket, the 
man struck me on the neck ; and when I had done, the Kha- 
lifeh ordered me to carry it back forthwith to Selimeh, and 
tell him to divide it among the Muslims, who had more 
right to it than he. * Hasten,' continued he, * lest they dis- 
perse ; and inform Selimeh that I do this as an example to 
Muslims.' I replied to the Khalifeh, * Prince of the be- 
lievers, you thus hasten my departure, while I have neither 
camel nor horse ; how can I go ?' He forthwith bade Azfa 
to furnish me with two white camels from among those 
which were given as alms ; telling me, at the same time, to 
mount and depart. He ordered me, on my arrival at the 
camp, to present the camels to those of the soldiers whom 
I considered poorer than myself. I did as I was bid, and 
returned to Selimeh, to whom I gave back the jewels. He 
sent them to Basrah, sold them, and distributed the proceeds 
among the troops." 



In the commencement of the twenty-third year of the 
Hijrah, the Khalifeh 'Omar went to tne Hijaz, and per- 
formed the pilgrimage. He took with him the wives oi the 
late Prophet — on whom be blessings and peace ! — from Me- 
dineh, paying their expenses out of the public treasury. 

It was in the latter part of the year that he returned. 
Mughairah Ibn Shu'beh had a black slave named Flniz, 
whose surname was Abd Liilii : this wretch made the Kha- 
Kfeh a martyr. Firiiz was a Christian {TcHrsd), and by trade 
a carpenter. Mughairah had put an iron collar around 
his neck, and made him work ; and out of the gains of his 
labor Mughairah reserved daily two pieces of silver. One 
day, Firiiz came to the Khalifeh, who was seated among the 
believers, and addressing him said, " O Prince of the believ- 
ers, Mughairah has put an iron around my neck, and requires 
of me two pieces of silver every day, which I am unable to 
rive him." The Khalifeh inquired of him what he could 
ao; and he answered, "I am a carpenter, a painter, and a 
blacksmith." The Khalifeh replied, " Since you know so 
many things, two pieces of silver are not too much for you 
to pay. I have also heard you called a miller, and have 
been told that you can put up a wind-mill." Firiiz answer- 
ing in the affirmative, the Khalifeh said, " Then put up a 
mill for me." The man replied, ^* If I live, I will put up one 
for you that shall rejoice tne hearts of all the people of the 
East and the West. And so saying, he departed. 

That same day, the Khalifeh *Omar remarked, "That 
slave has a design upon my life." On the day following, 
Ka'ab el-Ahbar went to the Khalifeh, and exclaimed, "O 
Prince of the believers, make your will ; for you will die in 
three days." 'Omar asked him how he knew it, saying, " Did 



ou see my name in the Taurah,* and learn it from that?" 
[e answered, "I did not find your name; but I found a 
description of you, together with a description of the blessed 
Prophet ; and as vou are his successor, I found the number 
of years of your lihalifate." Then adding that only three 
days of that period remained, he departed. Now the Kha- 
lifeh did not feel in the least indisposed ; and he was sur- 
prised at the words of Ka'ab el-Ahbar. This occurred in 
the twenty -third year of the Hijrah, and in the month of 
Dhu-1-Hijjeh. When the KhaJifeh 'Omar returned from the 
Hijaz, four days only of Dhu-1-Hijjeh remained. At the 
hour of the morning-prayer he left his house, and came to 
the mosque, where all the companions of the Prophet — on 
whom be peace ! — stood in files. Firiiz stood in the front 
file, holding in his hand an Ethiopian knife resembling a 
two-edged ka'ma;\ and just as the Prince of the believers 
passed in front of the file, he stabbed him with the knife six 
times, right and left, on the shoulders. He also struck him 
one blow under the navel ; and it was this wound which 
proved fatal. 

As soon as Firiiz had stabbed the Khalifeh, he fled from 
among the people. The Khalifeh fell down, exclaiming, 
" Is ' Abd Er-Rahman here ?" This person coming forwara, 
he bade him act as Imam, and thus enable the people to 
perform their morning-prayer. He was then conveyed to 
nis house. After ' Abd Er-Rahman had assisted at the prayer 
for pardon, he returned to the Khalifeh, who said to him, 
" 'Abd Er-Rahman, I place the affairs of the Mushms in 
vour hands ; do not say that you will not accept the charge." 
Abd Er-Rahman replied, " Prince of the believers, I have 
something to ask of you ; if you tell me this, I will accept 
it." " Speak," answered the Khalifeh ; " let me know your 
request. 'Abd Er-Rahman continued, **Do you deem it 
proper, that in assuming this charge I should take counsel 
on the subject with the Muslims ?" The Khalifeh answered, 
** No." " How then can I axjcept ?" The Khalifeh replied, 
" Be silent ; speak of it to no one except to those persons 
with whom I know that the Prophet, at his decease, parted 
in entire satisfaction. Call them together ; I leave this mat- 
ter to them, and let them entrust the charge to whomsoever 
they may agree upon." 

* The Pentateuch. f A Circassum dagger. 


So five individuals were called in ; these were ' Aly Ibn AM 
Talib, 'Othman Ibn ^Affan, Zubeir Ibn El-'Auwam, Sa^ad 
Ibn Abii Wakkas, and X^lha. All these were sent for ; and 
all came except Talha, who, having gone to a village, could 
not be found. 'Omar said to them, "When the blessed 
Prophet left this world, he departed satisfied with you all ; 
now let not the affairs of the believers be neglected by you. 
When I am dead, call also Talha to you; then sit ye dl five 
down, and for five days take counsel amonff yourselves 
respecting the choice of a Khalifeh. When ne has been 
appointed, let all the rest be submissive to him, and let him 
lead the people in their prayers. Now, I enjoin upon whom- 
soever of you accepts this charge, to be just and equitable 
towards the others ; to keep their hearts contented, and to be 
kind to them ; for they are the companions of the Prophet, 
who, in leaving this world, departed firom it wholly satisfied 
with them. Whoever may be chosen as Khalifeh, I charge 
that he look well after the Arab people, for they are the 
strength of the Muslims ; and let him study their rights. I 
also leave as my testament, that whatever people shall come 
under the obligation of God and the Prophet, they must be 
required to pay the capitation-tax, and be kept subject to this 
rule." Then turning his face towards 'Aly Ibn Abii Talib 
— on whom be peace ! — ^he said, " O 'Aly, should the charge 
&11 upon you, act so that the Benu Hashim shall not domi- 
neer over the believers."* After which, becoming feeble, 
he remained silent ; he spoke no more, and his eyes closed. 
A little while after, he again opened them ; his son 'Abdal- 
lah was then at his side, and addressing him, he asked, 
"'Abdallah, who was it that stabbed me? His son replied, 
" The Christian Abft Luia." The dying Khalifeh exclaimed, 
" God be praised that I have received my death-wound firom 
an infidel like him, and have thus become a martyr!" He 
then added, " 'Abdallah, go to 'Aisheh ; tell her that if she 
gives permission, I should like to be interred by the side 
of the holy Prophet; but in case she does not grant it, 
place me in the cemetery of the Muslims." Then feeling 
weak, his eyes again closed ; afl;erwards, the voices of the 
people outside coming through the door, he reopened them, 
and asked what sound it was. On being told that the Mu- 

* The Benil Hdahim being the tribe to which the Prophet belonged. 
TOU XL 29 


bsijirs and the Ni^rs* asked Dermission to see him, address- 
ing his son, he exclaimed, "0 'Abdallah, call these people; 
let them all come in." So each one was admitted in turn ; 
and among the rest, it happened that Ka'ab el-Ahbar came. 
When 'Omar beheld him, Eii'ab's prediction respecting 
his death came to his mind, and he recited the foUowing 

** Ka*ab promised me three days of life, 
And there was no error in what Ka'ab said ; 
Nor have I any fear of death. 
Though I fear for the sins that I have commhted." 

On that day, the Khalifeh 'Omar expired. There are sev- 
eral versions of the circumstances attending his death. One 
of these is, that after Lulii stabbed him, he lived three 
days; and that when he expired, Suheib performed the 
morning-prayer. They said to 'Omar, "O Prince of the 
believers, let us fetch a physician ;" and he having answered, 
** Do as you please," they brought in one of the Benft Hft- 
rith, a man of talent, who called for water, and gave it to 
'Omar to drink. On his drinking it, the liquid flowed out 
of the wound under his navel ; milk was next given him, 
and it also came out ; next a thick potage was tried, and it 
likewise flowed out from the same wound : whereupon the 
physician bade the Khalifeh make his will, " because," said 
ne, " your worldly aflFairs have come to an end." To this 
the Khalifeh answered that he had already made it 

Another account says that the dav on which he expired 
was Wednesday, and that he was mterred the same day. 
The persons l>efore named then held a council together; 
three days passed away, and on the fourth, which was the 
first of Muharram, the berinning of the twenty-fourth year 
of the Hijnih, they agreed upon 'Othman, and elected him 
to be tlie successor to the khalifate. 

Many persons relate that 'Omar was still alive on Wednes- 
day and Thui-sday, and that he did not expire till Friday. 
Tbev sav that it was at the close of the vear, and that on 
the lirst Sunday of Muharram he was consigned to the tomb. 
A council was then held, which continued three days, during 
which Suheib performed the morning- prayer. They washea 
his body, and desired to perform his funeral prayer. 'Oth- 

* The companions of the Prophet s flight, and those who befriended him 
in Medineh. * 


mSn and 'Aly both came forward; one stood at his head, and 
the other at his feet, and both bade 'Abd Er-Eahman Ibn 
'Auf take the lead, and say the prayer. But 'Abd Er- 
Kahman replied, "Neither will I lead, nor shall you." 
" Who is then to take the lead ?" they asked. He answered, 
" Suheib, who was bidden to do so by the Khalifeh 'Omar 
himself; and him will the people obey." "You have spo- 
ken truly," they all replied. So, Suheib being called, he 
came an^ performed the prayer, and then they all followed 
the body to the grave. 

The following day was Tuesday, the second day of Muhar- 
ram, in the twenty -fourth year of the Hijrah. On this day, 
they inaugurated 'Othman as the successor of the Prophet. 
The services continued until the afternoon-prayer, without 
being ended ; so that Suheib performed the prayer of the 
following morning, and also that of mid-day. It was now 
finished ; and when the Mu'azzin proclaimed the afternoon- 
prayer, the people assembled before the Khalifeh 'Othman. 

The genealogy of the deceased Khalifeh 'Omar is aa 
follows : 

'Omar Ibn El-Khattab Ibn Nufeil Ibn 'Abd El-'Ozza Ibn 
Rayah Ibn 'Abdallah Ibn Kart Ibn Razah Ibn 'Ady Ibn 
Ka'ab Ibn Luwei. His surname was Abu Hafs. His mother 
was Hantemeh, daughter of Hashim Ibn Mughairah Ibn 
'Abdallah Ibn 'Amr Ibn Mahzum. His honorary name 
was Fariik. Some of the people of his tribe state, that he 
received this name from the blessed Prophet ; others, that 
it was ffiven him by a Jew. Another tradition is that 
Ka'ab el-Ahbar said he found the name of Fariik in the 

_ • • 

Taurah ; and this latter statement has been current among 

There are also diverse accounts of his personal appear- 
ance. One report states that his face was florid and fair ; 
while another asserts that he had a sallow complexion. 
All agree that he was of tall stature ; and that, when he 
walked among the people, his back and shoulders swayed 
about so, and he had so vigorous a gait, that one' would think 
he was on horseback. His head was bald on the top ; his 
beard had become blanched, and he was in the habit of col- 
oring it with hinnd. Such had also been the practice of the 
Khalifeh Abu' Bekr. When the Khalifeh 'Omar was occu- 
pied with any thing, he kept both his hands in motion. 


Some say that he was fifty-three years of age, when he died; 
others, that he was sixty ; and others, that he was sixty- 
three, the age of the Prophet and of Abu Bekr. By some 
it is said that the period of his khalifate was ten years, five 
months, and twenty days; and by others, ten years, six 
months, and four days. 

During the whole period of his life, he had seven wives ; 
three of whom he tooK during his state of ignorance [of the 
faith]. One of these was Zeineb, daughter of Maz'un Ibn 
Habib ; the second, Muleikeh 0mm Kulthum, daughter of 
Jarul ; the third, Karineh, daughter of Abu Omeiyeh El- 
Makhziimy.' On his divorcing the last mentioned wiie, 'Abd 
Er-Rahman, son of Abu Bekr Es-Siddik, married her. When 

• 7 • • • 7 

'Omar became a Muslim, he emigrated to Medineh, where 
he took four more wives, one of whom was 0mm Hakim, 
daughter of HUrith ; the second, Jemileh, daughter of ' Asim 
El-Ansary ; the third, 0mm Kulthum, daughter of ' Aly Ibn 
Abft Tahb — may God bless his countenance ! This 0mm 
Kulthum was the daughter of the revered Fatimeh. His 
fourth wife was the revered 'Atikeh, daughter of Zeid Ibn 
'Amr Ibn Nufeil, who had previously been the wife of 
'Abdallah Ibn AbH Bekr Es-Siddik, and on being divorced 
by him, was taken by the Khalifeh 'Omar. After 'Omar's 
death, she was married to Zubeir Ibn E1-' Auwam. The last 
four wives the Khalifeh 'Omar took aft^r he had embraced 
IsMm. He had also two concubines ; one named Bahiyeh, 
and the other Fekiheh. He had eight sons. Two of them 
were named 'Abdallah and 'Obeidallah ; the former of whom 
he had by Zeineb, and the latter by Muleikeh. He had 
three others, all named ' Abd Er-Rahman : of these one was 
called Akbar, or the greater, and was the son of Zeineb ; 
another was called Ausat, or the middle, who was the son of 
Bahiyeh ; and the third was called Asghar, or the less, who 
was the son of Fekiheh. He had two other sons, both named 
Zeid : the first, called Zeid Akbar, was a son of the daugh- 
ter of the revered ' Aly ; {he second was born of Jemileh. 
The name of the remaining son is not recorded. He had 
also four daughters: viz. Zeineb; Fatimeh, daughter of 
0mm Hakim ; Rukaiyeh, daughter of 0mm Kulthiim ; and 
Zeineb, daughter of Fekiheh. 

The Khalifeh 'Omar had desired to take two more wives; 
but they refused to go to him. The revered ' Aiidieb sent 


to urge them, but they still refused. One of them, named 
0mm Abban, daughter of 'Otbeh, said, "I will not go to 
'Omar: because he goes in laughing at his wives, and 
never goes abroad, and he always keeps the door of his 
house fastened." The other was Asma, daughter of the 
late Khalifeh Ab\i Bekr. 'Omar consulted with 'Aisheh on 
the subject of taking Asma to wife. 'Aisheh approved of 
it, saying, " Where can you find a woman like her ?" AsmS, 
on hearing of this, wept, and said, " That must not happen 
to me." She was younger than 'Aisheh, and the latter said 
to her, " O girl, why do you not desire such a. person as the 
Prince of the believers ?" To which she replied, " Because he 
has always a sour countenance, and there is no other food in 
his house than barley-bread, coarse salt, and camel's flesh, and 
they always eat camel's meat cooked with salt and water." 
On hearing this, 'Aisheh was ashamed that the Khalifeh 
should be refused ; so she called 'Amr Ibn El-'As, and rela- 
ting to him the whole matter, bade him devise some plan 
for putting the notion out of the Khalifeh's head, without let- 
ting him know that she had any hand in it. 'Amr, having 
engaged to do this, departed ; and going to the Khalifeh, 
he said to him, " You have desired to have Asmd, daugh- 
ter of the Khalifeh Abii Bekr, but I do not like it." Upon 
this, the Khalifeh inquired, ^' Do you disapprove of my be- 
ing her husband, or of her being my wife ?" 'Amr Ibn 
El-'As replied, " Neither the one nor the other ; but you 
are a person of great distinction, and you have wives of 
good breeding and habits, and you make them obey you. 
Now, this girl has grown up self-willed, in the charge of 
her sister, and may not be patient towards you. If she 
should prove disobedient, and you should strike her, she 
majr complain to the people, and thev may reproach you 
for it, saying, * See how the daughter of Abii Bekr is abused 
by 'Omar: he shows no regard to her father's memory.' 
If you desire to have a well bred wife, hasten, there is 
0mm Kulthum, daughter of ' Aly Ibn AM TSlib ; she has 
been brought up by 'Aly and Fatimeh, and has their good 
breeding and disposition." To this 'Omar replied, " As I 
have spoken about the matter to 'Aisheh, how shall I act, 
seeing that she approved of it?" 'Amr Ibn El-'As an- 
swered, "I will so contrive it that she shall forget the 
circumstance." So he went to 'Aisheh, and told her what 
had happened. 


The author [Et-Tabary] narrates as follows: After 'Omar's 
conversion to Lsliiin, many other persons became Muslima 
It is stated that, some forty or forty-five individuals became 
Muslims before him, and after that took place his conve^ 
sion. There is also a tradition that the Khalifeh 'Omar had 
twentv-onc wives. 

It is narrated, that of all people either before or after the 
Khalifeh 'Omar, no one had a character like his ; nor has any 
person since followed in his path. It is said of him, that 
he was known to have remarked, ** K a sheep of a shep- 
herd on the banks of the Tigris or the Euphrates were 
to die, I should fear God might demand of me why I had 
not protected it, and require its lite of me." It is also stated 
that, during a day of extreme heat, he was seen to put an 
apron around his waist, and rub tar over the backs of the 
camels intended for alms. On beholding this, some one 
remarked to him, " Prince of the believers, why do yon 
do this with your own hand?" To which the Khalifeh 
replied, " Because God has made me the protector of these 
animals, and may to-morrow demand them of me." " But," 
said his interrogator, "why do you do it on a day of such 
excessive heat ?" 'Omar answered, " I must suffer this pain. 
so that the responsibility with which I am charged over all 
Muslims may oe discharged. I know that in this empire 
there are many feeble persons whose wants never reach the 
knowledge of the sovereign. I wish to hear what they may 
have to sav, and attend to their wants. If I were able to 
do so, this would be the happiest year of my life." It is 
also related of him, that he always sent a set of written 
instructions to each commander, or governor, whom he 
appointed, in which he represented that if the officer did 
not obey his washes, he would be displeased with him. 
He would also write to his subjects, and command them to 
obey the officer in all that the letter of instructions con- 
tained, but to pay no attention to any order he might issue 
not comprised in the instructions. 

'Abd Er-Rahman Ibn 'Auf says, "At night, the Khalifeh 
^Omar would act as watchman. One night, he came to my 
house, and told me that a caravan had arrived and stopped 
outside the walls of the city. * It is weary,' he said, ' and 
I am sure the people are all asleep, I fear that thieves may 
steal their goods ; come therefore with me, and aid me to 


watch over them while they slumber.' So we went forth 
to the outskirts of the city, and sat down near the caravan, 
all the merchants of which were fast asleep. The Khalileh 
'Omar remained there until morning, and watched over the 
people of the caravan without their being aware of it." 

Zeid Ibn Aslem relates the following, as having learnt it 
fix)m his father, who one night asked the Khalifeh 'Omar 
whether he might go and keep watch with him, and hav- 
ing received his consent, set out in company with him. 
"We walked about the city of Medineh until midnight, 
when we went outside of the walls, where, from a distance, 
we saw an ass. * Behold, O Muslim,' exclaimed 'Omar, some 
one has stopped there ; come, let us see who it is.' So we 
approached the spot, and found a woman accompanied by 
two or three small children. They were weeping. A ves- 
sel stood over a fire ; and she was saying to her children, 

* Don't cry, but He down and sleep, until this food is cooked 
for you ;' adding, * may God take vengeance on 'Omar, who 
has gone to bed with a full stomach, while I and these 
little ones sit starving here 1' On hearing these words, 
his eyes filled with tears, and he wept. Then addressing 
me he exclaimed, * Be food and drink forbidden to 'Omar, 
until he has ascertained of what injustice he has been 
ffuiltjr !' So, approaching the woman, he asked her whether 
he might come near to her, to which she replied he might, 
in case he came with a good intention. 'Omar therefore 
drew near, and asked her to tell him all about her cir- 
cumstances, and what 'Omar had done to her. She an- 
swered, * I have come from my own country, for the pur- 
pose of going to the Khalifeh. Late at night, we reached 
this spot, and my children cannot sleep on account of their 
excessive hunger.' *Why,' asked the Khalifeh, *did you 
just now pray to God against 'Omar?' * Because,' replied 
the woman, * he sent my husband to the wars against the 
infidels, where he became a martyr ; in consequence of which 
we are destitute, as you now behold us.' 'Omar asked her 
what the vessel over the fire was for; to which she answered, 

* It is a Uttle water which I have put into it, and placed over 
the fire, at the same time telling my children, " See, I am 
preparing food for you to eat;" with the hope that they 
may go to sleep, and cease weeping.' On hearing this, 'Omar 
taming to me said, ' O Muslmi, let us hasten back to the 
city.' So we both ran until we reached Medineh, when we 


went at once to a flour- vender, and purchased a sackful ; 
then to a butcher's, to buy meat, but Ibund none : the man, 
however, told us that he had some fat ; so we took some fiat 
for frying. I thought," adds Ibn Aslem, "that the Khalifeh 
would now bid me carry these to the woman ; but instead of 
this, he directed me to throw the flour-bag over his shoul- 
der. I exclaimed, *0 prince of the believers, permit me 
to carry it.' But the Knalifeh replied, ^ O Muslim^ if you 
should carry this bag, who will carry the bag of 'Omar?'* 
So I put it on the Khalifeh's back, and we set out and re- 
turned to the woman, to whom we gave the flour and the 
fat. 'Omar with his own hand cut up the latter, and threw 
it into the kettle, at the same moment telling the woman to 
knead a little dough out of the flour. To me he said, * O 
Muslim, bring some wood;' which I did. In another mo- 
ment, I beheld the spectacle of the Khalifeh 'Omar's beard 
on the ground, while he blew the fire. Thus the dough, 
with the fat and the water, was cooked, and turned out into 
an earthen dish. He next awoke the little children, and 
addressing the woman, bade her eat, and thank God, and 
put up a good prayer for 'Omar,f * who,' added he, * is not 
uninformed as to your circumstances.' " 

Another of the good rules of the Khalifeh 'Omar related 
to the prayer called Terdwih, In the month of Ramadhan, 
when the congregation usually performed this prayer, he 
was in the habit of being the first to do it. 

Once, when Aslemy was public treasurer, the people 
inquired of him, whether the Khalifeh 'Omar took any 
thing more out of the treasury than he was entitled to 
take; and the treasurer replied, "Whenever he has not 
enough for the subsistence of his family, he takes what is 
requisite from the treasury; but so soon as he receives 
his dues and portion, [consisting of a fiflh part of the booty 
taken in warfare,] he always returns the amount which he 
has withdrawn." 

When he performed the morning-prayer, he was accus- 
tomed, in mating the first genuflexion, according to the law 
of the blessed Prophet, to recite the long chapter of the 
Kuran, and to stand a good while ; while at the second genu- 

* Meaning, who but himself could bear the load of his sins. 

f OrieDtals put implicit faith in the efficacy of *'good prajen** and " evil 


flexion he stood not so long. One day, however, without 
prolonging either, he hastened through the prayer; and 
turning to the revered companions of the Prophet, he ex- 
claimed, " Come, let us go and fetch our bride and bride- 
groom." The companions looked at each other, not under- 
standing what he meant. Now, the Islam troops sent to 
Syria, while attacking a strong fortress, had among them two 
brothers who were remarkably brave and daring, so much 
so as to be the dread of the infidels. The princes of the 
latter directed their troops to exert themselves, and get rid 
of the brothers. So the infidels laid numerous ambuscades, 
and destroyed many of the believers; and among them, 
one of the brothers was made a martyr, while the other was 
captured, and carried before the above mentioned princes. 
These proved just, and commanded that he should not 
be put to death, saying it would be ungenerous, and that it 
would be better to let him depart. " W ere he to become a 
Christian," said they, "he would be a great gain to us." A 
priest came forward, and said, " I will make a Christian 
of him." When he was asked how he could accomplish 
that, he replied, ** I have a very handsome daughter, and 
by her means will effect his conversion." All present ap- 
proving of the plan, the young man was delivered over 
to the priest. The latter took him directly to his own 
house, when he said to his daughter, "Give this youth 
something to do ; and if he attempts to make love to you, 
tell him that you cannot permit it, unless he will adopt 
your religion." Then dressing up his daughter, he left her 
with the youth. The young man, however, did not even 
look in tne girl's face; and one day, as he was perusing 
the Kuran and she was listening, she became enamored of 
him. So she approached him, and bade him teach her the 
profession of faith, and at once became a true believer. 
When her father inquired about her success, she replied, 
"I have quite enflamed him; but h^ seems very unhappy: 
if he could but go abroad a little, his heart would become 
lighter, and he would embrace our religion. He is so 
greatly enamored of me, that if you sought to drive him 
away, he would not go." Now the father owned a farm, 
and taking these two with him, he went there. It turned 
out in the end, that the youth took the girl, and fled at once 
to Medineh. It was on the day of their arrival, that 'Omar 
TOL. n. 80 


went out with the companions ; and as they issued from the 
city, they beheld two persons mounted on horseback, one a 
girl and the other a young man. On seeing these, the Kha- 
lifeh exclaimed, " Sehold the bride and groom of whom I 
spoke." He now returned with them to Medineh, where the 
couple were married, and lived to have several children. 

The traits of character told of the Ehalifeh 'Omar are 
very numerous, and would require more space than I can 
here allow. But there is one deserving of especial mention, 

rken of by 'Amr Ibn Jahiz, who says that all writers 
uld commemorate and praise 'Omar's great justice and 
equitv : it is that, while other sovereigns were wont to draw 
largely on the public treasury, 'Omar ate but little, and 
dressed in coarse clothes. 

During the ten years of his khalifiite, some good news 
came every day from the army engaged in war a^nst the 
infidels, relative to some conquest or victory. Money and 
other booty were brought to him, until the world became 
conquered, and he had subjected all infidels to his sway. 
All Arabia and Persia were reduced by his arms ; and ms 
troops amassed great wealth, and built cities. He gave pub- 
lic audiences, and made royal gifts. His armies marcned, 
on the North, to the river Jihiin, and Azerbtjan, and the 
Derbends on the Caspian Sea, and also to those places which 
are close by the wall of Yfijuj and MSjiij. On the East, 
they marched to Sind and Hind ; and from Bahrein as far as 
'Oman, to Kerman, and even to Mukran. From Syria even 
to the confines of Riim, [the Greek Empire,] the inhabit- 
ants were all subject to his rule, and executed his commands. 
With all this, his immense power did not change his habits 
or manner of living in the smallest degree ; his apparel and 
food remained the same, and in his mode of speech he did 
not show the least pride or haughtiness. He never neg- 
lected his devotions ; and his patience was so great that his 
dominion daily increased in firmness and strength. Poets 
composed eulogies on his great character ; and as he was 
about to be laid in his tomb, a voice in the air was heard by 
all present, saying, 

" Alas for tho lalfim faith, and those vho weep thy death ! 

Thy loss is shown in tears, thou diedst before thy time. 

From thee the world received good order, — from thee, much benefit ; 

And thou art gone before the believers in the holy promiaea." 

te-««K"V *^ •^-* "s^^^^^^^"^^^- ^^^^^-^l^* ^ • » *• ^^i^»«'<^*^^^^ 









(Read October 25. 1849.) 




'Abeih, June 29, 1849. 

Your back already aches, doubtless, witli the weary 
march I promised you, over hot plain and lofty hill, on 
our tour among the crusaders' castles, and other antiquities 
of this land. But give your girdle a pull, tighten your 
saddle-girths, put a thicker hefftyeh around your hat, and 
mount. K. is on her prancing pony, Mrs. T. is on the lank, 
thin-chested, but deep-chested mountain-horse, Mr. T. has 
mounted kicking Sa^da, and I am aloft on ^tin-devouring 
Mahjijib, We barely crossed the plain the first day, and at 
night stopt at KhSn el-Ghudlr, two hours from Beirut. The 
next day, we reached Sidon, and pitched near one of the 
city gates. The next day, we took the road to Tyre for one 
hour, and then turned toward the mountains. We entered 
the hills, in one hour and a half from Sidon, at the Wfidy 
Zahrany, or Flowery Valley, in which the stream of that 
name winds among abundant oleanders. In three hours 
from Sidon, we reached Khan Mohammed 'Aly ; and de- 
scending to drink from the fountain, we saw over it, on an 
inverted stone, the following : 


There are no ruins at this spot ; but five minutes farther 
on, tombs, wells, and foundations, mark the site of a town. 
Hence, our road wound around low valleys, wooded with 
stunted oaks and various shrubby growths. At length we 

• This inscription may be read, either TC^^t ^tXuvi^ or, supposing the 
stone-cutter to have put w for o by mistake, TcaU^ ^iXotftxt^ the common form 
on andent Greek sepuldunl monuments. Comm. of Publ. 


emerged, went through the considerable village of Nuba- 
tijeh et-Tahta, or Nubatiyeh the lower, and near Nubatiyeh 
el-Foka, or Nubatiyeh the upper, past a little mud-pool 
where cattle were slaking their thii^ and past the small 
village of K&miin, and up the steep ledge which is crowned 
with the castle of Belfort of the crusaders, the Kul'at Belfid 
csh-Shukif of the Arabs. We slept by the gate, after rum- 
maging the old castle, even to its chapel at the top, a famous 
old r(n)ber's nest, for the surrender of which without a 
blow the Arab historians are especially grateM and devout; 
and doubtless much of the precious time and blood of the 
Arabs would have been expended, had the thick-headed 
Franks within been less credulous. Its strength, before 
the introduction of " villainous saltpetre," must have been 
formidable; and situated as it was above the Grossing of 
the LttSnv, it must have been of great service in defendiiig 
the nice lands between it and the sea from the incuisioui 
of the Arabs. The jprospect here is one of those extensive 
Lebanon views which often so strikingly combine the grand 
and beautiful. Old Mount Hermon, with snowy top, was 
East of us, and the intervening space was intersected with 
ridges, on one of which is Merj 'Ayfin (Heb. I^^aj); the 
castle of B&nifis (CaesareaPhilippi) on its crag was over 
against us, and dimly seen in the distance; Hauran lay 
stretched South of Hermon. Just beneath us, crawled the 
Litany, like an immensely long, silvered serpent, winding 
at the base of the lofty precipice on which we were ; Souu 
and South-West, we saw the lulls of Safed, and West, a 
green, rolling table-land, covered with wheat and barley, and 
sprinkled with villages, and seeming to end its diminishing 
undulations at the sea. On the North, we had our own 
mountain of the Druzes. The main castle had a ^reat num* 
ber of rooms, packed around the ledge which it crowns. 
The whole is surrounded with a wide ditch ; and numerous 
large reservoirs, some even now used by the poor people 
below, showed the care taken to provide the garrison with 
water. The stable within the outer gat^ still has its stone 
mangers for the horses in good repair. A sauare fort on a 
crag five minutes South, once added to the aefences of the 
place, and served Jezzar Pasha for a place to plant cannon, 
with which he battered the walls in the last siege of Kul'at 
esh-Shuktf. A hill to the North of us was occupied two 


years by Lady Esther Stanhope. The historical associa- 
tions, as well as the views on every side, brought together a 
strange assemblage of objects. How varied the scenes which 
had transpired here, between the invasion of the Israelites 
and this visit of American missionaries I 

May 17. — ^We descended from our perch on Belfort, to 
Kumun, a poor village, and thence by a steep path to the 
bridge over the river LitSny. Thence we ascended to Ku- 
lei'at, on the top of the first ridge from the river. Here 
we saw the lake Hftleh, ^or the Waters of Merom, and the 
beautiful meadows about 'lyon. We turned out of our road 
to climb up to Merj *Ay(in, on the second ridge from the 
river, and thence passed on under Abil, among hills and 
valleys formed by the intertangling of cross-spurs of Leba- 
non and Hermon. Some of these valleys were filled with 
olive trees, some with wheat and barley, some with bare 
limestone or chalky rock. We arrived at Khfin Hasbeiya 
in four hours and a half from the castle. After sitting 
awhile on the branch of the Jordan which flows here, we 
rode along its edge, diverging to see the bitumen-pits or 
wells, saw the fountain-head, the farthest source, of the 
Jordan, and then turned up the vale to Hasbeiya. 

May 21. — ^We left Hasbeiya for Banifis, and in three hours 
and fifty minutes we were at Tell el-KSdy, or the Hill of 
the judge, or the Hill of Dan, called also Ledden, which is 
said to be a corruption of Ed-Dan. Here is a large foun- 
tain, a little smaller than that at the head of the Orontes. 
It flows out at the base of a knoll, or low hill, of lava. The 
basin of the fountain we found ftdl of buffaloes, as ugly 
looking fish as ever bathed. Thence we rode to BfiniSs, in 
forty minutes. We went to the large fountain which gushes 
out below a cave, and climbed to the castle, bv a clump of 
trees, still called trees of Hazor. AD this I will not enlarge 
upon, as it is fiiUy described by Mr. Thomson in an early 
volume of the Bihliotheca Sacra* which I advise you to see. 
The modem town is in a strong, but not extensive quad- 
rangle, which was the citadel in ancient times. The old city 
was on one side of this, and was large. 

May 22. — Rode out of the gate of the citadel, under a 
tower of great strength, crossed a branch of the Jordan on a 
bridge, and in five minutes passed a small round pool, from 

* See Bibliotheea Sacm^ vol iii, p. 184, ff. 


which the walls oT the old city extended down the slope. 
In forty minutes, we arrived at 'Ain Fit, a small village. 
Our course hence lay on the western slope of a low hill of 
volcanic rock, the hill which borders the eastern side of the 
Hiileh, and this part of the valley of the Jordan. It is cov- 
ered with low, scattered oaks, and sown in patches which 
are allowed to rest alternate vears. The reason of this is, 
not that the soU is poor, but that "the lands are wide, and 
people few." In one hour and twenty minutes firom 'Ain Itt^ 
the oaks on our road ceased, except here and there a few; 
but they extended far to the East, on the plain at the base 
of Hermon. We had been ascending obliquely and gradu- 
ally, and now passed the head of Wady Baramy&t. Some 
rums lie at its mouth, on the plain of the Hulen. A con- 
ical eminence on our road-side, with a heap of stones, is 
called Burghusheh, and another at the head of Wfidy Sft- 
wary. These are modem sites, and are deserted, as is this 
whole region, since Ibraham Pasha's day. It is called Ardh 
Sukeik. Our road here commanded a view of the plain 
and lake of Iluleh, the hills of Safed, the site of Kadesh 
Naphthali, the castle of Ilunm, the castle of Shuki^ and 
old Hermon, with his wrinkles of age, and face smoothed 
with snow. In one hour and forty minutes fix)m 'Ain Fit, we 
crossed Wady Balu'a, a shallow winter water-course, now 
dry, terminating in a ravine below. Here we entered on a 
fine and extensive plain, at a considerable elevation above 
the Huloh. Sukeik and Summak were on our left, about half 
an hour distant ; the former a modern ruin on an old site, 
the latter having buildings still standing, like those at Bara 
and in Hauran. Tell el-' Aram was about one hour to our 
left, that i^, Etist of us, a finely rounded summit ; and a little 
more South, was Tell Abii Nedy. The plain we were on is 
a winter residence of Arabs of the Fadhl tribe, and their can- 
tonments were on every side of us. At the distance of two 
hours from 'Ain Fit, we began to descend a little, and in a 
quarter of an hour crossed Wady Hunth, a shallow channel 
now dry, and in another quarter of an hour, a similar chan- 
nel called Wady Ghorab. Tell Abu Nedy was now about 
half an hour to the Eai^t of us, and Gilboa, Tabor, and the 
moimtains of Moab were in sight ; and soon we saw the Sea 
of Galilee, and the high table-land eastward from it, termin- 
ating in a bluff toward the sea. In two hours and forty-five 


minutes from ' Ain Fit, we were at 'Ain Rfiwy, the first foun- 
tain we had seen on the plain, which is now wholly untilled 
for fear of Arabs. In three hours and five minutes, the 
village of Mugh^r was twenty minutes to our left, its land 
sown in part with maize. In twenty minutes more, we 
were just above Hafi:, a small Moslem village, fifteen min- 
utes to our right. In four hours and twenty-five minutes 
from 'Ain Fit, we were at Nebu 'Alleikah, and the village 
of ' Alleikah was five minutes West of us ; it is deserted. 
We crossed a small valley, on the opposite side of which is 
a tomb, and continued our gentle descent, until, in five hours 
and forty minutes from 'Ain Fit, we entered the great road 
fix)m Damascus to Egypt Turning more to the West, and 
going down a steep descent for thirty -five minutes, we arrived 
at the JBridge of Jacob's daughters, over the Jordan. Cross- 
ing this stream, we pitched on its western bank.* 

We saw rice growing on the banks of the Jordan, which 
here has a swift current, and is some fifty or more feet wide. 
A mound, at the distance of a quarter of a mile down the 
stream, attracted my attention ; and on visiting it I found a 
long quadrangle on an elevated mound, surrounded by a 
strong, low wall. It is on the western bank, in a bend of 
the river, just where its current increases in velocity, as it 
rushes toward the narrow defile which conducts it to the 
Sea of Tiberias. The oblong enclosure seemed to measure 
twenty-five rods by ten rods, and has its entrance toward 
the South, and two openings in the side parapet- walls. On 
the river-side, I saw at the base of the parapet some old 
bevelled stones, as if in place. No columns were to be seen 
about it, and I know not its history. The natives call it 
Kusr 'Atra, or the Palace of 'Atra. 

May 23.— Left Mr. T. at Jisr Binat Ya'kub, or the Bridge 
of Jacob's daughters, and rode along the western bank of 
the Jordan, taking a northerly course. The stream is slug- 
gish above the bridge. For ten minutes, we rode in a nar- 
row vale, enclosed by banks about one hundred feet high, 

♦ The region we went through East of lake H<lleh, had not been visited 
before. We chose it not from any idea of seeing much, but that we might 
know just what there is to be seen. The maps of that region are wrong. A 
party which passed here later in the season, found it dry enough to admit of 
their travelUng by the water's edge, and they say there is not a village, or a 
ruin, to be found there, — noUiiDg but places of Arab encampmenl 

VOL. n. SI 


and then emerged into a broad plain. The stones in our 
path were all trap, as yesterday, and the earth was black 
from the crumbling of the volcanic rock. In fifteen min- 
utes, we crossed a cuy channel and Dureij£t was about eight 
minutes distant to our right, on a knoll on the eastern bank, 
the river being between us. In twenty-eight minutes, we 
reached the lake HMeh, the river bein^ five minutes East 
of us all the way, hugging the base of the eastern hillsi 
while the plain to the West was some two and a half hours 
wide. A thick growth of reeds obscures the exit of the 
stream. Our road inclined to the left, and at the distance 
of forty minutes firom the bridge, we reached Tuleil, a low 
hill with some huts, on the shore of the lake. In one hour 
fix>m the bridge, we passed a similar hill, with also a few 
houses near it These our guide called M&riittyeh, and the 
hill. Tell Baits. In one hour and ten minutes firom the 
bridge, we were at the south-western angle of the lake; and 
in eight minutes more, we passed 'Almantyeh, a small ham- 
let. We soon arrived at the border of the plain, and passed 
a brisk mill-stream, with Mell£hah on our right Our road 
now lay northward, and at the foot of the hiUs on the west^ 
em border of the valley. At the distance of one hour and 
thirty-five minutes fix)m the bridge, we turned abruptly to 
the left, into the mountains, and aft^r some very rough 
climbing, even for these regions, we reached Ydsha', in three 
hours from the bridge. Yiisha' is the place where, as we 
were assured by a follower of 'Aly, Joshua, the son of Nun. 
was slain in battle I His tomb is on the spot, and a small 
mosque has been erected over it There is no village here, 
and nothing but the mosque and its keeper's dwelling. The 
place is much \'isited by the Metfiwileh ; an embroidered 
cloth covers the tomb, a gift fix)m Egypt. The most extra- 
ordinary ornament, to my eye, was a rude picture of an 
armed horseman leieuling a horse, a strange object in a Mos- 
lem's place of prayer, as he will not even put a face on a 
coin. The keeper said we were his first Frank visitors. 

In three hours and five minutes from the bridge, we 
reached Kades, or Kadesh Naphthali, a city of refuge of old. 
It is on a rocky ridge above a beautiful plain. We stopped 
at a ruined structure a few minutes di8tant'fix)m the village, 
and below it. It is about thirty-five feet square, and seems 
once to have been covered with a dome. It has vaults, now 


used^ as probably of old, for places of sepulture. Numer- 
ous large and small sarcophagi are near it, and a ruined 
temple, with part of its walls and one ornamented door-post 
standing. It is on a low hill, of which the edges are smoothed 
and the top levelled. Corinthian capitals and broken col- 
umns lie scattered about it. Tombs are cut in the rock on 
the eastern and northern border of the hill. The mountain- 
spur on which the modem village stands, has a steep slope 
on all sides, except where it is attached to the main hul. 
There, a shallow excavation, natural or artificial, defended 
it from attack. Its sides have been apparently pared off, 
and its point rounded, and its top levellea. The whole top 
was once covered with buildings, and this doubtless was the 
strong hold. A few capitals and columns of the Corinthian 
order are scattered through the village, and a large number 
of hewn stones. Leaving Kadesh we went northward across 
the fine plain, and reacheid the base of the hill on its border 
in twenty -five minutes from Kadesh. A small pool lay some 
twenty minutes to our right. We now ascended through a 
winding valley. In fifl:y minutes from Kiidesh, we were at 
Buleideh, where we saw a smaU old castle, or tower, with a 
Boman arch, and near it a considerable mosque for these 
parts. The latter was built by the grandfather of the pres- 
ent sheikh. There was a single broken column by the road- 
side. A dome on a hill at some distance North, is called 
the tomb of Benjamin the son of Jacob. He has a tomb 
also on the plain of Sharon. 

In one hour and twenty-five minutes from Kadesh, we 
passed through the valley of Mais. A round, artificial pool 
near the village, the ruins of a considerable mosque, and a 
large khan were the chief objects about it which we noticed. 
Descending the hill on the brink of which Mais stands, we 
crossed a beautiful green field of glrain, and entered a shal- 
low, wooded valley, in which we gradually ascended. In 
two hours and twenty-five minutes from Kadesh, I turned 
for a quarter of an hour to the right, to examine a ruined 
village on a conspicuous hill-top. The site was glorious, 
commanding a view of the Hiilen, and the opposite or east- 
em mountains. The sources of the Jordan, the broad 
marshes, the small but beautiful lake, — our road of yester- 
day, — the fields all green or yellow with crops of grain, old 
walls and modem houses, ail Mien, showed an ancient as 


well as a recent site. It is called the Ruins of Meneireh. 
We arrived at KuVat Hunin in three hours and five min- 
utes from Kadesh, and pitched on a plain below the village 
and castle. Mr. Thomson's article in the Biblioiheca Sacra, 
above referred to, calls this place Hazor ; and it may be so, 
but this is not proved. The old castle is quite distinct from 
the modern, is far more massive, and even the Saracenic 
work which is on the old foundation, has far more strength. 
The modem castle was built in the days of Napoleon, by- 
one Sheikh Nasif, an Arab of this region, who erected it 
with the consent of Jezzar Pasha. It looks quite peaceful 
beside its smaller, but more solid predecessor, and is called 
by the natives a kusr, or palace, and was rather a fortified 
residence than a thorough castle. The modern village ad- 
joins to this kusr. The old fort has been rebuilt many times, 
and but few of the old Phoenician stones are now in place ; 
most of them have been worked up a dozen times m the 
buildings of successive aees. The castle is on a sharp moun- 
tain-ridge, like most of the mountains in this region. 

May 24. — Leaving Hunin, we saw Abil Beth Ma'akhah 
in half an hour. It is finely placed on a sharp ridge which 
rises steeply out of the plain and seems to have been rounded 
at its ends, and pared ofif at its sides, to make a wall fit it 
more nicely, in olden time. Now, it looked peaceful, as it 
rose from green fields, itself green to the top of its steep 
sides. We now began to descend a steep hill ; and in forty 
minutes, turned to the left into a green, sloping valley. In 
one hour and thirty minutes from Hunin, we reachea Kefr 
Kileh, a small Moslem village on the left of our valley. 
Climbing through this, and passing along up the valley-side, 
we reached Hurah in twenty minutes more, and Deir Memas 
in eight minutes more. This is a considerable village of 
Christians, oddly perched and fastened, one knows not now, 
on the first descent of a steep hill. Laboring down this 
obliquely^ to our right, we regained the valley we had left 
at Kefr Kileh, in two hours and twenty-five minutes from 
Hunin. We ascended a slight hill out of this, and then 
descended a long, steep hill under Kul'at esh-Shukif to the 
bridge over the Litany, which we reached in three hours 
and twenty-five minutes from Hunin. The walls of the 
castle, which seemed so formidable when we were at the 
gate, now looked like smaU parapet-work, as we looked up 


from beneath at the battlement of lofty precipice on which 
the Belfort stands. We left the river with many sighs, for 
its cool stream and the shade of sycamores on its banks 
were dehghtful to ns in the hot siroccos which blew this day. 
We began to climb at about noon ; and in fifty minutes, were 
at the top of one of Lebanon's steepest hills. The siroccos 
scorched us on our way to Nubatiyeh el-Foka, which we 
reached in one hour and a half from the river. Here we 
left the Sidon road, and turned to the right. In thirty-five 
minutes, we reached Kefr Kuman ; and in twenty mmutes 
more, we were under the shadow of a great rock by the river 
Zahrany, and it was truly a weary land. A steep descent 
for fifteen minutes to the river, and the sight of a seemingly 
interminable ascent before us, with a fierce sun burning 
every thing about us, and a hot sirocco sucking the moisture 
from lip, and nostril, and eyelid, made us all weary, and glad 
of our rock, as Jonah was of his gourd. A small flour-mill 
is at the crossing of the stream, and a few mulberry trees 
are scattered on the narrow strip of land in the bottom of 
the valley. Leaving the Flowery River, which here too has 
oleanders on its banks, we ascended for thirty-eight minutes 
to Aub Salim, a Moslem village stowed on a narrow level 
spot under the conical simimits of Jebel Rihan. It looked 
quite inviting, from its abundant running water, and fine 
walnut trees, and extensive prospect. A farther climb of 
fifty minutes brought us to Jerjii'a, a small village of Chris- 
tians. Here we pitched for the night. Jerju'a is nearly at 
the summit of this mountain-peak, which is cleft from the 
main portion of Jebel Rihan by an immense gorge in which 
the river Zahrany has its source. A narrow, sweet vale 
between Jebel Rihan and Belad esh-Shukif allowed us to see 
the valley of the Litany and the lands beyond. The mists 
of the sea of Tiberias rose behind, and dimmed the moun- 
tains of Moab, which bounded the distant prospect in that 
direction. Nearer to us, rose Kul'at esh-Shukif on its lofty 

Srecipice, and the mountains of Safed and the large castle of 
'ibnin, the smaller forts of Maron and Shem'an and Surba, 
of which the last three are quite modern. Then came into 
view the mountain in which is the Ladder of Tyre, the long 
tongue on which the modern Tyre is built, the point of 
Sarepta, Sidon, and the island of Cyprus in the midst of 
the great, wide sea. This island was distinctly visible at 


sun-set, but is seen only at that hour. Immediately before 
us, lay Belad esh-Shukif, its hills like ant-heaps, with one 
here and there taller than the rest, and a glen, or winding 
valley, deeper than its fellows, breaking the uniformity of 
the swell and fall of the surface. All near us was green 
with growing grain ; and the more remote surface, yellow 
with the ripening crops. At a later season, the view would 
lose half its glories ; but its real magnificence when we saw 
it, and its historical associations, feasted our eyes and busied 
our thoughts. From the hill above, Carmel was added to 
the interesting objects on which the eye rested. 

The fountain at the head of the river Zahrany was once 
conducted in a Roman (?) aqueduct, which wound around 
the hill below Jeiju'a, where are the remains of an arch. 
It thence inclined toward Jeb'a ; and below this village a 
fforge was crossed by a lofty arch, now broken. The aque- 
duct takes the direction of Sidon, and it is said that it can 
be traced to the neighborhood of that city, six hours distant 
from the fountain. Like all aqueducts, tnis is attributed by 
tradition to Zubeideh, as all structures on localities of Scrip- 
ture interest are put to the credif of Helena. They told me 
that, when asked how she had succeeded in so diflScult a 
work, Zubeideh replied, " Why, I built it with my money, 
and my men," givmg no glory to God; and that soon after- 
wards, an earthquake destroyed the solid arches, and himi- 
bled the pride of the Moslem princess. 

May 25. — Leaving Jerjda, in thirteen minutes we arrived 
at a small foundation of solid, old workmanship, which the 
people called the Convent. A similar foundation, but some- 
what larger and more solid, is said to be on the summit back 
of this so-called convent. Lady Stanhope pitched here for 
two days, when in search of a place to build. Our road was 
at the base of the extreme top of this part of Jebel Rihan. 
In half an hour from Jerjii'a, we passed a solitary house by 
the road-side. I asked the woman at the door ner reason 
for choosing so lonely a place of abode, a thing so unusual 
in these insecure regions. The truly oriental reply was, " I 
was made here, and here I stay." A woman of taste might 
find additional reason for tarrying, in view of the noble 
prospect from the house. The village of 'Ain Kana is just 
beneath her house, and distant some twenty minutes. In 
fifty-two minutes, we were above the considerable village of 


Jeb'a, which lies on a hill tossed in to fill up a rude valley 
among higher hills. The scenery above Jeb'a is peculiarly 
wild and interesting, and the mountain, even to the sea, was 
more broken than below Jerjji'a. Our path here was shaded 
with low shrub-oaks and other trees, so that for some time, 
the sun, which blazed so fiercely without, did not touch us. 
The wooded cone above us, and the green and dark vales 
below, delighted our eyes. The leaves gave a grateful 
smell, and coolness seemed to be exhaled fi-om the ground. 
Partridges ran cackling across our path, and turtle-doves 
cooed in the thick shade above us. In one hour and forty 
minutes, we were under Mezra'at er-Rahban, a hamlet be- 
longing to a neighboring convent, snugly placed in a notch 
at the very top of the mountain. Here we looked back on 
the coast to the promontory beyond Tyre, and saw Carmel 
peeping over its back, and to the North we greeted the 
lamiliar face of old Sunnin, the mountains of KesrawSn, 
and the jauzeh of Mr. C. at B'hamdun. In one hour and 
fifty -five minutes fi:om Jerju'a, we were at the head of the 
valley in which the hill of Jeb'a lies, which unites with 
others farther South, and with one a hundred yards North, 
all carrying winter-torrents to the Zahrany. Hence we 
descended a long hill to Jezzin, where we arrived in three 
hours and thirty minutes fi-om Jerju'a. From Jezzin we 
rode thrpugh Bathir and Haret el-Jenaiteleh, where we 
encamped ; and on the 26th of May we went by 'Ammatiir, 
Mukhtureh, Simkaniyeh, B'teddin, Deir el-Komr and Kefr 
Metta, to 'AbeiL 



or TBK 




(Read October 24» 1849.) 

TOL. n. 88 


or THE 


I PROPOSE to occupy the attention of the Society, for a 
few minutes only, with some account of the substantive 
verb in Greek — ^the forms of the verb bI/jI^ lam, — as illus- 
trated by a comparison with the Sanskrit and other cog- 
nate languages. The subject affords a remarkable speci- 
men of the advantages resulting to classical philology from 
the wider Indo-European philology of recent times. Taken 
by themselves, the forms of the Greek sifii seem a mass of 
confused anomalies : it is only when we extend our view to 
the corresponding forms oi kindred languages that we 
become aware of their essential regularity. We discover 
then that this verb was originally subject to the general 
system of verbal inflexion ; though from the frequency 
of its use it has been more than other verbs disguised by 
the occurrence of euphonic changes. Yet these euphonic 
changes are such as prevail more or less extensively in the 
formation of the language ; and even while separating the 
forms of this verb, in appearance at least, from those of other 
verbs, should hardly oe regarded as anomalies. Such 
forms, though peculiar, are not lawless (anomalous) : on the 
contrary they are fashioned under the operation of laws 
which have determined the character of the language. 

The Substantive Vebb of the Indo-European languages 
has for its base in the Sansk. the syllable as, in Gr. and Lat. 
es, in Teut. is. This appears most distinctly in the 3d pers, 
sing. pres. ind., Sansk. asti, Gr. iaxi^ Lat. est. Germ, ist, Eng. 
is. We see here a regular vowel-progression from the 
broad open a to the closer e, and from this to the short 
sharp i, the closest of all vowel-sounds. 


The Sansk. as in its inflexion preserves almost eveiy- 
where the consonant s : the vowel a on the other hand is in 
many of the forms rejected. In both these points the San- 
skrit is followed closely by the Latin ; which, however, bv 
a special 'law of euphony, changes the s between two vowels 
into an r; as in eramy ero for esam, eso. In Greek, on the 
contrary, the vowel is more persistent than the consonant. 
The e of the base presents itself in nearly all the forms : 
only in the subjunctive and the participle does it disappear, 
and in these not imiversally. But the ^, which in Greek 
shows itself in many ways as a weak and fluctuating letter, 
has in this verb vanished altogether from a large proportion 
of the forms. As an illustration of these remarks we may 
take the optative, which answers to the present subjunctive 
in Latin, and the potential in Sanskrit. Here we have in 
Sansk. sydm for asydm (a rejected) : old Lat. siem for esiem 
(e rejected) : Gr. er^/v for BUitiv (a rejected, as usual between 
two vowek). 

K now we take up the present indicative of the Gr. 
elpl^ we find the base bh unchanged in the 3d pers. sing, iar/, 
the 2d and 3d pers. du. Iut6v^ the 1st and 2d pers. plur. 
iafiiv (Dor. €<r.i/^?), iari^ and probably also in the Epic 2d pers. 
sing, inui. The 2d pers. sing, in Sanskrit is dsi for assi, one 
s being discarded : to this would correspond in Greek a form 
like ca» ; and the language seems in fact to have formed its 
bI; from an earlier ea*, in the same manner as tinxBig from a 
primitive ivnxBai, From Big has come the common b1 by the 
breaking down of o. Possibly the Epic ivoi instead of being 
=s f or -f a», may have been made from this supposed f a» by 
the favorite Epic repetition Df the consonant. In the 1st 
pers. plur. {lofiiv) the Ionic dialect has dropped the <^, and 
lengthened the preceding vowel ; whence bIubv for irrftiv, A 
similar change in the 1st pers. sing, has given bIuI for the 
original but obsolete ioiii^ Sansk. asmi. Here all the dia- 
lects of Greek concur in giving up the (t, but differ as to the 
mode of compensation ; the Aeolic doubling the succeeding 
liquid, thus ?.«/"* ; the stricter Doric lengthening e to 17, thus 
\uL ; while the other dialects have c*, thus BitiL There re- 
mains now only the 8d pers. plur. where a comparison of 
the Sansk. santi and the Lat. sunt suggests a primitive Bvavny 
consisting of the base ea, the personal ending vu and a 


union-vowel a. But in Ionic and Attic Greek, the letter t 
of the ending vti is everywhere corrupted to a sibilant cr, be- 
fore which I' falls away and is compensated by the prolon- 
gation of the preceding vowel. Tnis would change Baavr^ 
to faaai, and by the disappearance of the radical <r, to l«<y*. 
*Eua& is often found in the Ionic dialect : from it, by con- 
traction of the vowels co, comes eiai the prevailing form. 
In the assumed original form eaavTi^ the «, as already inti- 
mated, is not a significant element, like the base ca, and the 
personal ending vth it is a mere euphonic expedient, a ne- 
cessity of pronunciation, without which the combination of 
the base and the personal ending would be unpronounce- 
able. This connecting vowel appears under the same form, 
as a in the Sansk. santi; as i^ in the Lat. s^mt; as i in the 
Germ, sind. There is reason, however, to believe that the 
Greeks, at least in some dialects, resorted to a different 
means for relieving the difficulty presented by the combi- 
nation ea -f FT* : that, instead of inserting a brief union- 
vowel, they sometimes sacrificed the cr of the base: this 
would give ivU^ the prevailing 3d pers. plur. in the Doric 
dialect. Indeed the common ^laL might oe made from hxi 
by the usual change of t to <r, which would involve the omis- 
sion of the V and the lengthening of b to ct. It seems more 
probable, however, that eini is made from eaakit^ through laa», 
in the manner just described; more especially, a^ we find 
even in Doric Greek traces of the use of a connecting vowel. 
Thus in the form lovn^ which occurs once in Archimedes, 
and in Iw^t*, which is found twice at least, the o and w are 
obviously connecting vowels, which correspond well with 
the u of the Lat. smit^ and may countenance the belief that 
the Doric Greek originally, like the Sanskrit, Latin, Ger- 
man, etc., employed a connecting vowel in this place. 

We find ivii laid down also as a Doric form of the 8d pers. 
sing. =siau. Were this form genuine, it would present a 
veritable anomaly, a capricious deviation from the laws of 
the language. But Ahrens has shown in a satisfactory man- 
ner, that this iyji for tar/, a form philologically inexplicable, 
is pseudo-Doric, and founded probably on a confusion of 
singular and plural in the vulgar idiom of later Dorians. 

Passing on to the subjunctive mode, we might expect 
to find the forms eau, eoi};, strj^ etc., i. e. the base ^a with the 


E roper endings of the subjunctive. Here, however, the a 
as fallen away between the vowels, leaving Iw, lij?. I]?, eta, 
dialectic forms, whence by contraction w, ^?, i{, etc., the com- 
mon forms in Attic Greek. As the GreeK subjunctive is a 
formation peculiar to the Greek, or paralleled only by cer- 
tain traces of a similar formation in the earlier Sanskrit of 
the Vedas, no illustration can be given here from other 

As for the optative, we have already pointed out the 
relation of the Gr. Bir^y to an earlier eaujy^ proved by the 
Sansk. sydm^ Old Lat. siem^ where the Greek: has lost the 
consonant of the base, while the Sanskrit and the Latin 
have given up the vowel. This optative is formed by an- 
nexing tha letters «»7, Sansk. yd^ directly to the base ; like 
dotrjr from do, deiTjy from 6b, The Sanskrit uses this forma- 
tion in a considerable number of bases which end in a con- 
sonant. In Greek it is confined to bases ending in a vowel, 
i. e. pure bases, the only exception being this very verb ecr, 
which, however, by giving up the or, presents in the opta- 
tive the appearance of a pure verb. If the base sa followed 
the analogy of other bases ending in a consonant, its opta- 
tive would be eaotfitf eaoig, eaoi, etc., or by dropping a, soi/Uf 
Moigy lo*, and the two last mentioned forms do in fact occur 
in Homer. 

In the IMPERATIVE, 2d pers. sing, tadi, Oi is the personal 
ending, and the vowel of the base has passed by a not un- 
common change from £ to « : compare ttItvoj from tzbt. In 
this instance the Sanskrit stands in disadvantageous com- 
parison with the Greek, the Sansk. ed'i having lost the con- 
sonant of the base, while the Greek, influenced perhaps by 
a partiality for the combination aO^ has retained it. 

The Homeric icr^o has the ending of the middle, just as 
^iiarjv with the middle ending is sometimes found in place of 
the active ^f. The future also f ao.wa* takes middle endings, 
though in the Lat. ero for eso it has the endings of the active. 
When we consider the meaning of this verb, terminating, 
as it does, upon the subject, we shall not be surprised at 
seeing it assume the subjective forms of the middle voice. 

The 3d pers. plur. of the imperative in Sanskrit is santu 
for asantu. The corresponding form in Greek would be 
6ao>x(a(v), or, with the omission of the a, i6vx(»i(v)t a common 


Doric form. Hence also Bviotp by an abandonment of «, as 
in the participle. 

The INFINITIVE eJyai is without doubt related to an orig- 
inal f aya*, as eifii to eufn ; but as the infinitive in y or yai is 
unknown to the common Sanskrit, it cannot be illustrated 
from that language. The base ea combined with the dia- 
lectic endings fieyat or fiep would give eafievai or ea^cy ; but 

here again we find the same changes as in the pres. ind. 1st 
pers. sing. ; whence arise the forms l^fisvat, Vifiekat, etftevatf 
IfiiiBVi ^^ey, elfjiev. The Homeric i^cyo*, l^ey, present no com- 
pensation for the vanished <7. 

The Sanskrit participle is sat, ace. sing. masc. saniam^ 
for asatj asantam: Lat. sensy senti's, seen in the compounds 
praesenSy absens. These forms indicate an original GFreek 
participle eaatvy eaovxog. But the a has fallen away, accord- 
mg to the general analogy, and left itay, iiyjog, the prevail- 
ing forms in dialectic Greek. Eventually, however, the 
short e disappeared likewise, leaving the common &v, Sirof , 
which in form are mere endings without a vestige of the 
base. It is a case much like the modem Greek adverb 
diy not^ from the ancient oidiv ; that is, the word not with 
the negative part wholly omitted. 

The Doric forms ^yjos, IVr*, etc., connect themselves with 
the ind. 8d pers. plur. iyjiy and are to be accounted for in 
the same manner, as resulting from an attempt to dispense 
with the connecting vowel, to connect the base ea directly 
with the participle-ending yr, which occasioned of necessity 
a sacrifice of the consonant or. Hence too the Lat. ens; 
which, however, is not a native form of the Latin Ian- 

giage, but borrowed from the Dorian philosophers of Magna 

Li the IMPERFECT the base receives an augment and be- 
comes j/cr, Sansk. ds. The augment, however, is often re- 
jected from this verb as well as from others, in the dialects, 
and especially in the Ionic. The augmented r/tr appears 
most distinctly in the Doric 3d pers. sing. ^?, where it stands 
alone, without connecting vowel or personal ending. It 
appears also in the 3d pers. plur. ^aay. Ion. ?aoy, Sansk. dsan 
for dsant, Lat. erant for esant; likewise in the forms ^orroy, 
ijoTi^y, ^arff, Sansk. dstam, ds^m, dsta, which in Greek are 


generally softened by the omission of tKe cr, as ^lor, Ijppp, ^. 
in the Ist pers. plur. ^y, the <r is universally rejected. 

In the singular the Sansk. dsam, dsis, dsU, the Lat eram, 
eras, erat, L e. eaam, estis, esat, point to a Greek inflexion 
i74ro(y), tjaa^^ij(rs{T), Here, however, the a which the Latin 
changes into r, has in Greek fidlen away in accordance with 
the general analogy. Hence ^ or ta^ lag^ ^(^)i Epic and 
Ionic forms, whicn^merely drop the a, retaining the vowel 
by which it was originally united with the personal ending. 
lHhQ Ion. U¥ for buov presents the o, the usual connecting 
vowel of the imperfect More commonly, however, after 
the omission of the a, the short connecting vowel is al^orbed 
in the preceding lone n : whence ^p or ^, ^t or ^ofti, ^ or ijr, 
the common forms of the singular. (The Epic forms hioBm^ 
9fip, ^iip are only instances of the tendency, so general in 
Epic Ghreek, to repeat the long vowel-sounds.) Perhaps 
however, it might be better to consider these fonns i}v« i|c, | 
as the result of an effort to make the singular without a 
connecting vowel by attaching the endings v, a, t, directly 
to the base i^a, which could only be accomplished by the 
rejection of the <r. 

The FUTURE of this verb is not found in Sanskrit in a 
separate state. In Greek and Latin, where it is found, it 
has no proper tense-si^, but is in form a present, differing 
from the present of this verb by the insertion of a connect- 
ing vowel, and having the use of a friture. In this absence 
of a tense-sign, I<rofiatj IwiU be, may be compared with such 
forms as Uo/tat^ I will eat, and nlofiai^ I will drink. The 
usual characteristic of the Greek future is a, originally m 
or a«, which is now generally regarded as containing the 
root of the substantive verb. We can easily imderstand, 
then, why it should not be used with the future of «««(, as 
that would involve a repetition of the root, a composition 
of the word with itself. Yet the tense-sign is undeniablv 

present in the Dor. iaa&vfiat (= eaaBOftai or eaatofiai), and 

probably so in the Epic iaaofiai, where one a mav belong to 
the base, and the other to the tense-sign, and trom. which 
the common Mcrofiat is perhaps derived by neglecting the 
repetition of the consonant. 

The middle endings of this future, as well as of the im- 
per£ Vifitjy, and the imper. Maao, have been already noticed 
and explained. 


• • 





or TBS 





(Read October 26, 1849.) 


YOL. n. 88 


Some time ago, I received from Dr. Henry W. De Forest, 
missionary in Syria, an Arabic manuscript of fifty-seven 
leaves, consisting of three documents which throw new light 
upon the opinions held b^ .the Ismfi'ilis, and other sects of 
Allegorists, or Mystics, pf Muslim' origin* Two of these 
documents bear marks of being authoritative with the sects 
themselves whose views, they profess to represent; .while 
the other, though coi^trpversial in its design- and charac- 
ter, is valuable for comparison with them. The history, of 
the Isma'ilis and their branches, oi* which the Druzes con- 
stitute one of tte most important, is, at least in its outlines, 
sufl&ciently well known, but excepting the Druaes, whose 
books have now for some time been in the, handa of the 
learned, the opinions of none of them have been definil^ely 
ascertained.* Of the Nusairian and Isma'ilian documents 
announced/ within the last three years, in France and Ger- 
many, as recently discovered, only outlines with, brief 
extracts, or mere tables of contents, have as yet been 
.published.f . 

Under these circumstances, though with some diflSdence, 
I publish the following translati9n of two of the documents 


* See Mhmfir6$ <k tAeadkmi^ RoyaU dei InseriptionSt Tome xriL p^ 127, 
ff ; yotice9 ei FxiraiU det Manui^riU, Tome ix. V)p. 148, ft; C. MebtJu^t 
JHeitebetehreibung, BcL ii. as. 439, £; Jfemoiret ae VLMtUut Rcyal^ Otaue 
dHist. et de Litter. Anc.^ Tome iv. pp. 1, ff. ; Die Ouehiehte der Aitattinenf d. 
Joeepb Ton Hamvier ; .Mimoiret tur let troU. pUa fametuei Sectet du Muiul- 
ktutnunUj par M. R pp. 61, fit; Travel* in Syria and the Boly Landt by John 
Lewifl^ Burkhardt, m. 150-6 ;' Journal Aaatioue, Tome v. pp. 12^, -It ; ISxpoii 
^ la Heligion du thj/tze^^^^tes M. le Baron SuTestre De Sacy, 2 Tomes ; Die 
Druun and ihre Vorldufer^ von Dr. Phiiipp Wolff, Elpleitung ; ^etehichte der 
Chalifen^ voQ Dr. Oustav Weil, B<L iL 88.j^9S, fll ; Journal Anaiique^ S^rie iy. 
Tome xiii pp. 26, ffi 

f See Journal Asiati&ue, S4riely. Tome xl pp. 149, ff ; Idem, ToMe xii. 
p^ 79^ff 485, ff ; ZeiUekKi/t d. Deuttch, M^rffenland. OesdUehaA Bd. il w. 

8,ff; Idtm,Bd.iiiat.SOS,ff 



sen1> to me by Dr. De Forest, setting one of them aside, for 
the present, for fear that I may not have yet fully mastered 
the system contained in it. The document set aside consists 
of two fragments of what purpcots to be a conversation 
between Muhamiiied Ibn'Aly £i-Bakir and Khalid Ibn Zeid 
El- Ju'fy, related by the latter in the form of a sJVm^ a, i. e. 

Missive, for the purpose of directing certain persons sup- 
posed to have "deviated from' the path of rectitude." The 
former of the two. interlocutors here introduced can be no 
other, as the conversation itself shows, thai\ Ihe fiffh ImSm 
of the Isma'ilis, commonly ki^own as; El-B&kir, a great- 
grandson of the Khalffeh 'Aly ;. the other, who appears as 
an inquirer; is not so easily identified, but may fe coiyec- 
tuted to be a descendant of 'Aly, whose father was a brother 
of JJl-Bakir.* But, inasmuch as Esh-Shahrasfany informs 
Us that the Shf ite sects, after the time of El-B&ir, were 
much disposed "to pass off" their opinions "upon his fol- 
lowers," and " to reier their origin to him, tod to fix them 
on hjm," the question liaturally arises, whether we have, in 
this Missive, the genuine doctrine of El-Bffldr, or that of 
some 'paity availing itself of his name to "rive currency to 
views -in- reality not his. To judge by what Esh-Shahra- 
st&nj tell^ us of the opinions of El-Bakit, the Missive in 
question might be taken a^ an authentic expression of his 
mind, for he here denies, either explicitly, or by implication, 
each of certain doctrines which are particularly mentioned 
by Esh-Shahrastdny as not actually held by him, and which 
therefore appear -to have been those oflenest ascribed to him 
falsely. It is possible, however, that some party with which 
he was not so generally confounded, or perhaps kindred to 
his own, may have here used his nAme without authority. 
At all events, this Missive sets forth doctrines difierent fix>m 
those maintained by eit|ier of the seqts referred to, , or rep- 
resented, in the other two documents. 

The first portion of the following translation is made from 
the controversial document. The original of this is entiiled 

^kcwlMJf (J^f^ d<{^\4^)i[ ^J^ ^1^^ h^bmi\ 

!U3^f Jt)f ^jXc i. e. The Attack of the Partizajn ^of Justice^ 

• See Weil's GeaehichU der Chdli/en, Bd. I ss. 625-7 ; Id. Bd ii. & 204. 
f The orthodox author so deaignates himself ai one holding to^ Ihe jnitiflt 
God in reepect to predeatmation. 


upon the party of the IsmA\Ryehy and the Angry ^Eye upon the 
party of the j^ardmateh^ and is an extract from a larger work 

entitled J-yXSt g^U>o (^ ^(jXi^ ^^ ^^ 

i. e. TTte Book of tlie Open ^^a/ys, of Approach [to Oodi\ touch' 
ing thcxOladdenings of [Divine] Lenity, It seems to have been 
written on the abpearance of Some followers of Karmat in 
the Wady Haman, probably near to Ham^h in Syria, "be- 
tween Homs and ^^nnesrin," as.Abulfeda says, who adds 
that those who threw off the faith of Islam, had free range 
there.^ There is- no precipe indication of the date of its 
oomposition, nor is the name of the author given. He only 
calls himself Esh-Shafi'y, or the Shafi'ite. This document 
consists of three. parts. The author begins with eight hun- 
dred and thirty-two lines of rhymed pleasure, in which he 
portrays the hated party against which he writes, in concise 
and pointed terms. These rhymings J haye passed over in 
tranmating, aa ibhe Mler statements in prose which follow 
them, though less piquant as at specimen of controversy, 
niay be mare safeljr relied upon for information. Next is 
introduced a piece in prose by another author. This author 
calls himself ^l-Amidy, and it may be suggested as quite 
probable that heJis tne Seif ed-din El-Amidy whom Ibn 
EJiallikan speaks of as having taken up his residence at 
^amSh, and there composed works " on the principles of 
religion, and jurisprudence, and logic, and philosophy, and 
disputation," and whose death, as the same authonty in- 
forms us, took plgtce A. H. 631, i. e. A. I). 1233-4.t It is 
worthy of notice, in this connection, that a portion of this 
piece strikingly resembles what Voa Hammer published 
xnany years ago, on the Idma'Ois, as in substance contained 
in a work by El-JoqSny^ who, according tp D'Herbelot^ 
died A. H. 816, i. e. A. D. 141S-14.§ The third part of 
this document is a statement of in(][uiries respecting the 
Nwsairis, presented to Takky ed-dln Ibn Yatmiyeh, with 
his answer^ . This person was a distinguished doctor of Musp 
lim law, who died, according to D'Herbelot, A. H. 768, or, 
as some say, A. H. 748, i. e. A.D. 1366-7, or A. IX 1847-8.| 

• See Ghogrnmhie d'Abmd/edti, ed. Remaod ei De Slane, pp. 262-8. 

* See Ibn KhaHlikdrCB Dictionnaire Biographique, eA De Slane, pp. 46&-7. 
See Jowmdl Anaiique^ Tome vi. pp. 382-6. 
*^- lyHerbelofi S«J/«)iiWyii* <Mi»tefo,' p. 178. 

Idem, p. 444. 


It follows from the limitfttion of date thus given to the con* 
eluding part of this document, that it must have been (Com- 
piled as late as the middle of the fourteenth century of our 
era. This document was obtained by Rev. Br. Eli Smith, 
missionary in Syria, from Mikhail MeshSka of Damascus. 

The second portion of the following translation is made 
from a document without title, but of which the nature of 
the contents is sufficiently evident. It consists of four 
pieces. The first piece presents a system of cosmogony ; 
the second, a formula of religious belief; the third, a mysr 
tical allegorizing of the docfnnes set forth in that formula; 
and the fourth, a statement of the doctrine of the Imfim. 
All these pieces are in form declarative, not argumentative ; 
and in reading them attentively one cannot resist the im- 
pression, that they are specimens of the so-cklled sermons 
which the Dfi'is, or missionaries, of the Ism&'ilis are said to 
have been in the habit of delivering, at stat^ Reasons, in 
^neral assemblies of the sect, to those whom they would 
initiate into their system.^ That they express Ismll'ilian 
doctrine is piit beyond doubt by allusions contained in 
them. But, what is more, one may even refer some of 
them, with considerable confidence, to particular grades of 
initiation which are described by oriental writers as recog- 
nized by this sect, and are briefly alluded to in our first docu- 
ment. For the fourth piece evidently belongs to that stage 
of instruction of which the object was to impress with the 
sense of dependence upon the Imam ; And the third, to that 
which was designed to initiate the proselyte into a pre- 
tended mystic sense of the doctrines and precepts of Islam ; 
while the second might very appropriately have been deliv- 
ered to less advanced scholatB, by way of " pretension of 
agreement with them on the part of the great in religious 
and worldly affairs,'' that is, the leading religious and civil 
authorities of the day, or those of the Muslims, which our 
controversial document charges upon them as one of th^ir 
practices. The date of these peculiar missionary*sermonfl 
cannot be exactly determined. But there seems to be an 
intimate connection^ between them all, so that whatever date 
belongs to one is probably to be affixed to all. This docu- 
ment, so important for its contents, was obtained through 
■ ' »■ * • 

* See MhifUiiru d* T^Kt^ Tome iy. pp. 4-5. 


the cotirtesy of Mr. Von Wildenbruch, late Prussian Consul 
General for .Syria, whose dragoman, Mr. Cata&go, found it 
neftr Aleppo. 

As a farther introduction to the following translation, are 
here added translations of several passages from Esh-Shah- 
rastSny's celebrated Book of- Greeds and &ct^, relative to the 
parties to be brought before the reader. The passage above 
referred to, in which this author gives an account ^of El- 
Bfikir, is. also appended. It seemed the more desirable to 
make these extracts, as no English* translation of this hiffh 
atuthority on such subjects is known to have been pt3> 
lished; and the German translation by Haarbriicker, of 
which the first volimie has recently appeared, although a 
good one, does not supply the place of one in our own lan- 
guage.* . The first of these extracts relates to the Isma'ilia, 
under the more gelieral name of the Batinis, which includes 
also the followers of Kannat and the Nu§airis.f The second 
is on the Ghfilis, the Extravagant Shf is, in general.:^ The 
third is on that particular portion of this party dcAomina- 
ted the Nusairis and Ish&lus.§ The fourth relates to El» 

Exactness has been my ^m in translating; and to this 
every thing, else has been sacrificed, so fer as was consistent 
with preserving the English idiom. The foot-notes are 
intended n^ainly to &cilitate the understanding of the text. 
A discussion of the many interesting topics suggested by it 
would probably have been premature, if indteed. it could 
have been entered upon. 


" TTis Bdtiniyek.^ — Thid appellation is affixed to them 
only l^ecause they gi ye oijt that every thing outward has an 
inward ; and every letter of revelation, an allegoricai sense. 
And they have many appellations beside this, according to 

■ ' • ... — » 

* Ahvrl-Faih Muhammed aachrSchahiratidi^t Rdioion^-Pariheien und Phi- 
loiophen-Schtdeny zum ersten Male yollstandig aus a, Arab, uberaetzt yod Dr. 
Theodor Haarbriicker. Erster TheU. Halle: 1860. 

f See Sbok of Etli^ioua and FhUo9ophical -SeetM, by Muhammad Al-Shah- 
rastfini, ed. Rev. W. Oureton, pp. 147, ft 
' Idem, p. 182. « 

Idem, pp. H3, ft 

Idem, pp. 124, £t r 

e. Parfy of the hidden sense. 


the language of one and another people. For in -Irfik, they 
are named the BStiniyeh, and the Karfimateh, ^nd the Mas- 
daldveh ;* and in Khorasan, the Ta'llmtveh,f and the Mid- 
hiden.:^ And they say, * We are IsmaWfeh,§ for we are 
distingnished from the parties of the Shi'ah, by this name 
and this impersonation/ 

"Now the ancient BStintyeh have mingled with their sy»* 
tem something of the system of the sect of Philosophers,! 
and composed their books after that way. Say they respect- 
ing the Creator, — ^let him be exalted ! ' As for ns, we say 
not that he is existent, nor that he is non-existent ; neither 
that he is one who knows, nor that he is ignorant ; neither 
that he is one possessed of power, nor that he is impotent; 
and in like manner, with regard to all the attributes. For 
veritable affirmation requires the association of him with 
other existences in that respect in which we speak of 
him absolutely, and that is anthropomorphism; bo that 
he does not admit of judgment by a&olute affirmation and 
absolute denial ; on tne contrary, he is the Deity of those 
who stand opposed to one another, and the Creator <rf 
disputcrs, ana the arbiter between those who differ.' And 
respecting this, they also tell of Muhammed Ibn 'Aly El- 
Bslkir, that he said, * Because he bestows knowledge on 
the knowing, it is said that he is one who knows; and 
because he bestows power on the powerfiil, it is said that 
he is one possessed of power. So then, he is one who 
knows, one possessed of power, in the sense that he bestows 
knowledge and power, not in the sense that knowledge 
subsists in him, and power, or that he is qualified with 

* L e. Party of Mazdak. Mazdak was the author of a modifioatioii of Mir 

ny who was patronized by Kob&d, one of the SAsluiide kinga, and put to 
ii by Nushirwdu. For his opinions, see T/ie Dabistdn^ traDsL4)y Shea 
and Troyer, Vol Ljpp. 372, it; Esh-ShahrastAny's Book of Relig. and JPhilot. 
Sects, pp. 192, tt What particular ground there may have been for the appli- 
cation of this name to the Ism&'ilis, we do not know. But there is reason to 
believe tliat they may have derived some of their peculiar doctrines from a 
Persian source. 

fie. Party of instruction. The ground of this appellation appears from 
some of Hasan Ibn Sabb&h's " articles," stated farther on by Esb-ShahrastAny. 

X i. e. Heretics. 

§ I e. Party of Isma'il, son of Ja'far Es-Sddik, the seventh and last Imfim 
of the Ismd'iUs. 

I Those of the Muslim learned men who were influenced in their reUgions 
opmions by the study of Greek philosophy, introduced among them espeSsUy 
under the Khalifeh MamiUia were callea by this name. 


kaovledge and pow«r/ But it is said rmecdng them that 
th^ are denieni at the attributefl^ who despoil the diyine 
eawnce of the attribates. 

^Say the^, * And in like manner we mj, wiih regard to 
etarnity. that he is not eternal, nor originated ; on the con- 
tmrj, ui% Eternal is his Amr and hia Word,* and that 
which is originated is his creation and his workmanship. 
Be produced, bj the Amr, the prime Intelligenoe, which is 
pemot in action; and bj the interrention of that^ he pro- 
doeed the secondary Sool, which is not perfect And &e 
relation of the Soul to the Intelligence is either the relation 
of the genital seed to the perfection of created form, and of 
the egg to the bird, or the relation of the child to the 
fiither, and of the oflRBprinGr to her who* brings forth, or the 
Mlation of the female to tne male, and of consort to con* 
flort' Say they, ' And because the Soul yearns after the 
eompletion of the Intelligence, it requires motion from in- 
ocmipletenees to completion, and motion requires the means 
of motion. And so the celestial spheres originate, and move 
with a circular movement, as governed by the Soul. And 
icfter them, the simple natural properties originate, and 
nove with the movement of directness, also as governed by 
the Soul. And so are compounded the composites, namely, 
minerals, and plants, and animals, and man ; and particular 
iouls enter into bodies. And the species of man is distin- 

Sished from other existences, by peculiar preparedness for 
3 effusion of those Lights ; and nis world stands opposed 
to the whole world. And an Intelligence and a Soul which 
la universal, in the higher world, mtJces necessary that there 
afaould be in this world an ifnperaonated IntelUgence which 
is a whole, and of which the bearing is the bearing of a 
eomplete, mature impersonation,' which they name the 
lWtik,t and which is the Pix)phet, * and an impersonated 
Soul which is also a whole, and of which the beiuing is the 
bearing of an infant who is incomplete, tending to comple- 
tion, or the bearing of the genital seea tending to perfec- 

'^ It irill be erideni fiurther on, that the Ismtf fliaa Word, or Amr, is a 
tthne emanatioD from the Deitj, haTing dirme names and attribcrtae, bnt 
QMod from the Deity iteelC 

t VAtik, L e. Utterer, ie the name which the JswAftiB gire to erary Ptophet 
of % period, who dedares the .divine will for that time. 

tioii, or the bearinff of the fenude ooDflOfrted with the male^' 
which thej name Uxe Aafia,* and which is the Legatee. 

*^ Say tnej, ' And as the celestial flpherea move as morad 
by the Soul and the Intelligence, ana the natural propeitiea 
too, in like manner souls and penons move in acooidanoa 
with laws, as mov^ by the Prophet and the Legatee, ia 
every age, in a circle of successive sevens, until the final 
period is reached, and the age of resurrection is entered, and 
obligations are taken oS, and rules and laws are unloosed* 
And these movements of the celestial spheres, and the roles 
enjoined by law, are only in order to the Soul's attaining to 
the state of its completion; and its completion is its attain- 
ing to the decree or the Intelligence, and its being united 
to that, and its reaching the rank of that, as an actuality. 
And as for that, it is the greater resurrection, upon whidb 
the compounding^ of the celestial spheres and the elements^ 
and the composites, are unlooaea ; and the heavens are 
rent; and the stars are dispersed; and the earth is ex- 
changed for the absence of earth; and the heavens are 
rolled up like the rolling up of the scroll for the Book, 
written upon within ; and creatures are reckoned with ; and 
the good one is separated from the bad one, and the obedi* 
ent one, firom the disobedient one ; and the constituents of 
truth are joined to the whole Soul, and the constituents of 
&lsehood to the &l8e Sheit^n.f And so, from the time of 
motion up to rest is the beginning ; and from the time ci 
rest up to that which has no end is the completion.' 

" Moreover they say, * There is no statute, nor rule, nor 
sentence of the sentences of law, concerning barter, or 
patronage, or giving, or marriage, or divorce, or wound* 
uig, or revenge, or tlie price of blood, without its counter* 
part pertaining to the world, by number against num- 
ber, and bearing against bearing ; for the laws are worlds 
spiritual, of the Amr, and worlds are the laws embodied| 
belonging to created things. And in like manner, the 
compoundings which respect the letters and the words [of 
the Kuran,] are in the way of counter-part to the com- 

* Asas, L e. Foundation, ia the name giren in the Ismillian miem to the 
first of seven supponed suocessors of eyery NAtik, that ii» the nrst of teTM 
Im^ms of each period, whoae office it is to oooiinn hit teaching by the dia- 
doeure of its allegorical sense. 

t See Rev. tL 12-17; Id. zr 6. 

ponndinfli of fimng and bodiis; and as Ibr the single let> 
l«r«^ thmr relation to the eompoaiteg, of the wordi, is ad 
bare simples to composites, of bodies. And ererj letter 
kas a oOnnter-part in the voiid, and a natural property witli 
which it belongs, and an impfess, so far as that proper^ la 
in Bouls. And so, in conaec^nence of this, sciences cterMng 
virtue from the words of instruction, become an aliment 
to souls, like as aliments deriving virtue from the natinal 
propertieB belonging to created tnin^ become an aUmeiit 
to bodies. And Qoa has indeed ordained that something of 
that out of which it was created should be the aliment of 
every existence.' 

'^ And on the ground of this equivalence, they go to tell* 
ing the numbers of the words and verses [of the Kurfin,] 
and that the calling upon the divine name^ is a composite 
of seven and of twelve ; and that the extolling G^oa is a 
composite of four woltls in one of the formu£ts of testis 
mony, and of three words in the second formula of testi- 
mony ; and that there are seven s^ments in the first, and 
six in the second ; and that there sue twelve letters in A^ 
aeoond ;t and in like manner, with regard to every ver^ 
which admits of their calculating its number ; — all which 
he who is intelligent exercises not his thought upon, without 
coming short of it, through fear of his meeting his match! 

^ These oounter-balancrngs constituted the way of their 
men of early times ; who composed books respecting them, 
and called men to an Imam, m every age, who knows the 
equivalences of these sciences, and mrects to the paths dT 
these positions and definitions. 

" Afterwards, the men of the new call departed from Ham 
wav, when El-Hasan Ibn S»'Sabb£h proclaimed his isaXL 
maa was unequal to the exigencies c^ his word, and asked 

•^r^S^t i:^^^^ ^f W ^9.M ths mmme of €M, aU M^ 

«^ tkM Vom^arnkmaU, of wVA the firrt psit, In the ntmte ^f Q<d, 
In the origiiiAi of Mren letters, and Ike renuunder, of tirelra 

f Tbetwo'*ibniiiikw*lMrer«faTed«o«« 1^ af iJf Y is. T%€f 

.^!1R^»M 9f God, 'Bj "tefmenU,** are meant aepanite v^Qiihlea ; ti» SMte 
IIm«» of die' monbcn mentaoiisd, Snal wowth insal \m tfiivwD d( flii ito 
Avahi^ aama mat te sraMMSMl ICttlHBs4 

Jfeelp of men, and fortified lumielf in casdes. And tlie eom* 
fltencement of his going up to the castle of Alamftt waa in 
8ha'b&n in the year 488. And that was after he had made a 
mwmej to the country of his ImSm,* and had got £rom him 
«K>w to call the men of his age; won which he returned, 
tad called men with the first of a call to the doctrine of the 
l^ppearance of a rightful Im£m taking his stand in every 
age, and c^ the distinction of the party which obtain deliv* 
•tance fiom the other parties in this point ; which is to say, 
that they have an Imam, and that the others have not any 
Xm&m. And the refined gold of his system, after the rcgec* 
tion of that which was said respecting it, amounts, ulti- 
acLtttely, in the Arabic language and in the Persian language, 
to tbas particular* And as for us, we shall translate that 
which he wrote in the Persian language, into the Arabic ; 
ind there is no fault resting upon the translator; and the 
Broq>ered is whosoever follows the truth, and turns aside 
arom JEdsehood ; and Qod is the Prosperer, and the Helper. 
; *' So then we begin with Uie four Articles with whicn he 
began the call, and which he wrote in the Persian, and so I 
Uave put into the Arabic. Says he, ^ He wiio gives an answer 
respecting the knowledge of the Creator, — ^let him be exalt- 
€(dl has one of two things to say, either to say, ^^ I know the 
Creator b^ mere intellect and speculation, without need of 
the teaching of a teacher," or to say, '* There is no way 
to knowledge, with intellect and speculation, except by the 
ttaching of a rightful teacher.' Says he, ^ And ' whoever 
answers with the former, denies not another's intellect and 
speculation. For, as for him, if ever he so denies, he teaches ; 
and the denial is a teaching, and a proof^ that that which is 
denied has need of something other than itself* Says he, 
^ And the two parte are both necessary consequences. For 
as for man, whenever he gives decisions, or makes a decla* 
ration, he speaks on his own part, or on the part of another; 
cad in like manner, whenever he is bound with an obliga- 

lioBf he is^ bound with it on his own part, or on the part 

« ■ ■ — - ■ ■ - I 

• Tkm FttimlW KhiOtfeh Mnttaaser-bUkh, irlw reigned In Egypt wkm 
HjMftn benn hui o«reer» is undoubicdfy b«re iattfnded. Before Htama tsdA^ 
mkmd m mOtftndmd dyiMHlsr, fa» weal abcmt b ilie dMiMler o€ in TiiAllii 
JMkX wdvooaAmg the iMntimacr of tlie FAtimiiet, as ^eeoeDda&to of 'Air, 
jflOokt tbe ' Ab&AadeiL Bee mm. dsFJfut^iQioeiY.p.H', I^oaM$tJStirmit§ 

of another.' This is the first Article ; which is a niptote 
.with the Men of opimon and intellect^ 

^' And he states in the seocmd Article, as fallows : ^ Since 
the need of a teacher is estaUished, is then absolutely eyeiy 
teacher suitable, or must there of necessity be a rightfm 
teacher?' Says he, * And whoever says that every teacher 
is suitable, is not allowed to deny a teacher adveise to him* 
sel^ for^much as, when he so denies, he yields the point tlia4 
there must of necessity be a reliable, rightful teacher/ So 
much for this. And this is a rupture with the Men of tra* 

'* And he states in the third Article, as follows : ^ Since the 
need of a rightful teacher is established, must there not of 
necessity be knowledge of the teacher, first of all, and pos- 
session of him, and afterwards instruction by him? or may 
there be instruction by every teacher, without his person 
beinff fixed upon, and his right being made clear? And 
the latter is a coming back to the former,:^ forasmuch as, if 
one ean not walk the way, except with one going before, 
and a oompanion, let there be the companion, and after^ 
wards let tne way be trod,' — which is a rupture with the 

^^ And he states, in the fourth Article, that ^ men constitute 
two parties, namelvt a party who say, " There is need, with 
respect to knowledge of thie Creator, — ^let him be exalted I 
of a rightfiil teacher; and the fixing upon him, and the 
recognition of him, is necessary, first of all, and afterwaide 
instruction by him;" and a party who take up from a 
teacher, ai^ nom one who is not a teacher, in every science. 

^mmi^i^^,^^ ■■■■ ■ ■■■■■■■■■■ ■ ^iMiMi i^M ■ ■ ■■»■■■ I Ml ^i^M^»^ ^i^ i-^M^^fc^ 

* TIm ABooDi of this article Mems to be, ihU relipouft initnictiao is neee»> 
■try, eoBtnury to the <loctrme of thoee who bold that Ood is known br men 
mtelleel and specnlatioD ; because whoever affirms the latter, if be would ettab* 
ttsh any defiidte crtterion, must confine it to himself and in so doing cotitrar 
diet hie prindple, by makW eircunutanoes personal to liinieelt independent of 
the poMBWinn of mere iatiuliici and apeoulative iiAeulty* requisite to the end. 

t Eniiggenitors of ancient authority are here referred ta Esh-Shahiar 
itAny elsewhere says that tbey were called Men of tradition, ** because their 
aia h to get tnuhtiens, and to hand down aooount^ and to base sentences m 
wmtboMm, and they do not go back to analogy, manifest or hiddeoy so long aa 
they find an account, or a memoriaL" Bee Esh-^hahrastAny's B^ of Mia. 
una Pkilos. Sects, ed. Cureton, p. 160. That such a party were wanting hi 
diaaimination, as Hasan affirms, may easily be ereditea. 

i Tlial ia to sayj the yeiy statement of the laUer altematlye inyislyea ikm 
i lBrm a tk m <# tha faqny. , . 


' And it is clear, by the preceding premises, that the tniA 
is with the former party ; so that, as for their head^ he musl 
needs be the head of those who hold to the truth. And 
since it is clear that falsehood is with the latter party, their 
heads, consequently, must needs be the heads of tho^ who 
hold to falsehood. Says he, *• And this way is that which 
causes us to know the place of truth by the truth, with gen* 
eral knowledge. Then, after that^ we know the truth bj 
the place of truth, with special knowledge ; so that the rota- 
tion of questions is not requisite.' And by ' the truth' he 
here means only the haying need ;* and by ' the place of 
truth,' him who is needed. And says he, * By the haying 
need we know the Imfim, and by tlie Im£m we know the 
measures of the haying need; Just as by potentiality we 
know necessity, that is, the Necessarily Existing, and by 
this know the measures of potentiality in thin^ potential' 
Says he, * And the way to tne profession of umty is, by the 
measuring of feather by feather, in like manner, f 

** Moreover, he states certain Articles which haye respect 
to the confirmation of his doctrine, either by way of accommo- 
dation to, or by way of rupture with, received doctrines; 
and most of them are some rupture or other, and an insist 
ing upon, and a demonstration o^ diversity on the ground 
of &lsehoo<l and agreement on the ground of truth. One 
of them is tne ^ Article of truth and &lsehood, and the little 
and the great' He states that * in the world there is a truth 
and a falsehood f after wliich he states that, * as for the mark 
of truth, it is unity, and as for the mark of fidsehood, it is 
multiplicity ; and unity accompanies instruction, and multi- 
plicity, opinion; and instruction accompanies the forming 
one party, and the forming one l>arty, the Imam ; and opin- 
ion accompanies diverse jmrties, which accompany their 
heads.' And he lays down truth and falsehood, and the 
similarity between them, on the one hand, and the difterenoe 
between them, on the other hand, the mutual confronting 
in the two extremes, and the ranking in one of the two 
extremes, as a Imlancc by which he weighs every thina 
about which he disputes. Says he, * And 1 have derived 

♦ The iietxl of a teacher. 

f The meaning ia, that one oomet to the profesnon of the diTine unitf , witk 
a full undcrstandmg of it, through thp Imftm, predaelj aa it ii through Ub 
that 000 Attaina to a oomplata oooTictkm of hb need of iMtrgctiQ& 


this balanoe only from the word of testimcmy, and its being 
compounded of denial and affirmation, or denial and exc^ 
^on;' aavs he, ^so that not that wluch merits denial is 
&lsehooa ; and not that which merits afiSrmatioo, is truth* 
And by that is weighed the good and the bad, and the true 
and the feilse, and the other opposites.'* And his main 
point is to come back, as respects eyery declaration and 
word [of the Kur&n,] to the amrmation of a teacher ; and 
that, as for the precession of unity, it is the profession of 
unity together with the doctrine of a Prophet, while it ia 
the profession of unity ; and that, as for tne doctrine of a 
Prophet, it is the doctrine of a Prophet together with the* 
doctrine of an ImSm, while it is the aoctrine of a Prophetf 
"This is the end o£ his system. He prohibited common 
people, however, from meddling with a matter of science ; 
and in like manner, people oi note, from examining the 
ancient Books ;:|: except those who knew the state of the 
case respecting every Book, and the degree attained by 
men in every science. And in respect to points relating td 
the Deity, he went not with his followers beyond his say* 
ing, * Our Deity is the Deity of Muhammed. Says he, * I 
and you say, that our Deity is the Deity of intellects, that ia^ 
that that which directs to him is the intellect of every intelli- 
gent being/ But if it is said to one of them, * What sayest 
diou respecting the Creator, — ^let him be exalted I as for 
him, is he ? and as for him, is he one, or multiple, pos- 
sessed of knowledge, powerful, or not V this oefinition 
alone is given for answer, * My Deity is the Deity of Mu- 
hammed ; and he it is who sent his £nvoy with the direo 
tion ; and as for the Envoy, he is the director to him*' 
•i ' ■ ■ ■ ... .... II , 

* lliis " bftkoce,'' or prkifiiple of judgment as to the true and the fidab, tht 
good and the bad, and aU oppoaites, was derived from the fandamental ooniea- 
sioiD of faith amon^^ the If usums, There u no Deittf Imi God, whieh elpressea 
tfie troth of the divioe unity only as the propoeitious induded in it, namelj, 
nenia no Deity.anA Chdi$ a Z>0t/y, eaeh of which, br itself^ maj itAnd eitbar 
for truth or for folBehood, are taken togfether as mutuallj oompleiiientary. The 
genoral principle may be stated as foUows : that what maj oe affirmed abeo« 
lately, as between any o^posites, eonsists in the joomplemeiitary reUtion to 
•aeh other of those cmpoeitee. 

t This means, thai the deckumtioB Then tt no IMiy but God, implies the 
doctrine of a Prophet to reveal the tmth thus expressed, and that the doe- 
trine of a Prophet, expressed in the dedatatioii Muhammed is Am Prophtt^ 
inplias that of an Imftm to carry on tbs Prophet^s work 

\ The S aiyU wa of fonner pvioda^ or fnrnam DmM Asffelaikaa 


'* And often as I have entered into discoflBioii with the 
people, on the ground of the premises stated, thej have not 
taken a step beyond their saying, 'Have we then need of 
thee?" or ^Shall we hear this fixnn thee ?' or 'Shall we be 
instmcted by theeT And often as I have been ooncdl- 
ialing towards the people, respecting the having need, and 
have said, 'Where is ne who is needed? and how deter* 
mines he for me the points relating to the Deity? and what 
18 it which he prescribes in respect to things which are ob- 
jects of the intellect? inasmucn as '^the teacher" has no 
meaning intrinsically, and only has meaning because he 
teaches; and ye, indeed, shut up the gate of science, and 
open the gate of submission to dictation, and the following 
d authority ; and an intelligent being is not content to 
believe a doctrine, without any evidence to rest upon, or to 
walk in a way, without any proof that he should do so,' — 
the beginnings of the system have been authorizings to 
judge, and submissions to authority. 'But not, by thy 
Loni, not believe will they, until they make thee the judge 
respecting that which is in controversy between them ; after 
which, they will not find, in their souls, any fiiult pertain- 
ing to that which thou determinest; and they will submit 
themselves, with submission.'"* 

" The GhdUyeh.^ — ^Thesc are they who are extravagant in 
respect to the reality of their Imams, to such a degree that 
they put tliem out of the limits of the creature-state, and 
pronounce bearings of the state of Deity to be in them. 
For often they liken one of their Imams to God ; and often 
they liken Grod to the creature ; and they hold to the two 
extremes of extravagance and curtailment.^ And their 
assimilations have only grown out of the doctrines of the 
Incamationists and tHe Transmigrationists, and the doc- 
trines of the Jews and the Christians ; inasmuch as the Jews 
liken the Creator to the creature, and the Christians lik^i 
the creature to the Creator; and so these assimilations 
passed into the minds of the Extravagant Shi'ah, to such a 

* Kur&n, Sur. iy. v. 68. It is the edition of Flogel which is rafm«d to in 
these notes, in all cases. 

I L e. Part J of the Eztrayngmnta. 

\ The writer means that th^not only ezah the cronfeim to the nnkof tkt 
Deitj, but ako bn^dowii tha Mij to tka Wvd ol the 


dMree thai they pronounoe bearings of the state of Deity 
to De in the reality of some of their Im&mt. And anthropo- 
morphism was, as a principle, and fundamentally, among the 
Sht'ah ; and only went over to some of the reople of the 
Sunnehf after that And the system of the Mu'tasileh pre- 
vailed amon^ the latter, after they saw that it was nearer to 
that which is objective to the intellect, and £uiher ftx>m 
anthropomorphism and incarnation. 

^' And ^e neresies of the Extravagants are comprehended 
in four things, namely, anthropomorphism, and the ocmo^ 
ing forth, and the retom, and transmigration. And there 
are appellations belonging to them; and in every caml* 
trv, tney have an appellation. They are called m I^. 
han the Khurramlyeh,* and the Kaa£yeh;t and in Bei, 
the Maedaktyeh, and the Sinbftdiyeh *4 and in Adherbtjln, 
the Dhuk&ltyeh ;§ and in a certain place, the Muhamnuui* 
yeh;| and in M&-warfi-l-nahr, the Itobeiye^htyeh.'*^ 


" The Nu^iriyeh and the Iskdktyeh** — ^They are among 
the Extravagants of the Sht'ah. And there is a set ^ 
them who defend their doctrine, and act the part of leaders 
in respect to their declarations. And there is a disagree* 
ment among them respecting the way to generalize the name 
iqppTopriate to the state of Beity, so as to include the Imfims 
of the people of the Family. Say they, * The appearance 

* L e. Fvtj of the YdliiptuoiiB. 

f L «^ Party of the Seli-willed, prohsbly. In thk mtme, the ifotd teems «e 
be cr^iaeUy Penian, et is Kfaummiyeh. 

t L e. Par^ of the FoUowera of SinhAd SinUd wat a leader of the Ez- 
irayagant Shnt, in KborfliiAii, in the raiga of the JOwKfeh MamitaL See Weil'e 
0eKhU:ht€ dtr Chalifen, Bd n. a. SB0; 

§ I can make no Rense ef thii word, howerer pronooBced, either aa AittU^ 

or Pniwaii. But if we read DukiUiyeh, it ia aa Arabic word, mnaniny Sel^ 
hidert. Now from one of our new documents it appears, that certain lani'iliaii 
i>Iloweri of BAbek, whose statidard of rebellion was tint raised in AJerb^Aiv 
teok fnm kkn the toBhaon of going abroad in mantles of Yemen, an arlkla 
of dress covering the whole person, irem the top of the head dofwn; and the 
^lass of people there called from that cireumstance, BAbekijeh, maj hare 
been the same as those here named See p. 881. 

I L s^ Pturty of the Reddened because thej wore red there. 

^ ii e. Party of the Whitened becaose thej wore white in that eountiT;. 

** The oriffm of this name I do not know. The nameNufairfyeh, nguijj' 

JBff little Clawtaana, was probably given in derision. See ^ 

MtrgmlAmd. 0§»dUekmfl^ yeL iii. p. lOa. 

yoL. XL 8i 


of the spiritaal in a materiil body is « thing which nointd- 
ligent being denies; whether on the side of good, like the 
appearance ot Jebrtl, — ^let peace be to him I by some imper- 
sonationf and the bein^ fiuihioned in the £3nn of one of the 
Arab race, and the bems likened to the form of mankind; 
or on the aide of evil, like the i^pearance of Eeh-Sheitfin 
in the form of man, so that he may work evil in his form, 
and the appearance of the Jinns in the form of mankind, ao 
that they may dispute with its tongue. And so, on account 
of that, we say that Gbd, — ^let him be exakedl appears in 
the form of unpersonations. And because there is not 
after the Envoy of Ood, — ^let the divine benediction and 
peace be to him I any impersonation more excellent than 
Aly, — let benediction ana peace be to him 1 and after him, 
his appropriated descendants,* who are the best of creatures^ 
therefore, the true Gtod appears in their form, and speaks 
with their tongue, and holds with their hands. So then, by 
virtue of this we generalize the name appropriate to the 
state of Deity so as to include them. And we affirm this 
being appropriated of 'Aly, preferably of any one elss^ 
only because he had given to him specially an aiding from 
Ood, — ^let him be exalted I which is something that oonnects 
itself with the hidden sense of mysteries. Said the Prophel^ 
— ^let the divine benediction and peace be to him I '^ I judge 
by the outward, and God has charge of secret8."t And by 
virtue of this, it was the lot of the Prophet, — ^let the divine 
benediction and peace be to him 1 to fight with poly theists, 
and the lot of 'Aly to fight with ^hypocrites. And by vir- 
tue of this, he likened him to 'Isa Ibn Maryam, and said, 
'*And if men may not have said respecting tnee that which 
they say respecting 'Isa Ibn Maryam, have not I, indeed, 
declared respecting thee with a declaration 7" '^ 

"And often they affirm of him a participation in the en- 
voyship, inasmuch as he said, ' Among you is one who fights 
on the ground of its allegorical sense, as I fight on the ground 
of its letter ; is he not, indeed, the sewer of the sandal r§ and 
so, that the knowledge of the allegorical sense, and the fight- 
ing with hypocrites, and the disputing with the Jinns, and 

* Appropriated as dwelUng-plaoef of the Deitj. 
t A traditaoiiary eajing. 1 A traditioiiaty mjit^, 

I Meaning, does be not complete what Ibegml Thia aim b one of tka 
'"^^ sayings of the Fh>phet 

Ao immviiig of «k^ gilt of KlMilNyr, nel bj oorpDn^d 

Srwer,* aro tbe most o^avuicing proof tkat in kim ww % 
vine part, and a tavoreiga power from the Lord, or that it 
k he in-whoee foan God appeared, aad with whoee hand he 
created, and with whoae tongiie be eommamded. And hf 
virtue of thia, they aajr, * He waa in existence befoce tM 
creation of the heavens and the earth ; says be, *^ We wens 
shadows on the right hand of the throne ; and so we gave 
glory, and then the aogsls gsve {^<Nry with our giving 
giorj','* — attd as for those shadows, and Aose Ibnns not 
castmg shade, they are real, and shine with shining, by ths 
light of the Loidf which is nci cut off from them, WMthet 
they are in this world or in that world. And by virtue of 
thisy 'Aly said, ^'I am of Al^^med as light of light," — ^meaa* 
log that there is no distinctioa between the two lighl% 
except that one of them precedea, and the second, a corre- 
late to it, ootnes on met it And this {Mrpves a scnrt of 

''But the Nufairtyeh are more indined to maintAin Ik* 
divine part; and the Is^fil^yeh are more inclined to maia* 
tsin the association in the prophetic office. And they hatip 
other disagreemMits which we shall not mention.'' 

'' The Mi^iri^ md ike oanakmi Ja/ariye&.— They are 
the faUowers of Ab& Ja'&r Mul^mmied Ibn 'Aly £1-BI^ 
and his son Ja'&r £^9^4^ They declare the imamshi» 
of both <^ them, and the imamship of their parent Zein e*> 
'Abidtn; except thai smong them are 8on(ie who are eoar 
slant to one ot the two, and forwaid not the icsamship tt 
tiieir descendants, aad som« who do iorwanLf And we 
cBstinguish this party over and above the sects professing te 
be Shi'ah which we shall mernkm^ onl^ because those of 
the Shf ah who aie constant to Sl-BSkir, and declare his 
setumY U9i in constancy like those [of the Shf ah] wha 
sMare the knaaMhip of Ab& 'Abdallah Ja'fiiff Ibn Mnha» 
med Es-Sidii^. 

* TUfamitnlbrtoiCMMtndBtmioQBaiClediiUh Iht tokiqg of Xbilbsr 

f Hie DMii^ k, tliat mnim regtrd one or the othir of the two as the tti* 
faftm, to Thfltn 9i^ yTt^^T "^'^ hm^nng^ aUlMNigh 1m k lor a uM o n iwW^- 
drawn from knnuka Tiew; wftle oOmn cooiider tbe knunwiin u Ike kfmH^ 
•BM e£ weiHiTS cMMlkaa is tlii line «l Ml pMtariV. 

^And ha wti > PiMUMOi of Ttw trifl^et in ftligjoa, and 
perfect onlture in pniloec^ j, tod oonflammflete lel^rtttnist 
m respect to this world, and oomplele abstioenoe from appe* 
, titos. And he had dwelt in Madtneh a len^ of tune, 
d^g much senrioe to the Shi'ah who sided with him, and 
eommitting to tiioae friendly to him the secrets of the 
aciettoes; when he entered ^Ir&k, and dwelt there a length 
of time. He never aasomed the imamehip, nor contended 
with any one respecting the khali&hip ; and whoever 
plnnges mto the sea of knowledge, is not eager tot a shore; 
and whoeTer is elevated to the sonunit of Teiitj, fean not 
a letting down ; and ftere ie a saying, ' Whoever has aon* 
Terse with God, is empty of men, and whoever cnhivales 
ftmiliarity with others tfaiaii God, the Tempter makes a prej 
of him.** And he was rdated, on the fioher's sidei to thA 
stock of prophecy; and on the mother's side, he was related 
to Ab^ BeKr,'^let God be gradoos to him! And he 
cleared himself of that which any one of the ExtraTanats 
had to do with, and cleared himscttf of him, and cursed them ; 
and he was clear of the peculiarities of the doctrinea of tiia 
]ISfidheh,t and their focneriea, namely, the dedarine of the 
disappearance and the return,! and tne coming fiirtn,S and 
transmigration, and incarnation, and anthropomorphism. 

'^But the ^fah were divided, after his day, rad every 
one <^ them professed a doctrine, and desired to pass it off 
tapon hie f<dloweTB, and referred its origin to him, and fixed 
it on him ; while the master was dear of that, and of the 
Wftitem of the Mu^tazileh,| and alao of the doctrine of the 
IJLadaityeh.^ TUe is his saving respecting vohtion, namdy. 

'€K)d, — let nim be exaltecff wills by us something, aod 

<■ ii.i ■■ ,1 ., ,. ■■» 

• Tin 18 ftoUtfy a tndkiowr ti^k^ oT M aiumMd. 

aL a Paitjr Qi the DmKitn, Um Mme giroito a pmtj 

vnpct to tlM propMe eAoe md kamhSp, to waA m dt f re t task tltff 
toihe doetnMof mamMOom [<rf tlie Dtii^.]- Bm Wrii HhthmtHnfu 
^ Kdig, mnd Fkiiot. SeeU, p. 9. 

X The diBappeanuwe and return of tbe IniaL 

Thb wa« eMeDtiallT, as Sbh-Shalnasyaij «ynMWii ii, m 
Mwe Id fke wij of tliM^far abool the dhriae trnttr, ai lawritfiH to lailrliw 
Bod a racuitY br tbe denial af aUribntca" See M>-fflialieetinf^ B$ok ^ 
Bdm, amd PkUm. Siett, ^ 9. 
^le. Maintofaeri ci foww po SMBiJ ia oypigl(ii to ^> 


wills from U8 something ; and so, that which he wills by 
US he hides from us, and that which he wills from us he 
manifests to us. So then, what have we to do, to meddle 
with that which he wills by us, to the neglect of that which 
he wills from us?' And this is his saying respecting pre- 
destination, namely, ^ It is a thing between two things, not 
absolutism, and not indifferentism.' And he was wont to 
aay, in prayer, * O God, to thee belongs the praise, if I 
olJey thee; and to thee it belongs to convict, if I disobey 
thee. There pertains not to me, nor to any one else, any 
efficiency in the case of a doing well ; and there is no con- 
victing on my part, or on the part of any one else, in the 
case of a doing ill.' 

" Now then, we will mention the sects which differed from 
each other respecting him, and after his day, not on the 
gronnd of their being divisions of his partizans, — on the 
contrary, on the ground of their having to do with the root 
of his stock, and the branches of his descendants."* 

as holding in eommon that the hnamship is perpetuated >io hk 
iuajlj, whiie iBttinguiahwd hj particular attachment to one or another of hia 




Tbe Isnid'iRjjfefL — ^These are called by seven appellalioBa. 
[1.] The B^Hinfjeh, on acoount of their pro&iBioii of tha ixkr 
Wtfd aenae d the Book, beside its outward sense. For tliej 
say. that the J^urfin has an outward and an inward sense ; 
and as for its meaning, that iti outward sense appertains W 
tbe sciences of l^[iguage, and thi^ the relation oi the inward 
sense to the outward is like the relation of the pkh to the 
Wrk. And they say that the laying hold of its outward sense 
punishes with feitigue in assiduous action,* and that its in- 
ward sense is an aid to the leaving off of action by its outward 
sense. And as respects this, they la3r hold of his saying, — 
let him be exited I ^* And so there is established between 
them a Tall, having a gate the. inward part of which, within 
it, is mercy, and the outward part, before it, is punishment "f 
nL] The Varamateh, because their leader, be who levelled 
the high-war for their doctrine, was a man named Hamdan of 
ICarmat, t wnich is the only place of its name, namely, Kar- 
mat of WSsit. [3.] The Haranrfyeh,§ on account of their 
desecration of sacred things, and allowing of things forbid- 
den. [4] The SaVtvehH because they think Uiat the 
N£tiif» of the revealed laws, that is, the Envoys, are seveui 

* Meftning that it obliges to go thropgh laborious outward o1 

f See Korftn, Sur. hril v. 18. Tlie *" walT spoken of in this paMage, 10 piop- 
mof a wall separating ** believers'* from ** hypoerite^ in a fbture itote. 

I ThiapersQS, eonunonlj called Karmat, was tbe leader of a fiustioo ma&og 
fkm haaarmM, wUdi separated itaelf 'A.H. 277, le. A. D. 890-1, and afterwatf 
beovne fearfuUj celebrated nndrr the name of tibe Karmatis, or the TTnAti^u 
Baa De SatT^s JS^epotS de ta Relig, de$ Drugei, Tome L* Inkrod. ppw H% tL 
WArit^ wfthm the territoiy of which HamdiUi is said hf oar authar to hare 
otigiMied, was on the TnM, at about the same dktanee, fifty utnmng% horn 
Bnith, Kdfeh, Ahwib ai3 Bii^^ See Rainmid and I>e 8kV% &iitfyw4ii 
^Abmd/kh, ti 107. ^^ 

ILaf^altteilkg^ | i a. FiHgr of «he 

namely, Adam, and NfUi, and Ibr&him, and MAsa, and 'Isa, 
and Mohammed, — ^let tbe divine benediction ^and peace be 
to him I and Muhamroed the Mehdy,* the seventn of the 
Nfitiks ; and that between each two of the Nfitika there are 
seven ImSms, who relj upon the law of tbe Nfitik; and that 
there must of neceasity be in every age seven who are imi- 
tated, and by whom direction is given, in respect to religion, 
who differ from one another in rank, nainely, an Imfim, 
who aids the religion of God, who is the acme pf argumente 
in proof of the religion of God; and a Hujjeh,t who relieves 
the Im&m, sustaining his science, and thereby authenticating 
him ; and a Dh\!^-l-ma§sah,:|: who imbibes science from tbe 
Qtijj^lif that is, receives it fh)m him ; — ^theae three, and also 
pertain Bfib0, who are the Dfi'i8,§ namely, an Alcbor, thai ii 
a B&l Akbecr;! wh6 is the fourth amongthem, who elevates 
the degrees of believers ; and a D4'i Medb^ln,!^ who receives 
the engagements binding inquirers from among the Peaj^B 
of the outward sense, and causes them to enter into client- 
ship with the Imfim, and opens to them the gate of science 
ana knowledge ; and he is the fifth ; and a Mukellib,** 
whose decree m religion is indeed elevated, but who is not 
licensed m respect to ihe office of D6'i, whose license on 
the contrary respects argumentation with men, and who 
accordingly argues, and renders eager for the DfiM, like the 
hunter's dog, until, when he has argued with one of the 
People of the outward sense, and has drawn him off ficom 
his aoctrine, so that he is averse to it, and inquires after 
the truth, he, the Mukellib, conducts him to the Dt'i, w1k> 

i period 
of tbihr 

* i e. Wflj of direction. The Huhammod eo deaigaated was a aoo af 
Ismail Iba Ja*(ar Es-Sidik. Bein^ the NAtik of tke MrenOi and 1m( 
of the Iranft*ili^, this personage h to be eoacndered as the originfAor 
partj. Their Ant entenoe as a separate sect nay therefore be phoed in th# 
tatter port of tbe second century of tbe Hijrah, that is, tbe ktter part of tha 
eight, or the begioiui%^ of the ninth, centiuy of our en. See De Saej's JSaipoti 
de U Rtiif. dt9l>rtae§. Tome L Intred. pp. M-7. 

4 L e. An^utoent, literally. 

lie. Imbiber. 
7%e IsmAilian miseionaries are called Bftbs, I e. Gates, with rafiereDoe to 
being a mediam of aeoees to the Imim. 

I L e. Greater DAI or Head IdMooary. The Isn^lUi^ in canyin^ oa 
proaelytiam, formed dioceses, otw each of whidi some one DAl praaided 

^l e. LKenaed DA'l 

** L a. Dytrainar. fht grotmd at thio ippellatfaMi >^PIMara kk whAt 



is licensed to receive the engagements binding him ; (says 
M-Amidy, they call such a person a Mukellib only because 
he is like the ravenous beast, who draws off the hunter's 
dog from the game, according to what he says agreeing 
therewith, and ye know not of ravenous beasts any which 
train dogs ;) and he is the sixth ; and a Mumin,* who fol- 
lows after him, that is, pants for the Da'i, from whom are re- 
ceived the engagements binding him, and who believes, and 
is thoroughly acquainted with the engagement, and enters 
into clientship with the Imam, and acts according to him ; 
and he is the seventh. These, they sav, are like the heav- 
ens, and the earths, and the seas, and the days of the week, 
and the planets which govern with a command. [5.] The 
Babekiyeh,f inasmuch as a party among them follow Babek 
El-B[hursany in respect to going out clad in the mantle of 
Yemen, and in red, because they wore red in the days of 
Babek, or because they were like those who differed from 
them of the Muslims, in respect to the mantle. [6.] The 
Ism&'iliyeh, an account of their affirming the imamship as 
the right of Isma'il Ibn Ja'far Es-Sadik, who was the eldest 
of Ja'far's sons ; or, as some say, on account of the deriva- 
tion of their heterodoxy from Muhammed Ibn Isma'il.t 

And the root from which their preaching of the abro- 
gation of the laws grew up, was the Kobadiyeh, a sect of 
uie Magians, who, being goaded by Islam, aimed to alle- 
gorize the laws in certam ways coming back to the prin- 
ciples of their forefathers ;§ that is to say, they assembled, 
and reminded one another of the position of imdivided 
rule which their forefathers held, and said, " There is no 
way for us to eject the Muslims by the sword, on account 

♦ L e. Belieirer. 

fie. Party of the Followers of B&bek. These were, originally at least, of 
Chat subdivision of the Ismd'ilis called the Extravagant Shi's. See Weil's 
0€%chichie der Chalifen, Bd. il s. 286-6. The appellation El-Ehursanj, here 

given to B&bek, should undoubtedly be El-Ehursany, /-JUv^S^f as a rela- 
tive adjective, in an abridged form, from ^um)^.^ Ehor&s^ the countiy 

where BAbek mustered his followers, in the reign of the Ehalifeh Mamihi. 

1 See note ♦ p. 280. 

§ From this it would appear that the Magian party established by Mazdak, 
whom the S&s&nide king Kob&d patronized, survived the death of its founder, 
and existed, bearing a name derived from its royal patron, at the time of the 
inroads of lalAm into Persia. See note * p. 204w 

TOL. n. 86 


of their superiority, and their possession of the seats of 
empire ; but let us use stratagem, by allegorizing their laws, 
with a view to a coming back to our principles, leading on 
by degrees the weak among them ; and so that will neces- 
sitate their being at variance with one another, and the 
shaking of their system." And their head, in respect to 
that,* was Hamd&n of Karmat, or, as some say, ^Abdallah 
Ibn Meimiin El-Kaddah.t 

And in calling and leading on men, they have degrees 
of finesse; which comprehends [1.] the judging by the 
countenance of the state of the person call^ whether he is 
favorable to the call, or not ; and the saying, " Thou wilt 
make excuse for the putting of the germ into the trunk, "J 
that is, for the call of one not favorable, is in accordance 
with that ; and they refuse to dispute " in a house where 
there is a lamp," that is, in a place where there is a doctor 
of the law, or a metaphysician ; and then [2.] the fiuniliar- 
izing oneself with the inclination of every one of those 
called, with that which he inclines to, as respects his desire, 
and his native bent, pertaining to withdrawment fix)m the 
world, and free living ; and so, if he inclines to withdraw- 
ment from the worl^ it is set oflF in fair colors before him, 
and its opposite is depreciated ; and if he inclines to firee 
living, that is set off in fair colors before him, and its oppo- 
site is depreciated, until the man is thereby gained ; and 
then [3.] the causing to doubt in respect to the comer-stones 
of the law, and the abbreviations of the surahs, § in that one 
says, "What is the meaning of the isolated letters in the 
beginnings of the surahs ? and of the statute requiring a 
woman in her menses to fast, without a statute requinng 
her to pray, that is, why is one needful, and not the other ? 
and of the necessity of ablution on account of the seminal 
discharge, and not of the urine ? and of the number of the 

* That is, the leader of the Ism&'ilis in respect to the imitation of the Ko- 
bAdiyeh, in annulling the laws of IslAm by allegorical interpretation. 

f De Sacy supposes that this person hved about the middle of the third 
century of the Hijrah, that is, atx>ut A. D. 864. See ExpasS de la Rdig, det 
Dru2f8, Tome L Introd. p. 1 65. 

X A saying, apparently, of the IsmA'ilis, meaning that to im^rt instruction 
to one not fit to receive it is not allowed. Accormng to Von Hammer, quot- 
ing £l-Jorjdny, the saying was that seed should not be thrown into a saline 
soil See Journal Anatigue, Tome vi. p. 888. 

§ i. e. The chapters of the Kur&n. 


prostrations in prayer, that is, why are they in some cases 
four, and in some, three, and in some, two?" — and so on to 
things remote from these ; and the reason why they thus 
render them doubtful, and cause to inquire the answer in 
regard to these things, is that they may be inquired of, on 
their return, respectmg them ; and then [4.] tne confirma- 
tion, which includes two things, namely, first, the receiving 
of the engagement from the candidate, in that they say that 
God's Sunneh has had currency by the receiving of engage- 
ments and pledges, and alledge, in proof of that, his saying, 
— ^let him be exalted 1 "And when we received from the 
Prophets their engagements,"* and then receive, with receiv- 
ing, his engagement, made in accordance with a firm belief, 
on his part, that no secret thing is hidden from them ; and 
second, the obligating him, in behalf of the Imam, with re- 
spect to the clearing up of that which he is confused about, 
of the things which one presents to him ; because it is he 
who knows them, and the candidate has no command of 
them until he elevates himself to something of the degree 
which pertains to him, and comes to the Imam ; and then [5.] 
the imposition, which is the pretension of agreement with 
them on the part of the great in religious and worldly 
aflFairs,f so that the candidate may be more in favor of that 
to which one calls him ; and then [6.] the putting upon a 
foundation, which is the arranging of premises to which he 
who is called is favorable, and which he grants, which point 
him to that false doctrine to which one calls him ; and then 
[7.] the divestiture, which is the causing to rest in the 
neglect of corporeal actions ; and then [Sj the despoiling 
of the firm beliefe of religion. 

And when an affair of calling has gone so far, they set 
about to abrogate prohibitions, and to incite to indulgence 
in pleasures, and to allegorize the laws, agreeably to their 
saying that the partial washing signifies friendship to the 
Imjlm ; and as for the entire washing, that it is the receiv- 
ing by hearsay from the Madhiin, when the Imam is hidden, 
what prayer is; and that prayer signifies the Natik, who 
is the Envoy, as is proved by his saying, — ^let him be 
exalted! "Verily, prayer restrains from depravity and 
crime ;"t and that tne having nocturnal pollution signifies 

* Kur&D, Sur. xxxiii. t. 7. f See p. 262. X Kurftn Sur. zziz. y. 44. 



the divulging of one of their secrets to one who is not of 
the people to whom it belongs, without any object in so 
doing; and the ablution of the whole body, the renewal of 
the pledge ; and alms-giving, the purification of the soul by 
knowledge of the religion which thev profess; and the 
Ka'beh, the Prophet, and the gate [of the Ka'beh,] 'Alv ; 
and Es-SafS, ' Aly, and El-Marweh,* the Prophet ; and the 
place of rendezvous gf pilgrims,f the familiarizing ;:|: and 
the bending, § the responding to the call ; and the circling of 
the House seven times, friendship to the seven Im&ms ; and 
the Garden, the repose of bodies from duty ; and the Fire, 
the severity of toil in duty ; — and so on to other of their 

And their doctrine is, that God is not existent, nor non- 
existent ; neither knowing, nor imorant ; neither powerful, 
nor weak ; — and so on, as to all the attributes ; ana that be- 
cause veritable afl&rmation requires the association of him 
with things existent, which is an anthropomorphism ; while 
absolute denial requires the association of him with things 
non-existent, which is a making void. But that, on the con- 
trary, he is necessarily possessed of these attributes, and the 
Lord of contraries.! And often they blend their system 
with the system of the Philosophers, and accordingly say that 
he, — ^let him be exalted ! produced by his Amr tne perfect 
Intelligence, and that by means of that was the production 
of the Soul, which is not perfect ; and so, that the Soul 
vearns after the perfect Intelligence, seeking to be quickened 
by it ; and consequently, that there is a requiring of motion 
from incompleteness to completion ; and that motion is per- 
fected only through its [the Soul's] restleasness ; and so, 
that the bodies of the celestial spheres originate, and move 
with a circular movement, as governed by the Soul ; and 
so, that by means of them origmate the simple elementary 

* This and Es-Safil are the two hills, near Mekkeh, between which the 
Muslim pilgrim performs a seiren times repeated ceremonial walk, on coming 
to the holy city. See Travels in Arabioy by John Lewis Burckhardt, voL i. 
pp. 174-6. 

f That is, after the ceremonies on first coming to Mekkeh. See BurckhardVs 
Travels in Arabia^ vol. i, pp. 179-80. 

X Meaning the associating oneself with the Ismii'iUs. 

§ Meaning the performance of reka'hs, or prostrations, before the seven times 
repeated walk around the Ka'beh. See Burckhardt's TraveU in Arabiiif yoL 
L p. 172. I See page 264. 


natural properties ; and that by means of the simples origin- 
ate the composites, namely, minerals, and plants, and the 
species of animals; and that the most excellent of them is 
man, on account of his preparedness for the effusion upon 
him of the Lights of the Holy One, and his connection with 
the higher world ; and that, as the higher world contains a 
perfect Universal Intelligence, and an imperfect Universal 
Soul, which is the source of beings, so there is in the lower 
world a perfect Intelligence, which is a means of deliver- 
ance, by likeness in it to the relation of the primitive Soul 
to the primitive Intelligence, in what relates to the causing 
of beings to exist ; and that that is the Imam, who is a Natik- 
Legatee ; and that, as the celestial spheres move as moved 
by the Intelligence and the Soul, in like manner living souls 
move to deliverance, as moved by the Natik and the Lega- 
tee, — ^that it is so in every age and period. 

Says El-Amidy, Such were the opinions of some sense- 
less person ; and when El-Hasan Ibn Muhammed Es-Sabbfih 
appeared,* he exerted himseli^ and the call assumed that he 
was the Hujjeh, who relieves the Imam, whom no period 
may be without. And the sum of his system was that which 
tooK the precedence, respecting the need of the teacher. 
Moreover, he prohibited common people from meddling 
with the sciences, and people of note from looking into the 
ancient Books, lest their disgraces should be exposed. And 
afterwards they became Philosophers, and ceased not to 
make sport of the canons of religious ordinances and legal 
commands; and they entrenched themselves in fortresses, 
and their power increased, and any kings whose vezirs were 
of their party, feared calamity, iot they made a show of 
neglecting duties, and openly desecrated sacred things, and 
became liKe brute beasts, without any religious control, or 
legal restraint. 

Says he [the author] respecting the Tdtdrkhdntyehff And 
in the year 577, the doctors of the law of Samarkand were 

• See^page 267, ff. 

f £1-Amidy now proceeds to state opinlonfi which had been recently delhr- 
cred by the faldhs of Samarkand, relatiTe to the Karmatis. The appellation 
of the Tdtfirkh&iuyeh which he here gives them, without any explanation, b 
deserving of attention. It must certainly be inferred from it, that the follow- 
ers of Karmat had, in process of time, become so associated with some people 
among the Northern hordes, which in the thirteenth century of our era were 
pressing in upon the old empire of the Khalifehs, that a name significant of 
encfa an aasoaatioa would be generally understood as apjdicable to them. 



asked, — ^respecting a man who makes a show of Islam, and 
prays, and fasts, and makes a show of the profession of 
unity, and belief in Muhammed, — let peace be to him ! for 
many years, and afterwards confesses, saying, " As for me, 
I have been, during these past years, a firm believer accord- 
ing to the doctrine of the Karamateh, and I have been a 
Di'i to men; and now I am a convert, and return to Islam," 
and makes now a show of that which he before made a 
show o^ pertaining to the religion of Islam, only that he is 
suspectea to hold the doctrine of the Karamateh, as if he 
were among them, — what the sentence is as to his blood, 
and his property, and his effects, while the occasion of hia 
exposing InmseJi^ and his confession, is that he has been 
foimd out, and it were idle, until he confesses his doctrine, 
to put him to death. 

*Abd-El-Karim Ibn Muhammed said, "The putting to 
death of the Karamateh, universally, is a necessary thing, 
and their being treated without discrimination, a statute, be- 
cause they are veritably apostate unbelievers, and their in- 
fluence to corrupt the religion of Islam is greater than any 
other, and the injury which they do, the greatest of injuries. 

Abu-1-Hasan Muhammed Sa'id said, " It may be said of 
this man of whom mention is made, as Abii Hanifeh, — ^let 
God be mercifiil to him I is related to have said respecting 
a Kadary* who said, in the presence of Ab\i Hanueh, * I 
am a convert;' Ab\i Hanifeh, namely, — let God be mercifiil 
to him ! said, * Conversion on thy part is that thou retumest 
to all whom thou hast led astray, and callest them to the 
truth, and say est, "As for me, I have been holding false- 
hood." » 

And Aba-l-Kasim *Abd-El-Rahman Ibn El-Husein Es- 

« • • • 

Safiar said, " With regard to the like of these, namely, the 
Karamateh, whenever we cause them to be found out, the 
obligation rests upon the Sultan, in the first instance, and 
upon the doctors of the law of the Muslims, in the second 
instance, to set it down to their account to put them to 
death, and to eradicate them, not admitting, on their part, 
either conversion, or apology." 

And Abii Muhammed 'Abd-El-Karim Ibn Muhammed 
said, "As for all who act openly, of the Kar&mateh, — ^let 

♦ See note ^ p. 27«. 



God abandon them! as firm believers according to their 
doctrine, and become Da'is of men to it, they are not, after 
that, sincere in their pretension of conversion, and return to 
IslSm ; because they are not truly converted, and make a 
show, on their part, of that which they make a show of, only 
after the manner of piety, for the safety of themselves, and 
their property, and their families, and their children, or 
something thereof; for a certain one said, *Methinks that 
to pray, which profits not, is advantageous among Imfims,' 
and he was one of the Party of the Impious ; to which his 
pupil said, * my preceptor, what avails this assiduity, while 
we acknowledge the faith ?'* whereupon he said, * It is on 
account of the custom of the country, and for the protection 
of family and children.' So then, if we were to admit, on 
their part, that which they pretend of conversion, they 
would make that turn out to the overthrow of Islfim and 
the laws ; and the injury to the Muslims would be greater 
than that which happens to them of injury from those with 
whom they are at war. And accordingly, one of our men 
tells us that the doctors of the law in Balkh have decided 
in favor of shedding the blood of the KarSmateh, and burn- 
ing up their houses, after they have declared themselves of 
their opinion ; and so some of them were beaten with thongs, 
and afterwards put to death." 

And Abu Selimeh Muhammed Ibn Dawiid Esh-ShSfi'y, 
said, " Whoever bruits this vile doctrine, and makes a show, 
on his part, of the call to it, let not any conversion be ad- 
mitted on his part, but on the contrary let him be put to 
death. And Ah^ Se'id EMstakhry, one of our men, was 
of this opinion, and said, * Some of our men have distin- 
guished that which marks the apostate in the follower of 
Karmat, with respect to conversion. And if the follower of 
Karmat is an apostate, he lets go the manifest senses of words, 
and calls up their hidden senses ; and so, when he with his 
tongue makes a show of conversion on his part, it may be 
that, together with that, he declares something hidden, which 
he pretends, as his tonffue happens to express it, after the 
manner of piety; and ne gives out that ne is already con- 
verted, so that his being a Muslim may not be judged o£ 

* Meaning the principles involying the abrogation of all outward ob- 



And as for the apostate other than the follower of Karmat^ 
because he calls not up the hidden senses of words, as the 
follower of Karmat does, and he was a Muslim originally, 
whenever he professes Islam, he returns, and we know 
that he is converted. Verily he, — ^let him be exalted I says, 
"So then, what shall be the portion of those who fight 
against God and his Envoy, and exert themselves to cor- 
rupt the earth? etc.,"* — ^which is directed against those who 
exert themselves to corrupt the earth; but religion is wor- 
thier and prior, because that which religion enjoins is of 
more moment, to be cared for, than the earth, in every 
respect, and prior to it." ' 

The above is in brief what was said. 

And an inquiry was proposed to the Sheikh el-IslSm, the 
Seal of profound investigators, of the party of Hanbal, 
Takky ea-din Ibn Yatmiyeh, the form of which was as fol- 
lows rf " What say the learned seignors, the ImSms of re- 
ligion, — >let God be gracious to them all, and aid them to 
manifest the plain truth, and to cover the fair show of er- 
rorists I r^pecting the Nusairiyeh, who declare the lawful- 
ness of wine, and the transmigration of spirits, and the 
eternity of the world ; and profess to deny the awakening,! 
and the gathering, and the resurrection, and the Garden ana 
the Fire, in another than the life which is of this world ; and 
declare that the five prayers signify five names, which are 
'Aly, and El-Hasan, and El-Husein, and Muhsin, and Fati- 
meh, so that the mentioning of these five sujffices them, in 
place of the ablution of the whole body, on accoxmt of sexual 
intercourse, and the partial washing, and the other condi- 
tions of prayer, and its essentials ; and that fasting, in their 
opinion, signifies three men, and is the name of three women, 
all of whom they enumerate in their books, to mention 
whom particularly there is no room here; and that their 
Deity, who created the heavens and earth, is 'Aly Ibn Abft 
TaliD, — ^let God be gracious to him I so that he, in their 

* Knrftn, Sur. t. v. 87. But there is a slight Tariation from the common 
readiiig in this quotation. The passage properly reads, " The portion of those 
etc. is only that etc" 

f Here begins the third part of this document. See p. 261. 

1 By this is mtended, I suppose, the awakening of the dead, in their grayes, 
to be examined by the angels Munkir and Nakir, and to reoeire from them a 
foretaste of their final allotments. 

1 • 



opinion, is the Deity ia the heaveoB, and the Im£m on the 
earth ; and the philosophy which maintains the manifestation 
of the Deity in this humanity, is based upon their view that 
ha enters into familiarity with his creatures in order that he 
may teach them how tney may know him, and serve him ; 
***-and that the Nusairy becomes not, in their opinion, a be- 
lieving Nusairy, whom they will ait with, and m company 
with whom they will drink, and whom they will let into their 
secrets, and to whom they will give in marriage of their wo- 
man^ until his teacher addresses him ; and the aubstance of 
the address, in their opinion, is that they make him swear to 
the conceabnent of his religion, and the knowledge of his 
elders and the great ones among the people of his doctrine, 
and that he will consult no Muslim, nor an3r others, except- 
ing those who are of the people of his religion, and that he 
acknowledges his Imam, and his .Lord, as manifested in his 
revolutions and his periods, and so acknowledges the trans- 
mission of the lam and the Ma'na^ ia every epoch and age. 
And the Ism, in their opinion, among the first of men, was 
Adam, and the Ma'na, Snait ;t and the Ism, Ya^iib, and the 
Ma'na, Yusuf ; and they use to prove this representation, as 
they think, that which is in the J^^uran, namely, a story 
about Ya'kdb and Yiisu^ — let peace be to them both ! and 
accordingly say, "What was Ya'ljLiib? as for him, he was 
the Lsm, for what power exceeds its station ?j; and he says, 
* Presently^ I will ask pardon for you of my Lord ; verily, 
he is the rardoner, the Compassionate ;'§ and as for Yiisiii^ 
he was the Ma^na who is aa^ed, and so he says, ' There is 
no reprimanding of you this day, God pardons you/ 1 and 
brings not in the authority of another, because he knows 
that ne is the absolute Deity." And they lay it down that 
MiUsa was the lam, and Yush\)i'a, the Ma'na, and say, ^^ As 
Sot YCishil'a, the sun yielded to him, after he had com- 
manded it, and obeyed his command ; and does the sun 
yield to any one except its Lord?" And they lay it down 
that Suleiman was the Ism, and Afaf^ the Ma'na, and say, 
** Suleimfin was impotent to cause to be present the throne 
of Belkts, and Asaf had power to do it, because Snleimin 

• The NuMttrk mn hera fepMMnUd «• lioldia| that tbs Deity in aame, the 
Jmik, Aid UiADeitj in roAlity, the Ma'^amemr m eTery age. 

tSctk I ItooiigML 

ae« ^CuMii, tar. si T. aa. {ltwL,T.91. 

'VOL. Hi 'St 


was the Inn, and A^ waft the Ma'na, the Potent, the Fow* 
eiftQ.*'* And they ennmerate the Pnndiets and the Meaeeo- 
gerg, one hj one, after the manner of thbi talk, nj> to the 
time of the Envoy of Qod, — ^let the divine benediction and 
peace be to himl and so they say that Mul^ammed was the 
Lsm, and ' Aly, the Ma'na : and tiiey carry on the enumeni- 
tion, in this order, through every age, up to our time. So 
much for this. 

But it is a part of the substanoe of religion, and of the 
address, in their opinion, tibat instructioB be given that ' Aly 
is the Lord; ukI Mul^ammed, the Veil; und Selmin, tM 
Gate; and that these, in this order, have not ceased, and 
will not cease to be. And to the rhyviing which is £Eimous 
among them, of some of their extravaganees, belongs the 
saying of one, the accursed, the disbdiever in Qod,-^let him 
be eiudtedl "I testify that there is no Dei^. except the 
Lion with bald temples and big beny;t ana no Veil to 
him, except Muhammed the Just, the Faithftd ; and no Way 
to him, except Selm£n the Possessor ol power, the Stedfiuit/ ' 
And in like manner, there are the Ave Solitarie84 and the 
twelve Naklfas,§ whose names are made known, aoooiding 
to them, in their detestable books ; for they oease not to prro- 
daim the Lord, the Veil, and the Gate, in every revolution 
and period, forevei^ without end. Also, tiliat the lUis of 
Iblises was 'Omar Ibn El-S[hattftb, — ^let God be gradous to 
himl and that the next in the rank of Iblises was AbftBekr, 
and then 'OthmAn, — ^let Gtod be gracious to them, and clear 
them, and elevate their rank above the sayings of the Her- 
etics, and the pro&snon of the self-devoting Extravagantal 
and they cease not, at any time, to exist, aecording to what 
they tell. 

And there are ramificatioBs and subdivisions to their doc- 
trines, which come back to these flmdamental principles 

— 1- — -r - - 

* See Kuiin, Sor. xzril ▼▼. S8-4a Amt m not fmmtd n tbe ILnrim, tet 
B-Beidhftwy aSowi the interp^aHwi wfaicb Atlabates to bun Uie mifMie 
fawe reloRed ta See Meidawk C(mwmUariu$ in Carawwi, ed. H. O. tXmmhm. 
toL fi. p. 69. 

f A weQ-knowB tdbrigpet of 'Aly, Mnong the Vuiliine, m tbe IAoh of (Tod 

j VMmBp. vnhMj, fhajAm wMiefll lau MbOed ImlmL The doeaa«it» 
referred to m the li i trodiicaott, whkh I Iwwre tei >iid» iw the w eetn ty teMhet 
tiMt the mniber of the foiime ii teren, while that of the Hi4j«h8 a JNrelTe, 
without, however, admhting the doctrine of the ^M up juum pie c ef tbe- 

I L e. ▲dnkktraten, % oMie firen «i tlM 9i4>ihi of the ' 



And this aceunied seet has pottooocd itoelf of « great part 
of the country of Syria, fio that they are known, npted, and 
declare themselves, as holding tbia doctrine ; and all who 
have had intercourse with them, of the gOveniment-agents 
of the Muslims^ and their learoed men, and c^ the common 
peonle, also, up to the presept time, have verified the state 
of tne case in respect to them. For, during the time that 
the heretic Franks held possession of the country, it was 
unknown to many, how it stood with them ; but after the 
days oi Islim <^ame,* the state of the caae in respeet to them 
was discovered^ and their departure &om the right way was 
manifested, and the proof of them was very abundant. 

So then, is it allowed to the Muslim to take a wife from 
among them, and is the eating of their sacrifices permitted, 
while the stale of the case is such? And what is^ the sen- 
tence in respect to the cheese made ftofu the curdled milk 
<^ one of their animals offered in sacrifice ? And what is 
the sentence in respect to their vesads, and their garments, 
also? And is the burying of them among the Muslin^ 
allowed, or not ? And is it allowed to employ any of them 
c^ the firontiers of the Muslims, and to entrust them to 
them? or, oa the other hand, is it obligatory upon the pre- 
IpQt of couunandf to displace them, and to employ other 
n^n, of the trusty Muslims?. And does he do wrong when 
he commands to tum these ofi^ and to employ odiers than 
them? or, on the other hand, is it allowed to him to grant 
delav, in case this is determined upon? And when he 
employs them, and afterwards displaces them, or does not 
displace them, is it allowed to him to invest the mcmies cxf 
the Public Treasury on iheit req)onsilHlity ? And is the 
shedding of the blood of the said Nufsiriyeh lawful? And 
is their property a thing decided upon as tree to be taken, 
or not? And when the prefect oi command makes war 
upon them, does God, — ^let him be exalted I aid him in the 
extinction of their false doctrine, and in the ejection of 
them from the fertreeses of the Muslims, and in ^e want- 
ing of the peo{)le c^ Isl&m against intermarrying with them, 
and ea£mg their sacrifices, mA in ihe conunanding of them 

* lliis r«fert to the yictories oi fialAh ed-dlft orer th* Cfarfetkni, io the lai- 
tar part of the twelfth eenturj of oipr era. See VUm €i Mm Gktim'SMmi 
#& AUnrtM (fcih»HMi. V9»U,9. 


to ftwt, Mid pray, and in the pr^Tciiitinff of them from mak- 
ing a show of their felse relirion ? Ana is he who wars with 
the said Nu^airtyeh oonnted as one who mounts a caralier? 
and is his recompense hkc the recompense of him who 
mounts a cavalier on the frontiers, on the shore of the Sea,* 
through fear of an invasion of the Franks? or has this one 
a greater recompense ? And is it obligatory upon any one 
who knows the said persons, and their doctrines, to divulge 
what they are, and to help to do away with their false doc- 
trine, and the proclaiming of the Im&m on their part flo 
that God, — ^let him be exalted ! may perhaps regard tn^ir 
ofi^pring and their children as Muslims? or, on the other 
hand, is it allowed to hitti to be unconcerned, and to let 
things take their course? And what is the recompense of 
him who labors assiduously for that, and is zealous for it, 
and intent tipon it? 

BLave they spoken explicitly respecting these things, as 
assisted, ana aided, and recompensed, if Gt)d, — ^let him be 
exaitedl wills?" 

The answer respecting this, in the hand-writing of the 
Sheikh Takky ed-din Ibn Yatmiyeh, — ^may God, — ^let him 
be exahed ! be meiciftd to him ! was as follows : " As for 
these people, denominated the Nusairtyeh, they and the 
Other classes of the mystical Kar^mateli^f are more unbe- 
lieving than the Jews and the Christians; nay, more unbe- 
lieving than many idolaters ; and the injury which they do 
to the community of Muhammed, — ^let the divine benedic- 
tion and peace w to him I is greater thaii the injury done 
by warring infidels, such as the infidels of the Turks and 
Franks, and others. For these meet the warring of the 
Muslims by affecting to be Shf ah, while, in reality, they 
believe not in God, nor in his Envoy, nor in his Bomc, nor 
in any command, nor in any prohibition, nor in any reward, 
nor in any penalty, nor in any Garden, nor in "any Fire, 
nor in any one of the Messengers preceding our iTophet 
Muhammed, — let the divine benediction and peace be to 
him ! nor in any of the former religions ; nay, they take 
tip the word of ftod and his Envoy, acknowledged among 

• The 

f It seems to hare beea imderfltood, when Qn Tatmbtli g»T« 
f opioioo, 4hai tbt ^vagmm w§n a oIm «f Hnf %ti0mtf^ 

the Moslimf, to allegorice it agreeably to certain thin^ 
which they are full oty pretending that they oohatitute the 
science of the hidden &&db^ such aa those mentioned by the 
inquirer, and others not of this sort For, as for them, they 
ka¥e no set limit as to that which they pretend of hereiy 
respecting the names of the Creator, and his signA,^ and of 
perversion of the word of God, — ^let him be exahed I aad 
the word of his Envoy, to the doing away of its positional, 
inasmuch as their intention is to deny the faith and the 
laws of Ifllim, altogether; while at the same time they hold 
oat that these things have their realities, known to them, 
which are such sort of things as the inquirer has mentioned, 
and such as their saying that the hve prayers are the 
knowledge of their secreta ; and the prescribed fasting, the 
eoncealment of their secrets ; and the pilgrimage to the 
Ancient House,t the visiting of their sheikhs ; and that 
the two hands of Ab4 Lahab:]: were Abii Bekr and 'Omar, 
—let God be gracious to them both I and that the Great 
Prophet^ and the Evident ImAm, was 'Aly Ibn Ab^ T^ib, — 
let Uod be gracious to him I 

And they are the authors of some well-known charges, 
and some books composed, in hostility to Isl^m and its 
pe(^le. And so, whenever it is in their power, they shed 
the blood of the Muslims, aa they put to death, once upon 
H time, the pilgrims to Mekkeh, and cast them into Zem- 
aetn, and, once upon a time, took off the Black Stone, 
which remained with them a long while, and put to death 
a multitude which only God,— ^let him be exalted! can 
compute, of the learned men of the Muslims, and their 
elders, and their princes, and their troops.§ 

And it is said that they have composed many books, 
and that what the inquirer mentions is in them, and other 
things. And the learned men of the Muslims have com- 
posed books disclosing their secrets, and have therein made 
evident the mfidelity, and the Zendi^nsm,! and the heresy, 
which they profess, inasmuch as they are herein more 

^^ UMJ I I ■ II - J - - - - ■ - ■- . ■ — ■ I •!■ ■ — fc^^M^ ■ I » ■ . 

* Mcsnlng ^xe yenea of the Kurfta f The Ka'beh. 

) Ab6 Imhahf m imcle of M uhammed, was one of his most impiMtble 

g This refers to the takioe of Mekkeh hy the foUowen of Karmat, under 
Aba TftUr, A. a Sit i e. A. D. fta-aa Ste Mhmifm tk fiffuNm^Tttalm 
IT. {K 6. I Or, Msfiam. -- < 

xmbelieying than the Jews, or than the Christuuna, or than 
those who worship idola. 

And as for that which the inc^mrer has mentioned hj 
way of deecrilnng them, it is a httle out of the mnoh of 
that which is known to learned men, aa descriptive of them. 
And it is, among other things, known among them, thai 
the Christians possessed themselves of the sea-coasts of 
Sjria oolj by means of them, who are always in league 
with every enemy to the Muslima, and so were lectfoad 
with the Christians against Ihe Muslima. And one of tba 
greatest of calamities, in their opinion, was the Mnslina 
coming off superior over ihe Tfttftre;* and one <^ the 
greatest of their rejoicings was when the Christiana,-— 
and reverse is Gt>d^s appointment, — ^possessed themselves of 
the fix)ntier8 of the Muslims, which ceased not to be under 
the power of the Muslims, as far as the island of CylxnNi 
(conquered by the Muslims in the khali&te of the rrinoe 
of the believers 'Othm&n Ibn 'Aff&n, — ^let God be gracioea 
to him ! which Mu'iwiyeh, the son of Abft Sufyto, — let 
Ood be gracious to them bothl conquered, f) up to the 
middle of the fourth century; when these combattanta 
against Ood and his Envoy multiplied on the aeanOoaBli^ 
and elsewhere, and so the Christians possessed themaelT« 
of the sea-board ; and afterwards, owing to tiiem, poeB6»> 
Bed themselves of the Holy City, and other places. For the 
circumstances of the case as respects them were among the 
most potent occasions thereof ; after which, when God had 
raised up kin^ of the Muslims who warred in the way of 
God, such as >i iir ed-dtn the martyr, and Sal^ ed-din, and 
their saccessors, and they had conquered the sea-coasts finom 
the Christians, and those who were in league with them, 
and had also conquered the land of Egypt, they held pos- 
session of them about two hundred years, and were at 
peace with them and the Christians, for, until they had 
conquered the country, the Muslims made war upon them ; 
' — ■ - ■ « ■ . — »^». 

* Alluding, prolMibly, to the discomfiture and repulse which the MaQgoli 
received, when thej at length invaded Syria, in the beginning of th« mr- 
teenth century of our era. See Abulf(Kiae Annai4$ MudmiUei, M. J. J. ftijita. 
Tome V. pp. 172, ff 

f Abuiieda aasign.« this oonqueat of Cjpma by Mu*4wiyeh to tba jmt «f 
the H^jimh M, i a. ▲. D. MS-d. &%• Aiml/aQ$ Afuuiim MusUmm, l^mml 

p. aes. 

end within thatperiod, tlte caH of lASm waa published in 
the oonntry of I^pt, and in that of Syria.* 

And thej have certain appellations affixed to them 
fOKKXig the Muslims. Sometimes, they are called the MellA- 
^^;t and sc^ietimee they are called the ^Carfimateh; and 
Sometimes they are callea the Nashiyeh ;:|; and sometimes 
they are called the Nuswiyeh; and sometimes they are 
oslled the Qaramtyeh ;§ and sometimes they are called the 
Muhammareh.| And as for these names, some of theiji 
belong to them in oommon, and some are peculiar to sofne 
of their classes, just as the name formed from the fbuitii 
Mnjugation of ealamay^ and that formed from the fourth 
eoiy ligation of amcmay^^ belongs to the Muslims in common^ 
while some of them have names peculiar to them, either hr 
parentage, or by country, or on* account of something else. 

And ne {Ibn Yatmiyeh] comments upon their purposes, 
at some lengtJb, as. follows : *' So then, they consist of those 
who are outwardly Bafi4heh,tt and inwardly pure infidels. 
And the truth of the matter in respect to mem is, that 
they beHeve not in any one of the Prophets and the Messen* 
l^ers, neither in Niih, nor in Ibrfihlm, nor in Mdsa, nor 
m 'Laa, nor in Mu^ammed, — ^let the diyine benediction and 
peace be to him I nor in any of the Books of God, sent 
down from above, neither in the Law, nor in the Gospel, 
kKxr in the Psalms, nc^ in the Distinguisher. And they do 
l)K>t maintain that the world had a Creator who creatra it, 
ACT that there is any religion of his which he commands, nor 
that he is provided with anj state of being in which he re- 
eompensee men for their actions, other than the present state. 
And sometimes, they base their profession of belief in 
aooordtoce with the doctrines of the Philosophers, natural* 
iatic, or deistic, upon that of the Mutat^asoshifeh,^ and 

* Thk ttiiieBMot of Un rebtioiM eziating betwean the Nuaa^'is And tiw 
OhriftiaiM in Sym^. from the middle of the tenth century of our em down 
Irto the ficrarteeiith eentoiy, the period when Ihn Yatmiyeh himself Mvei, 
Mm not fiifl to be rebutted with intereet^ as it is believed to be quite new. 

f L c. Puty of the Sellers of siOt, probably. I think it hM been mid bf 
«ome one, that, at the present day, the If usains come to Beihit to sell salt 

tie. I^urty of the Inebnates. $ See note g p. 279, 

f See note | p. 278. 

n Keaning: the name El-MaslimiUL 

** Meanii^ the name El-MuniinihL ft See note f |l 271. 

tf i e. Party of the Squalid. The Brffamm Hermita, or MUhlft liOHii- 
aMlfcl^ are piobably referred to haw. 

that of the Mafnans who worsliip fire ; and to that add a 
miiiglLDg of Rafidhism, and faleiiy, reporting, for instaneei 
as a tradition handed down i'rom the Prophet — ^let the 
divine lienediction and peace be to him! that he said, 
''The firet thing that God created was the Intelligence, 
and he said to it, *' Approach/ and it approached, and he aaid 
to it, ' K4;tire,^ and it retired;*' and perverting the Prophet^ 
exnreHHiona to such a degree that one of them write8| 
" The n<'ime of God, — let him be exalted ! ia on the lower 
part of his legs/'* And they deny what the Prophets have 

And the leameil men of the Muslims are already agreed 
that, as for such as these, intermarriage with them is not 
allowed, so that a man may not use one of them as his con- 
cubine, nor take one of them as his wife ; and that their 
Hacrifices are not to be jiartaken of. And, as for cheese 
made from their curdled milk, learned men say two things 
which are well known, respecting it^ as in respect to other 
curdled milk of a dead animal, and the curdled milk 
of the Magians, and the curdled milk of the Franks^ of 
whom it is said that they do not slay victims for sacrifice. 
The doctrine, then, of Abu Hanifeh, — ^let God be gracious 
to iiim ! — and I ^ve praise in making one of the two cita- 
tions, — \» that this ch N?sc is allowed, because the curdled 
milk bocomos not dead with the death of the beaat, and the 
impure ree^^ptiichi in the IkjUv afteets it not witii a {xdlu- 
tion. And the doctrine ol' Mafik and of Esh-ShafiV, — and I 
give ])nusc in making the other citation, — is that tnis cheese 
is inipun^, becaiwe, in their opinion, the curdled milk is 
impuHN ior the milk of a deatl animal and its curdled milk 
an*, in tlieir opinion, inij)nre; and of whomsoever the sao- 
riliee may not be partaken olj his sacritice is like a dead 
animal. And as iur llieir vessels, ami their garments, they 
an? like the vess^els of the Magians, and the garments of the 
Mairians, acconling to what is known of the doctrines of 
the Iniauis; and The ^a}nh,\ on that point, says that "their 
ve^wels should not be used, exce})t after they have been 

♦ May not thf sayinur here attrilmted to the Nunniris, be aa imitatioo of 
what is .sai.l of th<' " Won! of (}o«r iii R«*v. xix 16, "And be hath oa bii 
vostiiro ami on hi«i thi^jh a name ^Titteii, Kirur of kiu^ and Lord of lonbr 

\ i'roliubly The &ikih of El-BukliiurT, which is the most esteuned of tfai 
colIecitumH of auUieutie traditions bearing this name 

I ■ ■•• 

■ ■1 P «^ ■! W*IIWV7^«^^MW^^^^^ipV^^MJ^M4lk. iL 


washed; for their sacrifices are dead animals; and so, of 
necessity, if any part of what they cook of their sacrifices 
reaches those of their vessels which are made use of, they are 
thereby polluted." But as for the vessels which one is not 
obligea to regard as rendered impure, they may be used 
, without any washing, such as vessels for milk, in which they 
leave not their bouillons, and which they wash before put- 
ting milk into them. And 'Omar, — ^let God be gracious to 
him I indeed, performed his ablutions with the jar of a 
Christian woman, respecting the impurity of which he 
doubted; so that he did not judge it to be impure, by 
doubting: And it is not allowed to bury them in the 
burial-places of the Muslims ; nor to pronounce the bene- 
diction upon any of them who die. 1 or God, — ^let him be 
exalted! forbade his Prophet, — ^let the divine benediction 
and peace be to him ! to pronounce the benediction upon 
hypocrites, such as 'Abdallah Ibn Ubeiy, and those about 
him, who made a show of praying, ana alms-giving, and 
j&sting, and warring on the side of the Muslims, not 
making openly any declaration which was at variance with 
the religion of the Muslims, but keeping such difference 
secret. Says God, — ^let him be exaltea 1 " And thou may- 
est not pronounce the benediction upon any one of them 
who dies, ever, and thou mayest not preside over his burial ; 
verily, they disbelieve in God and his Envoy, and die as 
wicked persons."* How shall it be, then, with these, who, 
together -wdth Zendikism and hypocrisy, make a show of 
infidelity and heresy ? And as for the employing of such 
as these on the firontiers of the Muslims, and in their for- 
tresses, or among their troops, that is a great error, equal to 
one's employing wolves to pasture sheep. For they are the 
most treacherous of men toward the Muslims, and the pre- 
fects of their commands, and the most eager of men for the 

• Kurfln, Sur. ix. v. 85. In El-Beidhiwy's commentary on this verse we 
read, ** It ia reported by tradition that 'Abdallah Ibn Ubeiy called for the 
Prophet of Goo, during his illness ; and after he had entered where he was, 
he asked him to forgive him, and that he would wrap him for burial ya the 
covering which was next his body, and would pronounce the benediction over 
him. So, after he was dead, he [the Prophet] sent his tunic that he might be 
wrapt in it for burial, and went out to pronounce the benediction over bim ; 
whereupoQ the verse came down, etc." See Beidhawii Oomm, in Corofi^ 
ToL i p. 896 ; and compare Mohmnmsd der Ftvphei^ voq Dr. Qntkar Weil, 

VOL. n. 88 


corruption of the religion of Isl&m and the empire of 
Muhammed. And they are worse than the lurker about 
in the army ; for, as for him who lurks about, he has an 
aim which concerns either the commander of the army, 
or the enemy ; while their aims concern our religion, ana 
its Prophet, and its rites, and its kings, and its learned 
men, and its conmion people, and its people of note. And 
they are the most eager of men to entrust the fortresses 
to the enemies of the Muslims, and to alienate the troops 
from the prefect of command, and to withdraw them from 
obedience to him. So then, it is obligatory upon the 
prefects of commands to displace them from the rolls of 
fighting men, whether in a fortress, or elsewhere than in a 
fortress, while the harm they do in a fortress is most seri- 
ous ; and that they employ, instead of them, believing men, 
who hold to the religion of Islam, and the admonition of 
God, and his Envoy, and the Imams of the Muslims. And 
when they make a show of conversion, respecting thafc 
there is a dispute among learned men. So then, those who 
admit their conversion, bind them to the observance of 
the law of Islam, and impose upon them tribute of their 
effects ; and those who admit it not, reject their ranking as 
of their class, so that whatever is theirs reverts to the Pub- 
lic Treasury. But, as for these, whenever they are taken 
up, they make a show of conversion, inasmuch as one ac- 
commodates his doctrine to piety and the hiding of what 
is the case with them ; and there are those among them who 
are acquainted with their religion, and those who are not so. 
So that the way, respecting that, is to look out for what 
is the case with them ; and that they be not suffered to 
congregate ; and that they be not empowered to bear arms, 
— not even if they make a part of tlie fighting men ; and 
that they be bound to the observance of the laws of Islam, 
namely, the five prayers, and the reading of the Kuran; 
and that some one stay among them, who may teach them 
the religion of Islam, and interpose between them and 
their teachers. And let them be prohibited from making a 
part of the cavalry, and of the bearers of arms, and of 
those clad in the coats of mail which the fighting men wear ; 
and they may not stay among the troops, just as neither a 
Jew nor a Christian may stay among the troops. And let 
them be bound to the observance of the laws of Islam. 


And it is not allowed to any one to leave them at the 
extremity of the frontiers. 

This is according to that which God, — ^let him be exalted 1 
says, namely, " Do ye regard the giving of water to the 
pilgrim to Slekkeh, and the visiting of the Mosque, as ye 
regard one's believing in God and the day which is to 
come, and warring on the side of God ? They are not alike 
in God's estimation, and God directs not wicked people. 
Those who believe, and leave their homes, and war on the 
side of God, staking their effects and their lives, are high- 
est in degree in God's esteem ; and as for those, they are 
those who are saved. Their Lord announces to them the 
gladness of mercy from him, and ^ace ; and there are gar- 
aens for them, in which is endunng pleasure, where they 
shall abide forever. With God is great recompense."* And 
God, — glory be to him ! is the Knowing One. 


* In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionata 
Praise be to God, who confirms every thing by nis unity ; 
to the glory of whose reverence every thing bows ; who 
embraces by science the thing in every thing ; j who is, and 
before whom was not any thing ; ana who created out of 
nothing things created; and the glory of whose dominion 
nothing resembles, so that not any thing is too much for 
him, if he wills it ; and who is the cause of every thing ; 
and who dispenses with every thing, and whom nothing 
dispenses with; whom all thmgs need, and from whom 
and with whom are all things; from whom every thing 
emanates, and who emanates not from any thing ; and who 
is not the general of any thing special, and who comes not 
under any thing ; and by reason of whom nothing subsists, 
and to the detriment of whom nothing changes ; and to the 
.degree of whose essence there is no reaching for any per- 
ception, or any conjecture ; who is the Hidden of the hid- 
den, and the IJystery of mystery ; from whose unity eman- 
ated a sole Amr. And to it was given for a covering the 

♦ KurAn, Sur. ix. vv. 19-22. 

f Meaning, who knows the essence of every tbingp 


K&f and the Nany"^ comprehending that which was, and that 
which is, and that whicn is to he. So then, that is his Word, 
atid his eiFusion, and his out-pouiing, and his science, and 
the cause of that which is produced by him, and his per- 
fection, and the medium of his producing, and the means 
of his creating, and the manifester of his declaring,t and 
the exhibiter of his superior power, and a hiyiilyj to his 
command, and a form to his volition, like as the Iradeh is 
a hij^y to his Amr, and a form to his Meshiyeh ;§ and as 
will is a hiyiily to volition, and a form to the intellect. 

And so emanates from his sole Amr the first producer, 
the Sfibik,! the most perfect receiver, the simple substance, 
the ^^rehender, the comprehender, the suitea to the appro- 
priation of perfection, the creator by no reinforcement,^" 
an,d the correspondent of the Eternal One, and the Noble 
Root, the Primitive Light, and the Universal Intelligence, 
the improver of things existing, the shedder forth of things 
created, the producer of things produced, the preceder of 
things made, the divine in essence, the conjoined with 
felicities, the abiding, the constant, the medium betweeji 
the Creator and his reinforcement pertaining to things 
caused, the made one with the Word, the sliarer in the 
divine majesty, the prior by essence and rank, the ex- 
empt from finiteness and defect, the place of tne act of 
creation, and the seat of the act of production, the shedder 
forth upon the Taly** as to that which it receives of the 
out-pouring of the Highest, the lofty, the form of forms, the 
originator of creatures, the governor of ranks, the per- 
former of wonders, and the manifester of extraordinaries, 
the complete as to excellencies, the finisher of the first 

* By ibe Kdf and the Nun is meant the creative mandate t\* y he thou, 

{Meaning the declaration of his mind and will by revelation. 
The Greek iXij, matter without form. Of course, both this word and 
" form** are here used metaphorically. 

S By the IrAdeh, or the Will, and the Meshijeh, or the Volition, seem here 
to be intended the S&bik and the T&lj, presently to be mentioned, of which 
the former emanates directly firom the Amr, while the latter emanates from it. 
The same application of- names is found in the books of the Druaea. See 
De Sacy's Expose de la Religion dea Drttze^t Tome iL pp. 21-2. 

I L e. Preceder. 

^ Meaning, without any aiding from a higher pofWer. 

** I e. Follower. See below. 


five,* the Tiniter of things allied, the separater of things 
which differ. So then, it is the first of substances, and 
the second of manifesters, the necessary, by its Cause, the 
competent by its divinity, the living, the emulous in sci- 
ence, the potent, the ruler, the prohibiter, the commander, 
the shedder forth, the receiver, the made, the maker, the 
perfected, the perfecter, the lover, the beloved for its essence; 
the exerciser of justice, the joyous with its delights, the 
qualified with the most perfect of attributes, the designa- 
ted by the most excellent of epithets, which is set forth in 
the attributes and the names,t and which is named Fate. 
So then, it is the fortune of fortunes, and the pen of that 
which is written, and the hiyiily of every hiymy, and the 
place of science, and the supreme and primitive naturfeL 
which receives effusion from its Cause, and is let out, and 
so becomes the shedder forth of the lights of his Word^ 
and takes its stand with his taking his stand, and abides with 
his abiding, by virtue of a continual effusion of reinforce^ 
ments,:|: from eternity to eternity, endless, without measure, 
and incomputable. And its receiving that which is not an 
end§ postulates that it is a receiver in order to spreading, in 
order that the acted upon may be converted into an actor, 
and that the Intelligence, and that which is objective to the 
Intelligence, may become an intelligent being, and that the 
height of its potency may be manifested, and the light of 
its wisdom. 

And so emanates, in accordance with its volition, in 
order to the continuance of the perfection of its felicity, 
through the fairness of its forming, an active substance, 
congruous with its substance, which is named the Universal 
Soul, and the Veritable Spirit, which is raised up by it 
as a receiver of its effusion and its impresses, improving by 
the succession of its benefits and its lights, prepared for the 
reception of impress, naked of forms. So then, it is the 

* Meaning the first five emanations, namely, the Amr, the SAbik, the TAlj, 
the Primitire Hiydly, and the Circumambient See below. 

-f Namely, those applied to Ood by the Muslims. 

Meaning reinforcements from the Amr, received by the SAbik, and trans- 
mitted to the Prophets of every period, and to'the seven Imftms of each, m 
their representatives, by virtue of which the Deity himself is conceived of 
as taking his stand, and* abiding, in them. 
§ Kamely, the reinforcement from the Amr. 


verity of verities, and the quintessence of things recondite, 
which is designated as the Taly to that Sabik, the essence of 
which is a tablet for the inscribing of the letters of the pen of 
the Intelligence, a root to that which is beside it of branches, 
and a branch to that root, a place of beginning to the let- 
tings out of things, and a cause of the measurements of things 
which have parts, and a medium between the first and the 
last, and the inward and the outward, the place of coming 
out of that which is potential to the open field of actuality, 
the sojouming-place of lights, the excellencies of science 
and justice,* a power able to manifest sciences in that which 
is caused, a receiver of the impress of its Cause, an actor, 
making its impresses upon that which is caused, pervading 
through all existence, reinforcing, by effusion and aiding, 
the rest of the Enclosures,+ which manifests things subtile, 
and forms things gross, and disperses through the world 
its forces, and manifests its ideas m every genus and species 
and person. 

And so emanates therefirom the Primitive HiyQly, the 
receiver, essentially, of the forms of things created, upon 
which the Soul pours out that which it receives of the im- 
press of its Cause, and through the medium of which it 
perpetuates the perfection of its excellence, and which, by 
the force of receptivity, and the perfection of preparation 
for forms, it causes to become the distant three.J r or, per- 
vading nature and coursing forms are manifested in things 
whole and things of parts, and things high and things low ; 
and the Iliyuly thereby becomes an absolute body, and the 
force of the Soul is attached to it with attachment, and so 
are parted oif from it the higher envelopes, and made out 
of it the lower bodies ; while attractive, propensive force 
manifests motion of volition.§ 

* Meaning that the divine attribates of knowledge and justice are taber- 
nacled in it. 

f Enclosures of the Deity. This name seems to include, in the IsmAllian 
Bjstem, all created existences. See p. 306. 

X By which is meant the three classes of existence fiartheflt removed from 
the Deity, namely, Minerals, Plants, and Animals. See below. 

§ The name of "the higher envelopes" includes the Stellar Sphere, and 
the seven Palaces, presently to be mentioned; wlule the four Globes, of 
Ether, Air, Water, and gross Earth, together with Minerals, Plants, and Ani- 
mals, which are also presentlv to be mentioned, constitute ifhat are called 
"the bwer bodies.** It is evideotlj the Univeraal Soul of which all thew ars 


And so the Circtunambient is fiashioned in the most excel* 
lent of fashions, and ordered in the most perfect of states. 
So then, it is the cause of sensible motions, and the mani- 
fester of the forces of the Soul, and the. reconditeness of 
the ideas of the Holy One, the limiter of regions, the uniter 
of things simple and things composite, a cause of place, an 
actualizer of time, which is enthroned in the evenness of 
the Merciful, and the place of the loftiness of the envelopes^ 
the basis of the regulator of the day, the compriser of every 
cause and every effect.* 

Afterwards, is let out the Stellar Sphere,t with the fixed 
stars, the seat of power, which compasses the earth and the 
heavens, which is the standing-place of forms, and the lunar 
mansions, and the zodiacal signs, which is denominated the 
heaven of the degrees of the zodiacal signs, the actualizer 
of the great periods, the mover of that which is beside it of 

Ailerwards, rises to view the Elevated Palace, the capa- 
cious structure, the vestibule, the hall of Keiwan, who is 
the superior over beings, the master of abstinence and chief- 
tainship, the educator of people of thought and ingenuity, 

conceived to be incorporations, diifering only in 'grade ; for they are said to 
oome into existence in consequence of the union of the Soul with " absolute 
body.** But by the inclination of the Soul to absolute body is first developed, 
according to this system, motion of volition. It follows from this, that all the 
elnanations previously mentioned are to be considered as involuntary. 

* From this description it is evident that the Circumambient is Finite 

f This is the outer concave of the ancient Ptolemaic system of astronomy, 
as appears fr(»n what follows in our text, taken in connection with the follow- 
ing passage from an astronomical work of £l-FarghAnv, an Arabic astron- 
omer probably of the ninth century of our era : *' So then, we say that the 
numbo' of the spheres which compass aU the motions of the stars, is eig^ ; 
of which seven oelong to the seven planets, and the eighth is the hig^iesL 
belonging to the fixed stars, which is the sphere of the zodiacal signs. Ana 
the figure of these spheres is Hke the figure of globes one within another. 
And BO the smallest of them is that which is the nearest of them to the earthy 
which is the globe of the Moon, and the second belongs to 'Utftrid, [Mercury,] 
and the third, to Ez-Zaharah, [Venus,] and the fourth, to the Sun, and the 
fifth, to El-Mirrildi, [Mars,] and the sixth, to £1-Mushtary, [Jupiter,] and the 
seventh, to Zuhal, [Saturn,] and the eighth, to the fixed stars. And so, as 
for the sphere of the fixed stars, which is the sphere of the zodiacal signi^ 
on the one hand, its centre is the centre of the earth ; and as for the oentrea 
of the seven globes which belong to the planets, they deviate from the cen- 
tre of the evth, variously." ^e FerganmtU Elen^Bnta Astrcnamiea, ed. 
'J» Goliufi^ pp. 46-4. 


the p(render over cultivated Bpdts and sown fields, the 
sheikh of Uie overflowing, and the lords of groups of houses, 
the letter out of ages hj his rotation, the master of handi- 
crafts, the black as to his colors. 

Afterwards, the Second Palace, the solid as to founda- 
tions, of which the defenses hide Birjis, who is the manifest 
by science and research, the aider of the masters of the 
luminous and the enlightening, namely the Lights, the 
shedder forth, whose beauty gives light, the powerful in the 
house of the King of the invisible realm of heaven, the 
ordainer of kings and rulers, the manifester of nights and 
days, the cause of articles* by his movements, and the reg- 
ulator of fundamentals by his reposings, who puts in motion 
the great enlightener, the most potent master of revolution. 

.Aikerwards, the Fifth Palace, the palanquin of the fidr 
NShaid, and the sitting-place of the bright Zaharah, who is 
the star of the people of gaiety and ordered song with 
music, the sweetheart of the sparkling orbs, the adomer of 
women and girls, the belle of the celestial spheres, the 
tempter of the king who presides over love and mirth- 
fulness, as for accidents ; and as for colors, the white. 

Afterwards, the Sixth Palace, the shop of the devices of 
'Utfirid, who is involved in every thing emanating, and 
every thing coming into existence, the sage, the geometri- 
cian, and tne sanctified ascetic, the master of paintings and 
writings, who takes care of the niceties of the arts, the 
compiler of diwans, the educator of artificers and artizans, 
the mingled, the colored, the refined, the varied. 

Afterwards, the Seventh Palace, tlie hippodrome of Jau- 
lan, who is the second enlightener, the hastener in journey- 
ings, without delay, the master of the fashionings of light, 
the star of the camel-train and couriers, the colorer of things, 
who has command of striping and reddening, who makes 
months and years to be, the agent of properties and powers, 
the befriender as to supplies, the clother, who takes m hand 
the concerns of common men. 

And after the seven homogeneous Palaces,f come other 
seven heterogeneous, which are the four Corner-stones, and 
their intermediates, the circumscribing three. 

♦ Meaning articles of belief. 

f The fypheres, or coDcayea, of the cieven planctn are referred to under tUb 
general nanie. We have proof of this, and a mosit important help to the ii»> 
derstanding of the descriptions above given of these several Palaces, as Well 


The first, then, of. the Comer-stones is the Globe of 
Ether, which is the heaven of the shooting stars, and the 
station of the possessors of tails and flowing manes, the 
highest of the elements, and the -agent of heats in sub- 

Next, the second, is the Globe of Air, with clouds and 
rains, the place of convolution for the convolution of vapor, 
the agent of thunder-clouds, and thunder-bolts, and nnsts, 

as a clear indication of the source^from which the ideas here expressed were 
derived, in Esh-Shahrast&ny's account of the Sabians. This author, after char- 
acterizing Sabiism as a system inculcating assiduity in action, rather than a 
religious disposition, goes on to speak of its followers as those who hold to 
" Spiritual Elxistenccs, pure and holy, in substance, act, and state,** which are 
necessary mediators between man and the glorious Creator, in respect to all 
benefits recdved firom him ; so that man must cultivate intercourse with them, 
by "assiduity in action, austerity, and withdrawment from the mundanitiea 
6f passions." He also tells us mat the Sabians hold these Spiritual Exis- 
tences to be " the mediating occasions, in respect to production, and causing to 
exist, and alteration from one state to another, and. the causing of created 
things to tend from a beginning to a perfection." After this he adds : " Some 
of them are the regents of the seven planets in their spheres, which are their 
Palaces ; and to every Spiritual there is a Palace, and to every Palace, a 
sphere. And the relation of a Spiritual to that Palace which is appropriate 
to it, is the relation of the soul to the body ; so that it is its lord, and its re- 
gent, and its intendant. And they name the Palaces lords ; and often they name 
them fathers, and the elements mothers ; and so the action of the Spirituals is to 
cause them to move, by a peculiar power, in order that from their motions ac- 
tualities may arise within natural properties and the elements, and therefrom 
compoundings, and temperaments in composites, upon which follow corporeal 
forces, and to which are superadded spiritual souls^ like the species of plants 
and the species of animals. He also distinguishes the Spirituals of the Sa- 
bian system as " universal" in their " impressions," to which are to be referred 
the distinctions of species, and " particular," to which are to be referred the 
distinctions of one individual of a species from another ; and as exerting their 
influences either in the upper air, in the heavens, in the lower atmosphere, and 
on the earth, or every where, in all existences, alike. See Esh-Shalirast&oy's 
Book of Relig. and Philos, Sects^ pp. 203-6. This statement by Esh-Shah- 
rastAny makes it quite evident what is intended by the Palaces and the beings 
occupying them, described in our text ; and also throws light upon the union 
of these Palaces with the four Comer-stones, or elements, presently to be 
mentioned as the immediate occasion of the generation of Minerals, Plants 
and Animals. As to the portraitures of the several regents of the planets, 
given in our text, however, I am unable to show that they have their analogies 
in any other system, although I do not doubt that such will be found to be the 
case. Some of the names which these regents bear in the text may be seen, 
by reference to our extract from El-Fargl^y's astronomical work, to be those 
which are ordinarily given to some of the planets in Arab astronomy. But 
others differ. It is deserving of notice, also, that, although seven Palaces are 
spoken of in our text, the third and fourth, in the order of their being ** let out,** 
namely that of the Sun and that of Man, are omitted in the deecription. 

VOL. n. 89 


and distant thunderincB, the uniter of colds in freezing cold, 
and the life of every thing animate which possesses form. 

And the third is the Grlobe of Water, the giver of mois- 
ture to things, the image of science, the all-embracing, by 
means of which every thing living is constituted, the mani- 
fest by the ocean, the filled with substance, the pourer, the 

The fourth is -the Globe of gross Earth, the centre of 
every subtile circumambient,* the guardian of dryness in 
composites, the binder of separating parts. 

The first two are light, and the last two, heavy ; and as 
for each two of them, an intermediate determines them, 
that they may not exceed their bounds. 

And after the fathers and the mothers have moved with 
the three motions, and natural properties incline towards 
being awakened, and the three generators appear, and the 
males are filled with the females, the firfit of things genera- 
ted is Minerals, which are compounded of the Corner-stones, 
of which the lowest is sand, and the highest, small pearls ; 
and as for the second, it is Plants, of which the lowest is 
the kusMty\ and the highest, the tall palm ; and the third 
is Animals, of which the lowest is the intestinal worm, and 
the highest, man. 

So then, these are conjoined substances, and a material 
not dissevered,:}: spreading itself from the apogee of the 
Holv One to the perigee of genus, coursing through the 
worlds, appearing in things which rise to view, and niding 
itself in things obscured. In twenty-eight places of mani- 
festation is the Perfect in number, which are three groups 
of seven, § successive as to effusion, and the reinforcements 

— — — r 

♦ See note \ p. 808. 

f Cuscuta epithyrmtm^ a parasitic climbing plant, without roots, and with- 
out leaves, but bearing smaU seeds at its extremities. See Ebn Bait hart Hril- 
und Nahrungt-mittel, iiberset^t von Dr. Joseph v. Sontheimer, Bd. il s. 880. 

1 Meaning;, not dissevered from the Deity. See p. 299. 

§ These three groups are as follows : 1. the Deity, tlie Amr, the S«^(bik, the 
Tflly, the Primitive Euyilly, the Circumambient, and the Stellar Sphere ; 2. the 
seven Palaces ; and 8. the Four Comer-stones, and the three clas.->e8 of gene- 
rated existences. Minerals, Plants, and Animals. Consequently, ** the Perfect 
in number^ denotes some absolute numerical principle pervading ail tilings. 
It can be nothing else than Unity of number. The tv a^xh ^^*^ ^^ ^^® 
Pythagoreans may be referred to as a parallel, provided only that simultane- 
ouoncss of existence is ascribed to this principle of Unity and the Deity, for it 
is said of the Deity, above, that he ''is, and before him was not any thing." 
See pL 299. 


in whicli the light of the Divine Word spreads itself, of 
which the form is perfectness, and the ideas are consum- 
mate.* And so it appears, in every place of manifesta- 
tion, in the most elevated of impersonations ; and them it 
causes to acknowledge the way of return and deliverance, 
and instructs in the ideas of mystery and witness,t and 
commands to obey and worship, and forbids to pass limits. 
Blessed, then, be tnat which separates and unites, and which 
is conversant with that which is made I And let gratitude be 
to our friends, and praise to our superiors, for the bestowal 
of acquirements of Knowledge, and gifts of things subtile, 
and the knowledge of quality, and that which is qualified, 
and the qualifier. And in liim who knows, who is assured, 
there is that which apprehends every idea. 

These things, O my seignors and my brethren, are the 
verity of my knowledge, and the philosophy of my essence 
and my quality,:|: and my circuit of my Ka'beh, and mv 
stopping on my 'Arafeh,§ and the hidden sense of my pil- 
grimage, and the idea of my visitation of the sacred spots, 
and the finishing of my endeavor for the Safa of my Choice, 
and t^ie Marwen of my Fortitude,) and my prostration to 
the Muhammedan Kibleh and the Kureishite Ka'beh, and 

• • • 7 

the 'Aly-presence, and the Hashimite Corner-stones, and 
the Fatimite Domes, and the Isma'ilian Imams, and the 
Suns of the West and East, — from them and to them let 
there be the best of peace-giving, and the most perfect of 
salutation ! 

" And thy Lord said by inspiration to the bee, * Take 
thou of the mountains for homes, and of the trees, and of 
what they rear for shelter, and after.wards eat thou of every 
fruit ; so pursue thou the ways of thy Lord.' That makes 

♦ See note J p. 301. 

f Meanin;^ the knowledge of God as he is, or, allegorically, acquaintance 
with the rank and power of the Im&m. See p. 818. 

X Meaning ^hat is essence and quality to me. 

§ Stopping on tlie hill 'Arafeh, a short distance from Mekkeh, b one of tbe 
ceremonies of pilgrimage to the holy city. 

I There is a play on words, here, which cannot be rendered in English. The 
arduous ceremony of the walk to and firo between Saf^ and Marweh is alluded 
to ; but the idea of the person speaking ii^, that what he has said is in the 
way of sincere endeavor to be toe object of the friendship of the Im&m, and 
to be bold in his service. 


to come out from within her a drink varied in its colors, in 
which there is healing for men. Verily, therein is a sign 
to people who consider,"* 

The Memorial of the acquirements of knowledge by the 
friend of God IbrShtm^f of whose spirit was Isma^il, — let 
peace from both of them be to us I The Blessed Belief. 

Praise be to God who has directed us to his religion, 
the right, and brought us to his way, the straight, and 
elected us to the creed of our fether IbrShlm, and freely 
bestowed it upon us I for it is the ancient doctrine which 
is the doctrine of Isma'il the noble. And let the bene- 
dictions of God, and his peace, and his salutations, and 
his honoring, be to the Possessors of pure elements, and 
pervading envelopes, and angelic souk, and holy intelli- 
gences !:{: I believe as they wno profess the unity, believe, 
and hold to that which they who know, hold to, and I 
declare as they who believe, declare, that the world with all 
its parts, from the roof to the ground, is originated, poten- 
tial; and that that which is originated is that which is 
potential, needing an originator who exercises preference ; 
and that he is Goo, the Eternal, the Necessary, the essen- 
tially Kich, the Self-subsistent, whom things potential take 
the place o^ and are necessary to, whom we qualify with 
the qualifyings of hallowing and exalting, and acquit our- 
selves of the profession of vacuity, § as well as of anthropo- 

And I believe that the Prophets of God are so of right, 
and veritably NStiks, wtose testimony is confirmed by intel- 
lectual proofe, and decisive arguments ; and that the Leaves 
of the Prophets, and their Books, sent down to them, are 
the word of God, — let him be magnified and glorified ! and 

* Kur&n, Sur. zvi yy. 70-1. This passage seems to be used in an allegori- 
cal sense, as a recommendation of diligent seeking after hidden knowledge. 

f This piece and the two following are called " Memorials" of Abraham, 
lioses, and Jesus, under the pretense that they contain that which ia kindred 
to the teachings of these earher Prophets. 

i A description of the Trnftms, as made up of the four elements in their 
purity, peryaded by influences of the celestial spheres, with special aidings 
from the Amr, through the S&bik and the T&ly. 

§ See note | p. 276. 


as for the letter of his revelation, that there is no vague- 
ness in it, and no uncertainty, and no defect, and no feult ; 
and that the angels are they who are the &vorite servants 
of God, who are the Kar&bis and the Spirituals ;* and that 
the religions to which the NStiks call, auring the periods, 
and the laws which they establish for the people of the ages, 
are correct as to terms, truthful as to ideas, obligatory as to 
the following of them, obvious for their utility, the denier 
of which, during their time, is an infidel, and the opposer 
of which, during their season, is an obdurate wretch ; and 
as for the law of our period, that it is the Muhammedan 
law, and that the religion of this our time is the religion of 

And I believe that the punishment of the sepulchre and 
its comfort are a reality ; and that Munkir and Naktr are a 
reality ; and the gathering, and the blast,t and the resurrec- 
tion, a reality ; and the Garden and the Fire, a reality ; and 
the Book, and the reckoning, and the SirSt,:}: and the Bal- 
ance, a reality ; and the coming to an end, and the return- 
ing to God, a reality ; and the seeing of him, a reality ; and 
the allowed and the forbidden, a reality ; and that the com- 
manding of acts of obedience and services, is a thing admit- 
ted ; § and the prohibition of acts of disobedience and 
offences, a thing objective to the intellect ; and that praver, 
and alms, and fastmg, and pilgrimage, and holy warrare, 
and justice, and beneficence, and the giving to a relative, 
are obligatory on the believers ; and that the commission of 
adulterj, and the practice of usury, and obscenity, and 
depravity, and the killing without right, and games, and 
things intoxicating, are forbidden to the Muslims. 

And I believe that the Jinns are existent, and the Shei- 
t&ns not unreal ; and that Iblts and his troop, the cursed, 
are the friends of infidels and hypocrites. 

And I believe that there is no perfection except by the 
knowledge of oneself; and no elevation except by mak- 
ing sure the sciences of religion ; and no deliverance except 
by sincerity as to the articles of faith ; and no rest except 

* See note + p. 804. The Kardbis are Cherubim. 
Meaning tne blast of the trumpet tp rouse the dead to final judgment. 
The bridge over HelL 
Meaning a thing which the reason allows. 


in the renunciation of conveniences, and the taking to utili- 
ties ; and no knowledge except by the profession of unity ; 
and no clean purification, ana no attaining, except by per- 
severance ; and no coming up except by the Imam ; ana no 
obedience except by the friends ; and no disobedience ex- 
cept by following the adversaries ; and no direction, and no 
bemg a Muslim, except by submission to the rightful 
Imams ; and no feith except by love to the pure people of 
the Family;* and no religion except the religion of the 
Lords of disclosure and allegory ; and no belief except the 
belief of the Masters of wisdom and the letter of revela- 
tion ; and no doctrine except the doctrine of the Da^is of 

These things are the cream of my doctrine, and my belief 
on my settin^j out and my return ; and the refined gold of 
my faith, ana the credence of my heart. And therewithal 
I submit to God in my inmost soul, and my open doing, 
and hope for the end of the attainment of things desired. 
And I am fixed in what my tongue has uttered in the 
presence of my chiefs and my brethren. And we read, 
" Upon those who believe, and who perform good actions, 
there rests no guilt in respect to that which they eat, pro- 
vided they stand in awe, and believe, and peribrm good 
actions, and after that stand in awe, and believe, and after 
that stand in awe, and do virtuously ; and God loves those 
who do virtuously. "f 

The Memorial of the talker with God Musa, — ^let peace 
from both of them be to us ! The Allegorical Sense of the 
Blessed Belief. " He it is who has sent down to thee the 
Boolv, of which some verses are explicit, which are the 
mother of the Book, and others not precise. So then, as 
for them in whose hearts is wandering, they follow that 
which is not precise, pertaining to it, from desire to seduce, 
and from desire to allegorize it ; while no one knows its 
allegorical sense, except God and those who are firmly 
established in science, who say, * We beheve in it ; all is 

* The family of Muhammed. 
f Kur^, Sur. v. v. 94. 


from oTir Lord;' and only the possessors of hearts reflect."* 
I hold fast to the Possessor of majesty and omnipotence, ^nd 
I fortify myself in the King of the visible realm and the 
invisible, and I entrust niyself to the Living One, who dies 
not, our Deity, and the Deity of those who discover to us, 
and our Lord, and the Lord of our superiors, and our 
Friend, and the Friend of our friends. And I acknowledge 
that there is no outward without its inward ; and no form 
without its perfect idea ; and no rind without its core ; and 
no Light without its Veil ;f and no Knowing One without 
his Gate ; and no law without its way ; and no way without 
its verity ; and no verity without its letter of revelation ; 
and no letter of revelation without its allegorical sense ; and 
no allegorical sense except to the firmly established in 
science ; and no being firmly established m science except 
to the allegorizers. 

So then, as for our saying God, its allegorical sense is the 
Word. And the allegorical sense of the world is a place 
for manifesting the divine greatness. And as for the com- 
ing into existence, it is the posteriority of the caused to the 
cause, and the latter's preceding the former, agreeably to 
convincing proofe, a priori and a posteriori^ with reference to 
order, by argument from order of time, not order of place. 
And as for potentiality, it is the essence of the being in 
need, and the ordaining of the realization of the relation of 
cause to effect. And " the essentially Necessary" implies 
the absurdity of defining by that which is devoid of quality. 
And as for the Manna's:]: being established as pre-existent 
and eternal, and the hallowing of the self-existently Neces- 
sary, and the exempting of hun from his qualities, it is that 
we abstract from him every thing which occurs to oui* 
minds, and is fixed in our perceptions ; and we know that 

* Kurfin, Sur. ill y. 6. El-Beidh&wy explains the expression ** mother of the 
BooV* in this passage, to mean "its root, that to which the rest of it amoimts." 
This orthodox commentator is obliged to admit that an aUegorical sense per- 
taining to some verses of the Kurun, is here recognized ; but he claims that 
there are points left indefinite because God reserves to himself the knowledge 
of them, and that- man has no concern with the aUegorical sense, except where 
it becomes necessary to lean upon it with reference to faith or practice. See 
Beidhawii Comm. in Coranum^ vol. L pp. 145-6. 

f The Veil of the IsmA'ilian system seems to be the hmnan person of the 
Im&m, while the so called Light is. the veritable ImAm himself. 

} I e. The Idea, the absolute Deity. 


he is above the reach of the choicest of our perceptions and 
our conjectures ; and his unreached qualities take us out of 
the ditch of sentimentalizing and the profession of vacuity, 
while they save us from the fetter of anthropomorphism 
and assimilation. 

And as for prophecy and conmiunication by message, 
they are the mMiifestation of the Word in the Veil, and the 
setting up of the Guide, and the Conductor, and the Gate, 
to the open "\^ay of truth and the path of rectitude. And 
as for the Propnet, he is the informer with regard to ftmda- 
mentals, calling to that to which the Envoy* calls. And 
as for the Envoy, he is the Natik, calling to the two Boots, 
the Sabik and the Taly, and the three Branches, the Jedd 
and the Fath and the Khival,t which make the higher five, 
comprising perfection. The Natik is an outward, of which 
the mward is the Talv, to which latter it pertains to train 
and manage, while the opposite is the case in regard to 
composing and putting together. Aijd as for the confirma- 
tion of communication by message, by means of proof and 
analogy, it is the allegorical sense of the Asas,^ and the 
manifestation to the intelligent among men of ideas com- 

Eosed by the Natik. And as for the sending down of the 
leaf and the Book, and Jebril's bringing the Address, it is 
the coming of 'i|id to the Nfitik from the Sabik, and its 
directing with reference to composing, and its assisting in 
the writing out. The embodiment of form objective to the 
intellect is necessary ; and the Address is the verification of 
things determined by the intellect. And as for the favorite 
angels, they are the knowing, active forces in the upper 
ana lower worlds. And as for their glorifying night and 
day, and their ascribing of dominion for people of the faith, 
with asking of forgiveness, it is the continuing of those 
forces to order the succession of the Amrs, and the mani- 
festation of the properties thereof, in their known place, 
without intermission.§ And the Kar&bis are the forces 

* Muhammed 

f The Jcdd, or the Primogenitor, the Fath, or the Opening, and the Khij^ or 
the Image, are here, evidently, used as names of the Primitiye HiyCily, the 
Circumambient, and the Stellar Sphere. i See note * p. 266. 

§ What is here allegorized will oe best understood by anoUier quotation from 
Esh-ShahrastAny's stAtement of the belief of the Sabians in regard to the so 
called Spirituals. He says, *' And they create in hallowing and glorifying, 
not disobeying Ood as to that which he commands, and doing that which they 


which support the Nfitiks in composing the letter of revela* 
tion. And the Spirituals are the forces which belong to 
the Asases in the disclosure of the allegorical sense. And le 
for religions and laws, they are the institutions of divine 
intelligences for the good estate of earthly bodies, in order 
to the perfecting of the sciences of human souls ; which 
are six, while seven is the number of the days of the week.* 
And as for the sepulchre, it is corporeal form and the 
enveloping Palaces. And as for the punishment of the 
sepulchre, it is the impression made upon the soul by the 
shackle of that which comes to it of Hiyiily-forms, opposed 
to its natural properties ; which is in the way of fettering. 
And the comfort of the sepulchre is the loss of the impres- 
sion made upon it thereby, and its taking refuge in the veri- 
fication of the apprehensions pertaining to its Palace-like 
instruments ;t wnich is by the power of abstraction. And 
as for the fixing by Munkir ana Nakir, it is the mastery of 
the forces of passionate desire and anger. And as for, the 
gathering, it is the hastening of souls in pursuing the route 
of their impediments, and their decamping to the rear-guard 
of their instruments,^ and the conclusion firom premises of 
creatures, in respect to their days, and the verity of the 
idea of a day which calls all men to their Imam. And. as 
for the awakening, it is the manifestation of souls in world 
afl«r world, in accordance with their acquirements of wrong 
and crime. And as for the allegorical sense of the resur- 
rection, the resurrection of individual souls is separation 
from the apprehensions of sense, and corporeal instruments ; 
and the resurrection of laws and religions is the appear- 

are commnnded And we depend upon them as our administrators, so that 

they are our lords, and our divimties, and our askers, and our intercessors be- 
fore God; while he is the Lord of lords, and the Ood of gods." See Esh* 
ShahrastAny's Book of Relig. and Philos, Sectt, p. 208. The next sentences 
show that by " the Amrs" are here mtended the reinforcements which the Amr 
transmits to the N&tiks and Asfises, or Prophets and Legatees, of the seyen 


* This seems to indicate that the Prophet of the seventh period was not 
considered as having established the new order of things, when this sermon 
was composed. 

J By which are intended the senses. 
This and the " pursuing the route of their impediments" are expressions 
borrowed from the operations of an army in the field, to signify a victoiy 
gained by souls over all the obstacles of corporeal form. 

vol. n. 40 

•nee of the Kiim* of the time ; and the Tesurrection of the 

Seriod in the Universal Soul's showing itself in the well- 
oings of individual souls ; and the resurrection of resur- 
rections is the perfection of deliverance and salvation, and 
the relief of all souls from being made to emanate, and 
their reaching the world of the Holy One, and the plaoe of 
Lights, and the ending of the prolongation of the hours of 
the Great Day, and the coming together of the planets, after 
their separation, at the point of the first equipoise in revo* 
lution ; and the resurrection of the whole is the consumma- 
tion of the two awakenings,t and the closing together of 
the two zones,:^ and the reversion of science and power to 
the Universal Soul, in the two worlds, and the coming to 
nothing of articles, and the failure of difference in funda* 
mentals, and the Hiyuly's putting off the clothing of form, 
and the Soul's dispensing with the efficiencies of neeessitj,| 
and the Knowing One's becoming alone as to his sort ana 
his principle,! and the verification of his saying, '^ And to 
him shall all command revert"^ 

And as for the Book, it is the tablet of secret thought, 
and the place of that by which the soul is determinea in 
respect to holding to be true and imagining. And as for 
the reading of it, it is the soul's eyeing and regarding its 
objects of knowledge akin to itself And if they are proved 
sciences and decisive verities, the soul takes hold of them 
by the right hand, because they pertain to the higher alter- 
native of direction and certain knowledge ; and if they are 
the imaginings of conjecture, and the accreditings of sup- 
position, and the doubtings of syllogism, and the beliefe of 
the following of authority, the soul takes hold of them by 

* I e. The Taker of hb stand, meaning the manifestation of the Amr in 
each new Prophet See note X p. 801. 

\ Probably, the awakening by Munkir and Nakir, (see note J p. 288,) and 
the awakening for final judgment. 

X Meaning the two zones called, in the astronomy of the Arabs, "the rone 
of primary motion," a circle inters«ecting the earth near the north and south 
pole^ wliich regulates the motion of all the heavenly bodies together, from 
east to west, around the earth, every twenty-four hours ; and •* the sone of 
secondary motion,** a circle, intersecting the earth at other than the polar 
points which regulates the revolutions of the sun and stars from west to east, 
around the eartli, in varying periods. See Feryanamt Elementa Attrtmrnnica, 
pp. 15-16, 46. 

§ See p. 802. | See note § p. 808. 

T KuF&n, Sur. xL v. 123. 


the left hand,* because they pertain to the lower alternative 
of conjecturing and error. And as for the reckoning, it is 
that the superior Universal Soul stands by inferior individ^ 
ual souls, m respect to that which emanates from them of 
sayings and doings, and sciences and operations, whilst they 
use the instruments of form, and outward shapes, with the 
four compound forces, out of which are made up the forces 
of man, which are the angelic, and the brutal, and the bes- 
tial, and the Satanic. And so, if the angelic increases, and 
the force of certain knowledge predominates, they merit 
the good of compensation, and are safe from the evil of 
penalty, and are elevated, as devotees, to the inner court of 
tke invisible realm of the celestial spheres, to have com- 
mand ofVorlds beneath which the Kegal Powersf have 
sway, and are raised by degrees to their spiritual mansion, 
and their world of light ; and if one of tne three [other] 
forces predominates, and hinders them from experiencing 
resurrection, they merit the torment of penalty, and return 
into the defile of the place of return, and are brought back 
to the long zig-zag, and tp base, hideous form, and are dis- 
missed to a shade in three parts^ and are imprisoned in the 
caverns of abjectness and weariness. And as for the Bal- 
ance, it is the medium which the intellect makes use of in 
order to apprehension, and discernment, and preference 
between the incoherencies of falsehood and the accordances 
of that which is precious. And as for that which is 
weighed, it is views and firmly established beliefe, iis respects 
sayings and doings, and sciences and operations. And as 
for the weigher, it is the intellect, the apprehendcr, the com- 
prehender, the discemer between the composite and the 
simple. And as for the Sirat,§ it is the intermediate betweeu 
progression and attainment^ shared in common, and the 
souTs way of transit to the upper world, fix>m the lower 

* Tlie taking hold by the right hand, or by the left, in thbi passage signiiies 
good, or evil augury. The language is bomiwed &om the scene nf the judg- 
ment-day, as anticipated by the Mudim, when the good man will have hia 
book of aoooupts put into his right haod. and the bad man will be made to 
take it by the left hand. See TabUau Oineral 4fi CSmpirt Othomm par M. 
De M. D'Ohason, Tome I p. 47. 

tHeaning the Resents of the planets. 
Meaning that &ey become embodied in minerals, plantSi or i pimnk L 
See 'p. 817. 
^ See note X P- ^9- 


opposed thereto, between that which is corporeal and that 
which is spiritual, a place of twisting for minerals, a place 
of bending for plants, a place of stooping for animals, a 
place of erect standing for spiritual men and deities.* 

And as for the idea of the Garden, it is the eight worlds, 
of which the first is the Garden of the Balance, which is 
the station of man ; and the second, the GFarden of ' Adan, 
which is the station of angels ; and the third, the Garden of 
eternal life, which consists of the worlds of the celestial 
spheres ; and the fourth, the Superior Garden, which con- 
sists of the worlds of spirit abstracted from the enveloping 
worlds ; and the fifth, the Garden of Firdaus, which con- 
sists of the worlds of the Soul-like ; and the sixth^, the Gar- 
den of comfort, which is the world of science ; and the 
seventh, the Garden of Ridhwan, which is the world of the 
Intelligence ; and the eighth, the Garden of the place of 
aid, which is the world of the Divine Amr, from which the 
worlds come forth, and to which is their retum.f And aa 
for the gradations of the Garden, they are the degrees of 
sciences, and the measures of perceptions, in every known 
Place4 -^^d ^ f^r. the delights, and the enclosures, thej 
are the whirling about of souls in the inner court of their 
acquirements of knowledge, and their gaiety, on reaching 
their places of witness,§ and their stopping-places. And as 
for the couches, and the shades, and the cushions, and the 
mantlas, they are the places of manifestation of souls in 
rival forms, and their putting off disagreeing forms, and 
clothing themselves in suitable impersonations. And as 
for the water-pitchers, and the goblets, and the butler, and 
the wine-chalice, and the wine, they are instruments of the 
apprehensive Acuities, and helps to the comprehension of 
the sciences of the invisible realm and the angels. And 
the butler is the Im^m of the circling period ; and the wine- 
chalice is that which the Natik composes of the outward ; 

* Here is allegorized that sort of intermediate 8tat« represented in tbe 
Muslim creed by the bridge oyer Hell, which the ^ood pass with the speed of 
Ugbtnln^, while the bad arc precipitated from it into the flames below. It 
is explamed to mean the scene of the progress of eouls through this woiid, 
in its various stages of mineral, vegetable, and animal embodiment 

f All this may be understood by reference to the syvtem of cosmogoiij, 
detailed in the first piece contained m this document. 

t Place of the reinforcements of the Amr. See p. 801. 

§ See note f P- 807. 


and the pure wine is the allegori(»il sense of the lettet of 
revelation, and the disclosure of the hidden. 

And as for the Fire, it is the seven worlds, namely, the 
three things generated and the four Corner-stones ; of which 
the first is Leza, which is the Globe of Ether ; after which 
is El-Jehtm, the centre of Air and Freezing Cold; after 
which is Es-Sa'ir, the mansion of Water ; afl;er which is 
El-Hdwiyeh, the place of sepulture ; aft«r which is Jehen- 
nam, the world of animals other than man ; after which is 
Sakar, the station of plants ; after which is Sejjtl, the place 
of dead minerals. And its descents are the forms of its 
hideous impersonations, and its gross, heavy envelopes. 
And its people are the individual souls which profess false 
religions and depraved beliefs. And as for the punishment 
and the penalty, it is that which one experiences of sufier- 
ings and pains and diseases, and separation from things 
habituated to, by the inroad of misfortunes and calamities. 
And as for the Zubaniyeh,* the helps of El-Jehim, they 
are the forms of doubts and ignorances, and the impersona- 
tions of errors and phantasms, and the manifesters of fake 
views and failures. And Malikf is the impersonation of 
composite ignorance. And as for the being qualified with 
badness, that is the being collared with the serpent and the 
scorpion, and the change of skins, and the being folded to 
breaking, and the being brought back to the lowest of two 
low states,:^ and the being conducted into the zig-zag of 
Es-Sa'tr, and the tree Zakkum,§ and the becoming akin to 
the Adversaries,! and the gathering of the fruits of infi- 
delity and repugnance, and the feeding on the dJiari*^ and 
putrefiujtion. And the belief of that which fits not the 
intellect, and religion, and the following of authority, are 
the People of uncertainties and conjecturing,** and the 
drink of hot water, and the sentences adverse to the certain 



* Demons of the Muslim Hell 

f A note to the original manuscript, in Arabic, interprets this to be th« 
name of ^'the barbed and feathered arrow of the porter of HeU." 

1 Meaning, to £l-Jeh!nL See above. 

I The Tree of Hell 

|A name given to the Spirits of Hell 

% The dhar^ h said to be a plant of heating qualities, found on the shor* 
of th6 Dead Sea. See Ibn BeiOr's Heii- mmT N<fhnmg9^nwUd, Bd. a pu 14i. 

** A name given to the Spirits of HeU. 


And as for the coming to an end, and the retnm to God, 
— ^let him be exalted I it is the tenninating of all the rela- 
tions and connections which are between things simple and 
things composite, of the spiritual and corporeal worlds, and 
things subtile and things gross, in the four Upholding Boots,* 
the traces of the Wora, in the order indic£^ed, by means of 
of the letters of God conjoined with the Amr;t which is 
the idea of the return of things composite, having relation 
to number, to Unity ; which is anterior to Ether, which is 
the principle of number, and its origin, and which is the 
principle of the perfect, the deficient, and the redundantif 

Ana as for the seeing of him, — ^let him be exalted I it is 
the knowledge of the rank of the Imam, and the witnessing 
of his lights, comprehending that which is special and that 
which is general, and the regarding of his traces, embracing 
ideas and corporeities. 

And as for the allowed, it is that which is necessary to be 
manifested and laid open. And as for the forbidden, it is 
tiiat which is necessary to be concealed and hidden. And 
obedience is the entering into covenant with the Kaim of 
the time. And disobedience is the inclining to the Imams 
of error and hostility. And as for prayer, it is the connec- 
tion of the Da'i with the House of peace, through paternal 
connection, in respect to religiousness, with the Im£m.§ 
And alms is the coming of wisdom to him who is worthy, 
and the guiding of the inquirer to the open way of truth. 
And fasting is the abstaining from disclosure of tne verities 
of legal enactments, in the presence of others than those to 
whom they are suited, during the period of disclosure. And 
as for the going into retirement,! it is the Imam's hiding him- 
self by means of his Veils, T^ and his concealing himself by 
means of some of his Da'is and his Hujjahs, that is, night, 
which is the Imam's veiling himself by his Veils from sight* 

* The four elements. f See note * p. 800. 

X See note § p. 306 ; and it is worthy of notice in that conoection, that 
the relations of number as even, and odd, in the two opposite respects of 
too little and too much, are referred to in the last clause of this sdotenoe. 

S On the relation of the Da i to the Ini&m, see p. 280. 

I This is one of the duties obligatory upon tne Muslim. It is defined to 
consist *' in remaining several days and nights in the hiterior of a moeqne, 
there to fast, pray, and meditate, in an unbroken and complete coUeetednest of 
mind.'' See DOhsson's Tableau OhUral de PMmpif OUumuii^ Tonie ii. u 7. 

^Seenote t p. 811. 


And day is that which proves the period of disclosure, thi^ 
is, the breaking of fast, which is the manifestation of the 
Im&m behind a Veil, and his causing souls to know without 
a Gate. And as for the breaking of fast, it is the coming 
out to view of the divine ideas, and the knowledge of the 
verity of the circumstances of the Place of return ;* which 
is its manifestation without a Veil with which it veils itself, 
and without a Gate by which entrance is made to it ; and 
the manifestation of guarded secrets and reserved sciences. 
And as for pilgrimage, it is correct motive in respect to love 
of the Seignors, the Imams, and constancy in friendship for 
the people of the Family, the Family of science and wisdom. 
Ana the setting out is the cutting oflf of speculation, to the 
neglect of that which is beside them. And the provision 
for the way, and the pack-camel, is the asking to be rein- 
forced with their idea.f And the entering upon the sacred 
territory is departure from the doctrines of the Adversaries, 
and the acquiring of receptivity and preparation. And, as 
for the stopping on 'Arafen and Muzdelifeh,:}: it is the being 
intent upon the canons of wisdom' and knowledge. And as 
for the idea of the slaying and the shearing,§ it is the putting 
an end to felsehood by the manifestation of the truth. Ana 
the casting of stones at intervals of three thousand pacesi 
is the rejection of doubting and supposing and conjecturing, 
as respects sciences and operations. And the kissing of the 
Black Stone^f is acceptance of the call from the aided Natik. 
And the going around the comers** is the knowledge of the 
groaps of seVen pertaining to the relation of cause to effect- 

* A name applied to the Imdm, as one who brings back the Amr to the 
world, by virtue of those reinforcements from the Amr which are the essential 
part of his being. 

f Meanm^ to hare the true idea of the ImAm formed in the mind. 

X A locality near Mekkeh, one of the sacred stations of the Muslim pilgrim, 
where he spends the night after visiting 'Arafeb. See D'Ohsson's T<£leau 
GhUral de F Empire Othoman, Tome ii. p. 29. 

S Meaning, of animals for the sacrifioe offered in comection with pHgrimage 

I A ceremony several times repeated by the Muslim pilgrim, in memory oC 
Abraham^s putting demons to flight, by throwing stones at them, who tempted 
him to disobey G(xL See D^OhsMm's Tabi. G^ de V Empire Othoman, Tome n. 
pp. 29, ft 

^ The black stone on one comer of the Ea'beh whidi is kissed by the pil- 
grim in making the tour of the Ancient House. See Burckhardt's TrawU tm 
Arabia^ vol L p. 249. 

♦♦ Of the Ka'beh. 


And the Makfim and Zemzem* are the call to that which 
is inward and the call as to that which is outward. And 
the running between Marweh and Safi is the performance 
of the covenant with faithfulness. And the finishing of 
pilgrimage by the complete visitation of the sacred spots, is 
the responding to the Madhuns with respect to the general 
call. And the going against an enemy and holy warfare 
are the scrutinizing of the arguments of those who are re- 

{)ugnant, and the bringing to nought their sayings by intel- 
ectual proofs and decisive arguments. And as for the 
commission of adultery, it is the responder's being brought 
into connectionf without a witness, and the laying open of 
things before the choosing to enter into covenant. And the 
practice of usury is the passionate desire for enrichment, 
and the seeking of things perishable by the divulging of 
secrets. And obscenity is tne mentioning of commendable 
actions as pertaining to the obstinate disobedients, and the 
reference of fair deeds to the hostile transgressors. And 
depravity is the exchange of the Knowing One for the Ig- 
norant. And transCTCssion is the prefemng of that whicn 
is excelled above that which excels. And justice is the 
abandoning of that which is deficient, when the perfect 
exists. And fair doing is the science of the comprehensive* 
ness of the Irafim, and his sovereignty over that which is 
inward and that which is outward, or which appears and 
which hides itself And the giving to a relative is love of the 
Family of the Envoy, and friendship for the posterity of the 
Immaculate,^ and the extolling of the Hashimites, and the 
declaration of the imaraship of the Fatimite Imams. And in- 
justice is the making others than the people of the Family the 
depositories of the imaraship, and the falling away from the 
Knowing One, the Living One, and the imitating of the Ig- 
norant, the Lifeless. And as for the killing without right and 
evidence, it is the contending for victory without science, and 
the striving to put to rout without proof And games are 
the sciences of the Party of the Outcasts, and the things be- 
lieved by the Party of the Externalists, which prevent souls 

* The MakAm, or MakAm Ibrahim, i. e. The station of Abraham, supposed 
to mark the spot where the patriarch stood to build the original Ka^ben, is a 
small buildinff which the Muslim pilgrim passes immediately before reaching 
that inner shnne of the Mosque. The well Zemzem is situated near by, birt 
fiulher from the Ka^beh. See Burckhardt's TVaveU in Aratna^ toL i. pp. 266-7. 

{Meaning his being admitted to the fraternity. 
A name applied to FtUmeh. 


from inquiring into Verities, and from contemplating things 
which are recondite, and interdict the following of the rules 
of the ignorants, and the institutions of the Adversaries and 
the repudiating zealots. And the forbidden intoxicating 
draught is that which diverts the intellect from direction 
toward the knowledge connected with inquiry concerning 
the Imam, and the witnessing of his lights, comprehending 
the special and the general, and the regarding of his traces, 
embracing ideas and corporeities. 

And as for the Jirins, they are the Hiders of themselves 
from the eyes of the aliens, but the Attendants upon the 
perfect, the good, who expand wines of mercy over the in- 
habitants of the metropolises. And as for the 'Ifrits and the 
Ghuls, they are the accursed, obstinate Adversaries, of the 
species of the gainsayers and the repugnant, — let the curse 
of God and of the angels be on them all ! And as for Iblfs 
he is the undertaker of hostility to the manifest Tmam of 
the age, through envy and hatred. 

This is the allegorical sense of my belief with respect to 
religion, and the refined ore of my holding with respect to 
the summing up of the substance of certain knowledge ; 
which is the religion of the Noble Envoy, and the creed or 
our fiither Ibrahim, and the doctrine of the great Annunci- 
ation, and the belief of the people of the Noble Family. 
" So then, whoever changes it, after that he has heard it, the 
fault thereof rests only upon those who change it. Verily, 
God is one who hears, one who knows."* 

As for the pious, verily they are beheld taking comfort 
upon couches ; in their faces is discerned the brightness of 
comfort ; they have given them to drink pure wine sealed, 
of which the seal is a perfiime of musk. And let those be 
eager, then, for that, who are eager for gladness, and joy, 
and happiness, and resurrection. 

The Memorial of the Spint of God 'Isa and his Legatee 
Shemftn, — ^let peace from both of them be to us! The 
Knowledge of the rank of the Imam,-=-let the most distin- 
guished peace, and the most perfect salutation, be to his 
memory I which is the hidden sense of alms. 

• Kurtn, Bur. ii v. 177. 
VOL. n. 41 


It is a saying of his, — ^let him be exalted I " And we have 
indeed ennobled the sons of Adam, and borne them upon 
the land and upon the sea, and bestowed on them good 
things, and distinguished them above many of those whom 
we have created, with distinction. On a certain day, we 
shall call all men to their Imam ; and so, whoever have their 
books given to them in- their right hands, those will read 
their books, and will not be wronged a mite ; and whoever is 
blind in this world, he will be blind in the world to come, 
and more out of the way."* Praise be to God who has 
taught us, and informed us, and ennobled us, and made us 
to see, in that he has directed \is to the way of the profession 
of unity, and has put us, by-causing to follow the Imams of 
truth, among the most distinguished of his servants ! And 
benediction, and peace, and salutation, and honoring, be to 
the memory of our Friend^ the Imfim of the time, the point 
of the circle of religions, the Kibleh of the people of the 
faith, and the plain way to the Gardens, the affirmed as to 
his existence by argument and prool^ the verity of verities, 
and the end of ways, and the acme of the intention of ere* 
ated things, and the cause of the existence of the Taly and 
the Sabik,t the firm bond of alliance with God, and his 
clear light, and his certain truth, and his preceptive Book, 
and his prolonged shadow, and the watering-reservoir of 
him, and his blessed Place of standing,^: and his knotted 
standard, and his Arar by which existence appears, and his 
Word from which the worlds come forth, ana to which they 
return, the proposed end, the perfection of the knowledge 
of whom has to do with the ordaining of laws and creeds, 
the showing of whose rank is that which is intended by the 
manifestation of occasions and causes, for whose sakes in- 
tellects and souls are made fast,§ and on whose account is 
the manifestation of that which is objective to the intellect 
and that which is objective to sense, around whom is the 
circling of the celestial spheres and the envelopes, and from 
whom proceeds the sustenance of spirits and bodies, and 
through whom is the remaining of the Corner-stones and 
the things generated, and to whom pertains the consolida- 
tion of caiises and things caused, oi whose familiarity the 

♦ Kurfln, Sur. xvii. rv. 72-4. 

f keaniug the Amr, or Word, but in a BecondaiT Bensa See below/ and 
pp. 801^2. X See note % j>. 801. g Meamng, embodied. 


worlds* are the manifesters, and of whose sanctity they are 
the place,t ^^^ of ^he lights of whose divinity they are the 
place of appearing, and of the mysteries of whose humanity 
they are the liiding-places,:*: and of the suns of whoSe glory 
they are the rising-places, and of tlie moous of whose perfec- 
tion they are the setting-places, § by the following of whom 
elevation is attained, and through the love of whom abiding 
ia perpetual, and by the knowledge of whom there is salva- 
tion from the obscurities of El-Hawiyeh, and arrival at high 
degrees, and deliverance from the snare of polytheism and 
disobedience, and rectitude in the open way of direction and 
faith, to whom the Prophets and the Envoys point, and in 
whom the courses and the paths come to an end. So then, 
he is the idea of the Book, and the import of the Address,) 
»nd the way of right judgment, and the hidden sense of the 
Veil, and the Gate of Gates. And he is the divine effusion, 
and the other consummate out-pouring.^ And to him be- 
long ligjht, and darkness, and the causing to exist, and an- 
nihilation. By obedience to him is perfection, and the reach- 
ing to the most exalted of states; and by disobedience to 
him is irreclaimableness, and falling into the pit of ruin. 
No companion is without him, and no place dispenses with 
him; and his effusion is not severed from things produced; 
and from his science escapes not the weight of a mite, either 
in the earth or in the heavens : and he exempts not from 
his sovereignty either things wnich move or things which are 
at rest, or things outward or things inward. So then, let 
worthiness to oe glorified, and worthiness to be hallowed, 
be ascribed to his noble presence ! And let there be a hal- 
lowing and an exalting of his eternal majesty, and a mag- 
nifving arid a praising of his great throne ! 

And to his side we betake ourselves, and with knowledge 
of him we wake to attention, and to gratitude to him we 

♦ The eight hiijlier worlds and the seven lower, mentioned above. 

f Tlie embodiment. 

t Meaniu/. whose manifested divinity they show, and who«e concealed dl- 
▼initj they hide. But let it be can-fully ohscrved, that the divinity here as- 
cribed to the Iniftm is only a derived divinity. 

§ Meanin*^. whose rising, sun-like glory they exhibit, and wlio?e setting, 
moon-like light they Fhn>ud. Tliere is aihision, in this and the preceding 
clause, to the distinction between tlie Iniara making himself known, and the 
IniAm withdrawing into j^eclusion, which is dearly expressed in the precsding 
sermon. See pp. 318-19. 

I The revelation by Gabriel See p. 812. 

yf Maaoiog the effusion of God, and that of the' Amr. 

give utterance, and to his mercy we render thanks, and 
in the profession of his unity we believe, and to his Enclo- 
sures we yield obedience, and to his Natiks* we give credit. ■ 
And their Asases we acknowledge, and their Imams we 
know for certain. And with their direction we have con- 
tracted, and upon their gladdening with intimacy and secret 
converse we rely, and in the open way of their counsel we 
stand fast, and in the light of their lights we see, and in the 
love of them, and friendship to them, we die and live, and 
in obedience to them we go on journeys. And if they had 
not benignantly bestowed upon us their long-suflFering, cer- 
tainly we should not have perceived the enactments of the 
time, and the Mediators oi the Merciful, and the Grate of 
God, the Knowing One, the Omniscient. 

And know thou that every Imam of the time is according 
to the time ; who is the first and the last, the outward ana 
the inward ; who is knowing to every thing. 

This, then, is a part of the hidden things of the sciences 
of religion, and the mystery of certain knowledge, and the 
&ith of the believers, and the light of the Rightful, and the 
tenets of those who profess unity, and the crown of those 
who have knowledge, and the end of the patient, and the 
mark of every one who has an aim, and the watering-place 
of every one who goes to water. So hold thou, on to it 
with the holding on of him who hopes to have it on the 
day of return ;t and provision thyself with it, for it is the 
best of provisions for the way. And it is that which is 
most important of the sciences, and that which is the highest 
of them. And thou shalt not communicate it except to 
those to whom it is suited. 

And praise be to God who has directed us hereto ! and 
we should not have been to be directed, if God had not di- 
rected us. And do thou, O God, bless our chief Muhammed, 
and his Family, the good, the pure, with a benediction 
abiding to the day of doom I And God is our sufficiency. 
And well is he the Guardian 1 And well is he the Friend I 
And well is he the Defender ! And let peace be to the Mes- 
sengers ! And praise be to God, the Lord of worlds I 

* Ab the representative of the Amr, the ImAm is here said to have his NAtiki ; 
vbile immediHtely afterwards is recogniied his rektioo of tuooestor to the 
XTAtik, in the IsmiL'ilian hierarchy. 

f 'Hm day <^ ^^aaX acoouat 



A REGENT communication from William Winthrop, Esq., 
United States Consul at Malta, haa put us in possession <rf 
some interesting particulars respecting three ancient subter- 
ranean chambers, lately discovered by him and Lieut Walter 
Lock, of the British Army; near CittaVecchia on that island, 
to which allusion was made in the Proceedings of the Soci- 
ety published in our first volume*. We have to regret, in- 
d^d, that Mr. Winthrop gives us only second-hand informa- 
tion; but, inasmuch as we have seen, as yet, no allusion to 
this discovery in any oriental journal, it has been thought 
proper to transfer the substance of it to these pages. 

The accompanying wood -cut was made from a lithographed 
plan of the excavation, drawn by Mr. fl. Grain of the Hoyal 
Engineers, for which also we are indebted to ^r. Winthrop. 

From the notes of a late traveller in the East, Rev. Mr. 
Margoliouth, who examined the chambers for several days, 
we oDtain the following details. 

" The first chamber on the left contains an oblong square 
altar surrounded by four trenches," and there are indica- 

* Jemm. of Am. Or. Skl, toL L p. >xzl 


tions that a stream of water was once conducted through it^ 
probably for the cleansing of the precincts of the altar, 
after the performance of sacrifices. " The centre chamber 
contains two rows of seats, — in the passage leading to the 
right-hand chamber, — one above the other, and the vestiges 
of a carved human figure, with a long branched wand in 
his hand, as well as a representation of the moon, all of 
which can be traced on a column which occupies the left- 
hand inner" extremity of the chamber. The chamber on 
the right exhibits, on its right-hand wall, " the vestiges of a 
human figure, and close to it those of a fish-tailed goat." 

To this description we append some remarks on the age 
and destination of the excavated chambers, including far- 
ther details respecting them, which express the views of Dr. 
C. Vassallo, Government-Librarian at Malta. 

^ The latest journals make farther mention of tlie ancient chambeni 
recently discovered near Citta Vecchia, which Dr. Vassallo, the govera« 
ment-librarian, considers, from the squareness of the forms, to be an ex- 
cavated Egyptian temple, of the time of Psammetichus, about seven cen- 
turies B. c. The annexed are tlie only essential points in the description. 
The reliefs on the sides and ceiling appear, at first siglit, to be the mere 
traces of the implement with which the excavations were made. But ' 
a more attentive examination reveals the fact, that Uiey are abraded re- 
mains of a particular species of ornamental bas-reliefs, of the nature of 
which no precise traces now remaixL The greater part of them have 
been evidently disposed in circles, a mode in which no one hews into a 
rock for the mere purposes of excavation. Besides which, the indenta- 
tions, or cuts, at times three together, are so near each other as to nega- 
tive the hand of one merely striving to remove the rock, in order to make 
a hollow in it; for the soilness of the stone is such, that one blow alone 
would have removed a portion of the rock of greater . dimensions than 
the space in which the three cuts would, in such case, indicate three 
blows to have been given. Dr. Vassallo observed the figure of a dog 
(perhaps Anubis) on the wall. We observed traces ourselves of the 
carved representations of some animal at two spots ; but they were very 
faint ones. This temple has three compartments or chambers, with an 
entrance to each. Looking at them from without, the right-hand one 
was evidently tliat by which the chief personages had their ingress ; the 
centre chamber that of the performance of rites ; the left excavation that 
where water was made use of. At the bottom of the right-hand cham- 
ber is a passage between it and the internal end of the centre one, where 


two rows of seats are placed, one above the other, both at the end and 
at a part of the sides. On these seats it is evident that those occupying 
them occasionally stood erect, to enable them to do which the roof over 
them is cut about a couple of inches higher than the rest of it, and over 
seven feet high. The walls are incurvated at the back of the seats to 
afford more conveniency of sitting. The principal seat would appear to 
have been against a square column, cut out of the rock, with faces par- 
allel to the sides of the chamber, and occupying the left-hand inner eor- 
ner of it ; and on a part of this column, something would appear to have 
been cut, perhaps some figure of a deity of secresy, probably Harpocra- 
tes. This was evidently a sacrificing-chamber. The floor is inclined 
towards the entrance, where was a pit, no doubt to receive the blood of 
the victims immolated, and the water used in cleansing the place; 
while above is a long cut or groove in the roof, increasing in width to- 
wards the entrance, to allow the escape of smoke. The other chamber, 
i. e. the left-hand one, looking at them from without, was to contain 
water, and no doubt there was once there a running spring, very proba- 
bly subsequently intercepted by excavating for water in the gardens 
above. A little water still exudes from the left-hand inner comer of the 
eharober, sufficient to ^eep it ponstantly muddy, and the rock at that cor- 
ner has become extremely hard by the absorption of carbonic acid. A 
basin fbr water is cut out of the rock in this chamber, in the middle of 
which is a narrow place to stand upon, with grooves to allow the water 
to pass through it The water here might have served for the ablution 
of sacrificers ; or the middle room might perhaps have been used for the 
judges sitting in judgment on the dead, in order to decide whether they 
should enjoy the rites of burial, and the water in the other room might 
have been symbolical of the lake over which Charon carried them fbr 
that purpose in the then mother-country, in his boat We tliink it a pity 
that the land in front of this triple excavation is not removed for a short 
distance, in order to bring to our knowledge whether any thing was con- 
structed before it, which we think highly probable. Indeed, the man^ 
who rents the field states that, once, a massive wall was found near, un- 
der ground, and that this attracted attention to the three entrances, then 
nearly entirely covered up. 

It ought to be noticed that Mr. Margoliouth had previ- 
ously ascribed a Phoenician origin to these chambers, and 
that with considerable plausibility. The facts at present 
before the public do not enable us to decide which of the 
two views is to be preferred.' 

VOL. IL 42 ■ 






The following commniiication, sent to ns by the writers, 
may serve to explain the plan for effecting a uniform oi> 
thography of the South-African dialects, to which allusion 
is made in the Proceedings of the Society published in this 

** To the Missionaries and Friends of education among the Aborigines of 
Southern Africa. 

^Dear Brethren and Friends: 

^ The undersigned, fellow laborers with yourselves in efibrts to 
enlighten and elevate the benighted sons of Africa, send greeting, and 
would desire respectfully to address you on a point which seems to us to 
be one of common interest, and of more than ordinary importance, ss. the 
subject of a uniform orthography for uniting each and all the Moriginal 
dialeds of •^rieoy South qf the Mountains of the MoonJ* 

After alluding to the fact that "there seems to be little or 
no doubt that all the tribes of Southern Africa, extending 
from the southern coast as far as about 5^ N. Lat., — the 
Hottentots and Bushmen excepted — speak but various dia- 
lects of fundamentally the satae langu»nge;" and to the im- 
portant bearing of the subject of reducing these dialects 
to writing upon the christianization of Africa, the letter 
proceeds : 

"And here it is important to state briefly, that by uniform orthography 
we mean, that a given character or letter have but one and the same value 
ascribed to it, and that a given sound which is common to all the dialects, 
be represented uniformly and universally by one ond the same character 
in all said dialects ; or in other words, that one and the same character 

- - — ■ - I ■ I -I 



be employed to represent one and the same sound wherever that sound 
exists ; and that one and the same peculiar character which is thought to 
be necessary to represent any peculiar sound, or a sound which is not 
common to all the dialects, be always employed to represent that same 
peculiar or limited sound, wherever it exists among any of the tribes. 

^ The aUcdnment of such a system we think quite practicable. It might 
not require any great deviation from the system which most or all of ui 
may have adopted already in our respective fields of labor. If we have 
all adopted the Roman characters, then we have a common basis which 
might require only some slight modifications, additions, or alterations, to 
make it uniform — all of which could be readily known and regulated, if 
all parties would obligingly volunteer their services in something like 
the following manner, which brings us to our next point 

^ The plan or mode of operation which we would propose is this. 
Let each mission, as the London, Wesleyan, Scotch Free Church, Glas- 
gow, French, Berlin, Rhenish, Moravian, Norwegian, American, the 
Church, &c.,— each and every respective mission in Africa, South of 
the Mountains of the Moon, appoint a Committee from its own num- 
ber, whose duty it shall be to prepare an article on the elementary 
sounds of the dialect of the people among whom they labor ; giving, as 
far as possible, all of said sounds, and also the system of orthography 
which has been adopted in writing the language, or the system which 
seems to them sufficient, and best fitted for that and the neighboring 
dialects. And let them add such other remarks upon the people, their 
character, customs, relations, &c., as may have a bearing upon the sub- 
ject, or be of general ethnological value. And let all these articles be 
sent to some one or two individuals learned and interested in such pur- 
suits, who, (with others, sliould it be thought expedient to enlarge the 
number,) shall constitute a Committee, whose duty it shall be to compare 
said articles, and deduce fix)m them and other sources at their command, 
such a system of uniform orthography as they may deem best fitted to the 
South- African tongues, and to report the same to all the parties from 
which they received articles on the subject 

** It is not to be denied that there are difficulties in the way of such an 
undertaking. Many of the parties whose co-operation is required are 
far removed, and the means of inter-communication may be irregular or 
unfrequent; and among some there may be a lack of interest in the mat* 
ter. But things more difficult and of much less value than this, have 
been attempted and accomplished; and it is believed that there is Doth- 


\ng in the case before us which resolution, promptness and effort will not 
overcome. And why should there be a want of interest on the subject 
in any mind to whom it holds even the most distant relation, especially 
in any Missionary in Africa, or in any one who would see her inhabi- 
tants enlightened and blessed ? In every part of the civilized world aD 
classes of men are studying to rid their afiairs of all possible friction ; 
lAall the servants of Grod in Africa make no efforts to keep pace with 
the progressive spirit of the age ? • • • * • 

*^ Before closing, we may glance at some of the advaniiagta which 
might be expected from such a uniform system of orthography, and from 
the efforts to obtain it 

** And it is no small consideration, that the very meam by which we 
could secure the great end, may iheimdves he made an end of pre<mineni 
value. For, the prosecution of the measure proposed may be made a 
happy medium for increasing and difiusing much light and knowledge in 
respect to the geographical position, the laws, customs, and moral char- 
acter of all nations under consideration. It would also, without doubt, 
develop more fully the resemblances and differences between the several 
branches of the great family of African, tongues ; and it might correct 
some prevalent errors in respect to them. Further, the plan proposed 
would lead to a more thorough study of these languages, apd would 
multiply facilities for studying them to the best advantage. For the 
measure cannot be accomplished without much careful observation and 
study of the people of Africa, their character and language, in difierent 
parts of the continent, and that too by men best qualified and best situa^ 
ted for the work. And the result of this observation and study must be 
noted down. And let a summary of these results be communicated by 
the Committee to all the missions and individuals who shall have furnish- 
ed articles, and who will say that such individuals will not then have 
greater facilities for the further study of the language ? And would not 
these considerations alone be an equivalent for all the labor and pains 
which the whole enterprise might involve ? 

" Anotlier advantage to be expected would be — ^what has been already 
alluded to — a better system of orthography. It would secure all the neces- 
sary facts and examples, the opinions of the best judges, and finally call 
to our aid a Committee, whose impartiality, good judgment, and great 
learning would abundantly qualify them to act in the case. None to 
whom this paper is addressed, can be ignorant of the difficulties attend- 
ing the phonography and orthography of a new and barbarous tongue ; 
nor can any be insensible to the importance of a simple, natuiml and pei^ 


feet system, and the introduction of the same at the earliest stage of 
writing the language and instructing the people. 

'* Again, a oniform system of orthography niotdd make all hooka, print' 
ed in the lar^uagtSy mudi mart valuable, by making them more extensively 
intelligible, and opening the way for a wider use and circulation of them. 
By adopting different systems of orthography, books in one dialect may 
be no better than sealed to those speaking another dialect, though the 
difference in the two dialects may be so slight that the natives of each 
tribe have no difficulty in being mutually understood in all oral commu- 
nications. More tlian this — ^two Missionary Societies in the same field 
and among the same people (by adopting different systems of orthogra- 
phy) may each render all their books quite unintelligible to the common 
reader taught by the other Society. Nor are these imaginary cases. 
But let all cognate dialects be reduced and written upon a common sys- 
tem, and the labor of preparing books is greatly diminished, while the 
value of each book is much increased. 

" Again, the measure proposed would open a natural and easy way of 
enlarging and enriching the various dialects of Southern Africa^ Each 
dialect is exceedingly barren of many important words ; while each has 
some of its own which do not belong to others. " The Kafirs, for in- 
stance, have a word to express * king,* in distinction from * chief,' which 
the Zulus have not; and another tribe has a word for * concubine' which 
is found neither among the Zulus nor Kafirs. Such words having the 
native form and prefix, could be easily transferred from one tribe to 
another ; and this transfer would seem vastly better than to introduce 
from the Hebrew or Greek, the English or Dutch, words which must 
have a prefix added, perhaps a vowel added at the end, and two or three 
other vowels inserted, in order to separate what would otherwise be, to a 
native, unpronounceable consonants. A word thus introduced is at best 
but a barbarous intruder, more ugly, less intelligible, and far less ex- 
pressive, than a native word would be, even though a visitant from an- 
other tribe." \Jowmal of the American Oriental Society, Vol, I. JVb. iv.] 
One dialect may be very meagre in some of the most desirable qualities 
of style, aside from mere words, while another dialect may have some of 
these, but be deficient in some excellence which the former possessei. 
A uniform orthography would facilitate mutual import and export, and 
furnish reciprocal aid. And by various natural and consequent modifica- 
tions and improvements, the grand result of a much more copious, flexi- 
ble and in every respect complete language might be obtained for all 
the tribes of Southern Africa. And the advantages of such a result for 


translating the Scriptures, and for all religious as w^ll as other purposes, 
are too evident to require enumeration. It is a kind of improvement 
which African languages greatly need, and to which all tlie best languages 
have ever been much indebted for their beauty and utility. 

• ••••••*••• 

" Very respectfully yours in the cause of truth, 

Lewis Grout, 'I 

J. C. Bryant, I Committee in behalf of 
H. A. Wilder, } the American Mission 
N. Adams, \ at NataL 

J. L. DoHlfE, j 

Port Natal, March 6, 1850." 




The following letter, dated Maulmain, November 14, 1850, 
is from Rev. Francis Mason, Missionarv of the American 
Baptist Union in Burmah, to the Corresponding Secretary. 

Mt Dear Sir, 

• •«•({ Though a stranger, it has occurred to me that a ray or 
two of light that I can cast on the subject of tlie introduction of Bud- 
dhism into Burmah, would not be unacceptable to you. * Sdvanabhiimi' 
you say, *I am unable to identify.'* That is Pegu. The Burmese 
books say that Asoka sent Onktaratera and Thannatera to 'Umwonna- 
bungmi, which, they say, is the country of Tha-tung, or Sa-tung, as it 
would be pronounced in Pali and Sanscrit The ruins of Tha-tung, 
with its innumerable pagodas, still remain between the mouths of the 
Sal wen, and the Setaing rivers, about half a day's journey west of Mar- 
taban. It is, I tliink, beyond doubt the oldest seat of Buddhism in Bur- 
mah. Asoka's missionaries are said to have introduced the religion of 
Gautama into Tha-tung in the year 2^i6, or eighteen years after the third 
great council was held.f A. D. 380, the people ap]>ear to have been 
zealous for Buddhism, inasmuch as it is recorded tliat Bugdagotha, or 

* See Journal of Am. Or. Soc.y voL i. p. 100, ff. — Comsc of Publ. 

f The year mentioned is, of course, of the Buddhist era.-— CJomm. or Publ. 


Buddhaghoso, was deputed to Ceylon to bring over a full copy of the sev* 
eral books ; and is said to have returned with two copies. Six hundred 
years afterwards, A. D. 1057, the descendants of the first Buddhist mis- 
sionaries were regarded as living in Tha-tung ; for at that date, Anan* 
rahtsan, the king of Pugan, being much inclined to Buddhism, sent and 
brought from Tha-tung to Pugan the Buddhist Scriptures, and teachers, 
* the descendants of Thannatera and Onktara,' through which the relig- 
ion was propagated in Pugan ; where, from this period, it appears to have 
become the established religion. 

•* What nation inhabited Tha-tung, is not quite certain. The Toung- 
thus or Pa-ans, as they call tliemselves, a tribe scattered in the interior, 
contend strenuously that Tha-tung was their seat of government, and 
that Bugdagotha was a Toung-thu or Pa-an. The Takings or Peguans 
are equally confident that Tha-tung was a Talaing city. And although 
I have conversed with many of both nations on the subject, and turned to 
every historical document I can meet with, I am still in doubt to which 
party to appropriate it. 

'< The first city that appears in Burmese history, on the North, is Mau- 
reya, (Ptolemy's Marema Emporium,) where Mwe-yen now stands; and 
next in order are Tagoung and upper Pugan, the ruins of which still 
exist A few years ago, terra cotta images of Gautama were dug up at 
Tagoung, of a different appearance from those usually found in Bur- 
mah ; but they proved, on comparison, to be identical with the images of 
Gautama found in Northern Hindustan in similar situations. In a Bur- 
mese history that I read fifteen years ago, Beringda, who reigned in 
Prome, and died A. D. 40, is said to have gone to Taxila to study the 

" These facts go to prove that there was a connection between the in- 
terior of Burmah and the northern parts of Hindustan ; and in this wajr 
I think Northern Burmah became acquainted with Buddhism. 

** Buddhism was known in Burmah, and partially embraced, in the 
early ages ; but, according to the Burmese historians themselves, it was 
only properly established during the reign of Nau-ra-tha, who came to 
the throne A. D. 1017, or, according to some autliorities, A. D. 997. 

** The system of Buddhism is not universally that of Ceylon. Another 
system is known here to a limited extent, which, so far as my observation 
goes, is unkn6wn in Ceylon, but well known, for substance, in Thibet, — 
the system in which Gautama teaches that a woman created all living 
beings, and existed before there were any gods, or Buddhas. 

^ A careful comparison of the Sanscrit alphabet of the Gujerat in- 
scriptions, of the second century of the Christian era, with the ancient 


Pali square character, and the modern Burmese round character, ha« 
convinced me that the former is the parent of the two latter. 

<' I am inclined to think that there is considerable information yet 
locked up in the Burmese books ; but it is- a kind of information that 
very few persons care for, and being difficult to reach, it will probably 
remain locked up some years longer. It is very difficult to obtain Bur- 
mese books of value, and it costs much time to read them ; and of the 
names of persons and places out of their own country the natives know 
nothing. Taxila, which I mentioned above, is an uuknown town, and I 
(Mily made it out by tracing the Burmese name into the Pali, and from 
the Pali to the Sanscrit The same is true of many other famous cities 
and countries. ###••#••»•« 

** I do not think that the Pali is quite understood yet Prinsep men- 
tions < hhavaiiy dsHy is, following closely on the Sanscrit etymology,' as 
found at Gujerat, while at Cuttack * we have hoti, aihi, as in the modem 
P41i.'* In the Pali books before me I have: Pres. aH, he, she or it is; 
Imperf. ase, he, she, or it was ; Perf. pabhaioa, he, she or it has been. 
In another place he remarks : * Mho, the Pili form of iAa.'f But both 
forms exist in the Pali. Pali is much more copious than the $(wans are 
aware, though not to be compared with the Sanscrit * ♦ • * ♦ 

** Prinsep did wonders, but he did not live to finish his work. His 
translation of Asoka's edicts is very incomplete and obscure. He some- 
times mistook the letters of his text For instance, he says, * The con- 
junction O > w»> seems to be used for " and," as frequently as vd for " or." t 
No such conjunction exists in the Pah, so far as I am acquainted with 
it; but Q , cha, is in exceedingly common use for *^ and," and Prinsep has 
unquestionably mistaken the character. 

** It is very difficult to obtain any thing accurate without going to the 
fountain-heads of knowledge. While I am writing, a periodical comes 
in containing an article from M. Bigandet of Penang, on the ceremonies 
at the ordination of a Buddhist priest^ He is a very clever man ; I 
was personally acquainted with him at Tavoy some years ago, and he 
has a very passable knowledge of the Burmese language. Still the ar- 
ticle is very inaccurate. I have the original Pali which is always used 
in the ceremony. Bigandet says in one place that the candidate is 
asked : * Art thou a man ?* Answ. * I am.' ' Art thou a true and legiti- 

* See Journal of the Anatie Society of Bengal. VoL vii p. 277. — 


f Ibid., p. 249. — CoMM. of Publ. X Ibid., p. 279. — Comm. of Pi^l. 

§ See Jonmal of the Indian Archipelago ana Eastern Aeia, VoL iv. 
p. 606, S. — CoMM. or Publ. 


nata tooT Answ. •! tm.* Now the P«U reads: 'Art thou a man? 
Yes, [my] lord. Art thou a male ? Yes, [my] lord.' Again, Bigandet 
says that the priest is told he may wear * the following articles : cottoii 
and silk, or cloth of red or yellow wool.' The Pali has : ^ linen, cot- 
ton, silk, woollen, Bengal flax, (L e. crotolaria fibre,) and hemp." The 
mode of rendering the Burmese and Pali names of natural productions is 
preposterous. I will enclose you a preface to a work that I have recently 
published in which I have shown it up.* 
^ I beg you to excuse this rambling letter, written currenU cdUunoJ* 



The Library of the American Antiquarian Society at 
Worcester, Mass., contains a small collection of Arabic Man* 
uscripts, among which are the following : 

1. ijfJtJf {jcikoS ^ {j^AfsiS {jmAxj \^^^^s£=^ 

j\^jSo\ g^iM^ d^{^bju\ i. e. The Booh of the Valuables of 

Brides, respecting the Narratives of the great Kurdn and the Lives 
of the Prophets^ by Abti Ishak Ahmed Ibn Muhammed Ibn 
Ibrahim Eth-Thaleby. Date^ A. H. 1126, i. e. A. D. 1714-15. 

The author of this work is spoken of by Ibn Khallikiin as having been 
** before all others of his time in the science of the interpretation of th« 
Kur&n." He died, according to Ibn Khallik&n and Haji Khalfa, A. H. 
427, i. e. A. D. 1035-6. S. De Slane's Didiim. Btogr. d* Rm KhalUkdn, 
pp. 30-1, and FluegePs Hqji Khaffae I^exicon, Vol. iv. p. 195. 

2. Another copy of the same, wanting two or three pages 
at the end. 

This MS. adds Nisabikry, i. e. of Nisibi^r, to the name of the author. 

* The title of this work is : The Natural Produttumn of Burmah^ or Nates 
OM the Fauna^ Floray and Mmerals of tks Tenasterim FrovinceM^ amd the Bur- 
man Empire, by Rev. FraDcis Mason, A. M., Corr. Member of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, and of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York. 
Maulmain, 1860.^-€k>]i]f. of Publ. 

TOL. n. 48 


8. The first part (^^^f y=cnif) otjsL^^j dxT^^ /^O* ^ 
A^VXJi i. e. The Lights of tJie Letter of Bevelaiion, and the 

Mysteries of the Allegorical Sense, by Abdallah Ibn 'Omar El- 
Beidhawy. Date, A. H. 1069, i. e. A. D. 1658-9. 

This is El-Beidhawy's highly esteemed commentary on the Kuriin, as 
far the eighteenth chapter inclusive. The author died, according to Haji 
Khalfa, A. H. 685, or 692, i. e. A. D. 1286-7, or 1292-^. a Fluegel'f 
H. K. Lex. Vol. i, pp. 469, ff. 

Opening of the Glorious (Book,) by an exposition of that which 
is obscure in Hie Lights of the Letter of Rex-elation^ by Zakariya 
El-Ansary. Date, A. H. 1057, i. e. A. D. 1647-8. 

Tliis work, consisting of glosses on El-Beidhiiwy's commentary on the 
Kur4n, is honorably mentioned by Haji Khalfa, according to whom the 
author died A. H. 910, i. e. A. D. 1504-5. S. Fluegel's H. JfC Lex. Vol. 
i, p. 474. The MS. wants about a page at the beginning. 

20Jf i)(^r? i-e. The First Part of the Perfect Comp€7id of the 

Tradition of the Prophet of God, by Abii 'Abdallah Muham- 
med Ibn Isma'il Ibn Ibralitni Ibn fil-Mughairah El-Bukhary. 
Without date. 

This is El-Bukhdry's celebrated collection of traditions, as far as 

ff*^^^l \^\X ^i^, i. e. The Book of Fasting, including only the 

beginning of the latter. 

6. The same work, from ^wOtxJf (jVaa3, i. e. The Build- 
ing of the Ka'beh, to r^\j^if \^\X^. — > i. e. The Book of the 

Sacrifices of the Morning-hour^ including only a portion of the 

This and tlie preceding are distinct parts of the same worL 

7. Jl2/cL4i\ ^y^ ^^r^ ^U;iJf \^\j:^=^ i e. the 

Book of Healing, by making knoum tlie Rights of the Elect {Proph* 


et,) by AM 'Ivadh Ibn Miisa Ibn 'Iy§dh El-Yahsaby Es- 
Sabty, El-Maliky, or. as he is also called in this MS., Abfl. 
Fadhl 'lyadh Ibn MCisa Ibn 'lyadh El-Yahsaby. 

Haji Khalfa says of this work, " It is a book of great utility and much 
profit, the like of which has not been composed under Isldno.'' The au- 
thor died, according to Haji Khalfa, A. H. 544, i. e. A. D. 1149-50. S. 
Fluegel's //. K, Lex, Vol. iv. pp. 56-8. This MS. wants a small portion 
of the last Book. 

i. e. The First Part of the Monitions against the commission of 
Great Crimes, by Ahmed Ibn Miiharamed Ibn Hijr El-Misry 
EI-Mekkj Esh-Shaii'iy. Without date. 

9. oU-^5f iicfyo ^ cA^JUJJ\ y^\j:^=> i. e. The 

Book of the Sevenfold, having respect to admonitions of crea- 
tures, by Abu Nasr Muhammed Ibn ' Abd Er- Rahman El-Ha- 
madany. Date, A. H. 1104, i. e. A. D. 1G92-3.* 

A work on the meaning of the several days of the week, Haji Khalfa 
mentions it S. Fluegel's H. K. Lex, Vol. iii, p. 579. 

10. o^f JJf nOj^Jj v^^Usrmif »^^i- (^\jC^=), i. e. 

The Book of the Whole Pearl of Wonders, and the Precious Gem 
of Remarkable Things, by 'Omar EI-Muzafter Ibn Muhammed 
Ibn 'Omar El-Wardy, or, as he is also called in this MS. 
Abu Hafadh 'Omar Ibn El-Muzaffar Ibn Muhammed Ibn 
'OmarEI-Wardy. Date, A. H. 1116 (?) i. e. A. D. 1704-^. 

A valuable work. The author died, according to Haji Khalfa, A. H. 
749, i. e. A. D. 1348-9. S. Fluegel's H. K. Lex. Vol. iiL p. 132. This 
MS. is defective towards the end. 

11. Another copy of the same. Date, A. H. 1142, i. e. 
A. D. 1729-30. 

12. oV^cUuif, i. e. The Sittings, by Abii Muhammed El- 

Kasim Ibn Muhammed Ibn 'Othman El-Hariry El-Basry. 
Without date. 

£• £• D« 



A Missionary Printer of the American Board, writing 
jBx)m Madras under date of March 13, 1850, says : 

" The increase of native presses, within a few years, is so remarkable 
that I, a few days back, requested my writer to make a statement of them, 
and the result of his inquiries is here given. The list is not complete, 
but the following have been reported : 

In Madras, Royapooram, Pursuvalkinn and 
Chintadrepettah, twenty-one establishments, 
with twenty-six wooden presses, and five iron 
presses ; — total, thirty-one. 

These are owned exclusively by natives, Moodeliars, S^stns, and others, 
and are occupied in printing the Burathum and various other Hindu 
books, small and large, together with school-books. 7^ Crescent, a 
newspaper entirely in English, is published at one of the presses, and de- 
voted to the Hindu interest The editor is a European of talent A 
large English and Telugu Dictionary was lately printed at one of these 
presses. Many of them have botli Tamil and Telugu types." 



A letter to the Corresponding Secretary from Prof. Fitz- 
Edward Hall of Benares, under date of August 30, 1850, 
contains the following ILst of Sanskrit books very recently 
published, or about to appear, in India. 

At Benares: Amara K68ha, (in press.) 

Sri BhagavtLta Purina, (unfinished.) 
Asht^dhyayt, (very badly done.) 
Sikshd,, (an elementary Sanskrit grammar.) 
P^Urdsari, (on astrology.) 


Siva Mahinmastava, by Sushpadanta. 
M^grhaduta, with Mallinitha's gloss. 
Pdrthiva PiVjana, (prayers to Maliddeva.) 
At Indore : Vishnu Sahasra Nicna. 
Siva Maliimnastava. 

Pantcharatna, (extracts from the V^das, etc) 
Samadrika, (on chiromancy.) 
Also, at Benares : The Sarfiswata Grammar. 

At Benares, has also appeared the Tatwa SamSsa, the 
original source of the doctrines of the Sankhya school of 
Hindu philosophy. This is edited, with a translation, by 
Dr. Ballantyne, of the Benares College. Prof. Hall, how- 
ever, informs us that he had "had the good fortune, within 
a few days, to discover a second MS., from which Dr. Bal- 
lantyne will probably prepare a sheet of various readings, 
additions, ana corrections." It will be remembered that 
Colebrooke refers to this work in his Essays on the Philoso- 
phy of the Hindus, with a doubt whether the text was 
extant, or not.* 


By a communication from Dr. E. C. Bridgman, dated 
Shanghai, Jan. 18, 1851, it appears that eight Hebrew man- 
uscripts have been brought to that place from Kaifung-fu, in 
the province of Honan, six of them being sections xiii. 
xxiii. XXX. xxxvii. xlvii. liii. of the Mosaic Law, as usually 
divided by the Jews, and the other two containing parts of 
the Jewish liturgy. The travellers, two native Christians, 
w^ho brought the manuscripts, are said to confirm the earlier 
accounts concerning the Jews in Kaifung-fu, and to furnish 
also some additional particulars. 

It has been suggested that these Jews, as they have been 
separated from their brethren for a long period, may be of 
the ten tribes, and that their manuscripts for the same reason 

* Sec Colebrooke's Miicellaneotu Euayty Vol L p. 238. — Coxx. or Publ. 



may be Ante-Masoretic, a circumstance which would give 
them great value. There is a tradition also that they have 
the two books of Maccabees, and perhaps other apocryphal 
books, in the original Hebrew, the existence of which has 
been a matter of great uncertainty. These points will soon 
be determined. 

In any case it is interesting to observe their general iden- 
tity of character with their western brethren, praying like 
them towards Jerusalem, the city of the great king ; their 
great tenacity of life, having been on the eve of extinction 
for two hundred and fifty years ; and the wonderful manner 
in which, after having been an object of unavailing research 
to the learned of Europe for several centuries, they have 
now become accessible, by a political change in the exter- 
nal relations of China. 


Page 7, for (^Petth,) in Hungary read {PestK, in Hungary), 

" 87, " tnnkeper ** innkeeper. 

« 119, " UlKhadre « Ul Khadr, 

" 137, « Uphanishads « Upanishads, 

** 285, " ^7)(f <A« «um of hii tyvtem was that which took the preee* 
denee^ read And the ntm of his system was that which has been be/ore stated. 
Page 806, for apx^ read op;^. 

•* 812, *• phee « Flace. 

OOFS wnr nipcuuiii 

3 bios 007 Obi 323 


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